# What’s the null hypothesis for this research question?

This assignment is associated with Chapters 11 and 12 (Salkind).

Instructions: There are lots of techniques that we can use to try to calm down or relax when we are feeling anxious or tense. One strategy is deep breathing (see this link for some tips on deep breathing, https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/uz2255 (Links to an external site.)). A professor is interested in examining how deep breathing can influence feelings of anxiety. She recruits participants in her class right before the final exam, when their feelings of anxiety would be high. She measures their current levels of anxiety, instructs them to engage in 2 minutes of deep breathing, and then measures their anxiety again after they’ve completed the breathing. Below are the anxiety levels of each student before and after deep breathing. Your job is to determine if their anxiety levels significantly change before and after deep breathing. But, this week I’m going to give you a little break on the calculations! See the questions (below) for details!

Before Deep Breathing
15
18
19
15
14
13
10
6
4
9
After Deep Breathing
12
16
14
10
10
9
4
3
1
1
Question 1 1 pts
What’s the null hypothesis for this research question?

Ho: Anxiety levels are the same before and after deep breathing

Ha: Anxiety levels are significantly lower after deep breathing

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Question 2 1 pts
What’s the alternative hypothesis for this research question?

Ha: Anxiety levels are significantly lower after deep breathing

Ho: Anxiety levels are the same before and after deep breathing

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Question 3 1 pts
What’s the best statistical test to use to analyze this research question?

Dependent samples t-test

F statistic

Correlation coefficient

Independent sample t-test

One sample z-test

One way ANOVA

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The next step is to compute the test statistic. Here’s where I’m going to help you out. I’m going to give you the t-value here:

t = 7.69

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Question 4 1.5 pts
Now, you tell me: what are the degrees of freedom?

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Question 5 1 pts
Should you do a one-tailed or two-tailed test here? Think about whether the hypothesis is directional or non-directional!

two tailed

one tailed

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Question 6 1.5 pts
What is the critical value?

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Question 7 1 pts

There is a significant decrease in anxiety after deep breathing

There is not a significant decrease in anxiety before and after deep breathing.

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Question 8 2 pts
Explain when you would you use a dependent samples t-Test rather than an independent sample t-Test. What are the benefits and problems with each design? Be specific!

202073
a few seconds ago
This discussion assignment is related to your Chapter 11 (Salkind) material.

9.Post the following:

a. Give an example of a study for which the independent sample t-test would be appropriate.

b. Was your decision to reject the null hypothesis or fail to reject the null hypothesis for individual assignment # 11? Why did you make this choice?

Select a classmate’s evaluate your classmate’s study by stating

a. Is the independent samples t-test the appropriate test for their study example? If yes, state why, using examples to support your agreement or if no, state why not, using examples to support your disagreement.

b. Is your group member’s decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis correct? Explain why or why not.

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