World Music assignmentBaamaaya: Ghana, West Africa In Africa, the place there may be music, there may be dance. In city nightclubs, lithe dancers transfer to the seamless grooves of Congolese soukous, Nigerian jùjú, Zimbabwean chimurenga, Senegalese mbalax, and different fashionable music types. In conventional contexts, adolescents dance to indicate their coming into maturity; adults dance to rejoice the lifeless and honor the gods. Right here we examine baamaaya, a colourful conventional dance of the Dagbamba, an ethnic group residing in Ghana’s Northern Area. Baamaaya’s roots are unclear. Elders in the neighborhood generally seek advice from the dance as tubankpele. The phrase recollects the customized of dancers performing with corn husks stuffed into their belts. There are conflicting tales about tubankpele’s origin. One account says it was danced at evening as a result of the actions stored mosquitoes away. One other account says the dance, with its twisting hip motions, was performed to tease ladies. One more account says that tubankpele refers to tubani, a well-liked dish fabricated from beans wrapped in leaves. A separate origin story is hooked up to the identify baamaaya, which interprets to English as “the fields are moist.” Based on some tales handed down by oral custom, a few years in the past there was a drought within the area, inflicting a lot starvation. The village clergymen discovered by way of divination that the drought was punishment for against the law a person dedicated in opposition to a girl. To appease the gods, the boys have been advised to put on ladies’s clothes and to bop. They have been anticipated to bop till rain started to fall. So, the boys dressed up and danced. After a while, clouds appeared within the sky. Ultimately, it started to rain. To make sure that your complete area was receiving rain, a boy was despatched out to research. When he returned, he known as out the phrases “baa maaya” (“the fields are moist”). Or that's what the story tells us, anyway. Regardless of the story’s factual reality, its ethical crucial is apparent sufficient: your complete group is chargeable for the actions of the person. A nasty deed dedicated by one, ends in struggling for all. Right now, baamaaya is carried out for a lot of events, however is most intently related to funerals, which may take months to organize and days to conduct. At giant funerals, it is not uncommon to have performances by a number of music and dance ensembles. Baamaaya typically takes place within the pre-dawn hours, starting someday after midnight and persevering with till daybreak. A baamaaya efficiency has a number of sections, every related to particular rhythms and steps. The primary part is named baamaaya sochendi, or baamaaya “procession.” That is the music that the dancers transfer to as they stroll from the place during which they ready for the efficiency (the “backstage dressing room,” if you'll) to the precise efficiency location. Some musicians say the drum rhythm (a repeated sample of short-short-short-long) speaks the phrase tu-ban-kpe-le. Others connect the rhythm to the phrases naa daa wariba (Naa Daa dancers [are coming]). Baamaaya sochendi is related to the part of the story when the boys, after having been instructed by the clergymen, made their solution to the dance grounds. A baamaaya efficiency’s principal part is named baamaaya mangli, or “principal” baamaaya. This part reenacts the way in which the boys danced to appease the gods and convey the rain. Because the dancers transfer in a circle, their hips swivel backwards and forwards in a shimmy movement, like a high-speed model of the 1960s teen dance craze, “the twist.” Baamaaya mangli might proceed for a variety of hours. A number of shorter sections comply with, every associated to subsequent elements of the story. The dancers’ costumes imitate (or parody) ladies’s gown. To intensify their hips, dancers put on belts from which cling yarn pompon balls. Below the belt is a brief skirt. Costumes usually embody a hat fabricated from monkey pores and skin. Dancers might carry a goat-tail change or fan. On their ankles they put on steel jingles, which add a further rhythmic layer to the music. Along with the dancer’s jingles, the instrumental ensemble consists of drums, sayalsa (rattle), and calamboo (a small picket flute). Some performances additionally embody reward singers. Two varieties of drums are performed—the hourglass-shaped variable-pitched luŋa and the guŋgoŋ, which has a single snare on every drumhead. Dagbamba musicians are famend for his or her luŋa drums, which, just like the dùndún drums of the Yoruba, communicate by imitating the pitch and rhythmic inflections of speech [Chapter 7: Music and Spirituality]. All through a baamaaya efficiency, the luŋa drummer beats out proverbs that touch upon group occasions, recall household histories, and encourage the dancers to “give their all” to the efficiency. The proverbs are sometimes geared toward social stress factors. Many enchantment to notions of particular person advantage or the significance of group. Think about the teachings embodied within the following luŋa phrases: “Nubliyini nubliyini kupi kogli.” (“One finger can by no means choose up a stone.”)
“Dakoli kutoiko.” (“The bachelor can't be a very good farmer.”) LISTENING EXAMPLE 13.2
Listening Information: Baamaaya
Meter: Quadruple and duple This video is from the village of Kapalibe, in Ghana’s Northern Area, and contains a Could 2002 efficiency by the Suglo N’mali Dang Ensemble (Endurance Maintains Household Ensemble). On this folkloric efficiency there are not any reward singers. Even so, the occasion is language wealthy. The next drum language and calamboo flute melodies are carried out all throughout the first two minutes of the efficiency: Luŋa phrases:
Jarigu ziem bin barigu.
Ka bin barigu gbago.
[A foolish person underestimates a trap and becomes caught himself.] Yam ni yam kutoi kpe.
Jarigu mini yam dan be.
[Two wise people cannot live together.
One must be foolish, the other must be wise.] Jerigu ziem peto.
So di bori lala o daa bi nya.
[A foolish person refuses pants.
Another wants them and cannot have them.] Biegu ni n’sa nya chugu.
Kadi sagm ka ŋubi nimdi.
[Tommorow is Chugu (a festival day).
We will eat lots of cornmeal and meat.] Calamboo phrases:
A dinbei. A dinbei ayiŋa.
[Your bad deeds will end in your home.] Ay lag paga ko ti lanjaa,
Nimi tuba naa lanjo.
[If you fall in love with a woman and she proves fickle,
You should never go back to her.] zero:00 Because the video begins, we don't see the musicians, however hear them approaching. Drummers play the rhythm baamaaya sochendi. zero:17 The primary musician to enter the dance circle is the sayalsa participant. Behind him come the luŋa participant and two guŋgoŋ gamers. zero:46 We get a primary glimpse of the calamboo participant. 1:15 Instantly behind the final drummer we see two dancing males. Their presence is tolerated, however they don't seem to be a part of the deliberate efficiency. 1:20 We get our first unobstructed view of the dancers. Some are carrying monkey-skin hats. All are carrying pom-pon belts and white skirts. 1:50 Right here is one other shock. A girl is dancing. 2:50 The drummers change to the baamaaya mangli rhythm. The dancers begin “twisting.” Whereas the final type of the movement is ready, every dancer performs the actions in his or her personal style. The calamboo participant (adopted by one of many guŋgoŋ gamers) squats down and directs his music to encourage one specific dancer. -research paper writing service