This assignment consists of three parts. In the first part of the assignment a short revue of the theories of organisational behaviour, management, communication, leadership, motivation and teamwork is given in a basic way. In the second part the tasks done during the residential in Hathersage are reflected to these theories. In this part suggestions are made to improve the observed behaviours, if they were not positive. Positive behaviours are identified and explained. The last part gives examples of the integrated nature of management work seen in one exercise.
2 Organisational Behaviour Theories 2.1 Management Definition: “An integrating activity involving the process of setting and accomplishing goals through the use and coordination of human, technical and financial resources within an organisation” (Wheler,2002) As seen from the definition above management is a complex activity that very often involves tasks that are in competition to each other. Therefore managers have to be able to manage themselves before they can manage others. Therefore it is important to look at several issues that are involved in managing “self” For example:
1. Self-awareness The Johari Window (Luft,1969) is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction and therefore a good tool for rising the self awareness. A four paned “window” divides personal awareness into four different types, as represented by its four quadrants: open, hidden, blind, and unknown. The lines dividing the four panes are like window shades, which can move as an interaction progress.(noogenesis, 2002)
A questionnaire of the Johari Window can be found in the appendix. 2. Time Management A clear understanding of “Effectiveness” and “Efficiency” which means that you are able to set the right priorities to your tasks and can decide which task is important at what time to reach a goal. -“Effectiveness is doing the right things” -“Efficiency is ‘doing things right'” Communication is an essential part of day to day work within an organisation. Although communication applies to all phases of managing, it is particularly important in the function of leading.
According to Koontz and Weihrich (Koontz and Weihrich, 1990) “communication is the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver with the information being understood by the receiver.” A complete representation of the communication process can be found in the appendix. Leadership Defining leadership: Even if Leadership has different meanings to various authors (Bass, 1981, p45), I would like to use the definition of John Adair: “Leadership involves focusing the effort of a group of people towards a common goal and enabling them to work together as a team” (Adair, 1986)
This involves, that leaders act to help a group attain objectives through best application of its capabilities. It is not their job to push and prod the group all the time. Rather they have to inspire the group, as the facilitate progress to accomplish the set goals. Leaders have to envision the future and chart the course of the group, project or organisation. There are several theories on leadership behaviour and styles.
The following paragraphs will introduce the three leadership styles by Cole (Cole, 1996, p50) even if Huneryager and Heckamn identified four. (Cole sees Laissez-faire not as a leadership “style”) because there will be references to this leadership styles in the chapter “University residential period”. Managers have a choice between being either authoritarian or democratic (Cole, 1996, p50). Every style has, depending on the circumstances, its advantages and disadvantages. A selection of three leadership styles is discussed below.
The distinguishing feature of the Authoritarian leadership style is the strict control of the work by the manager. He directs, sets goals and monitors. In the first time this leadership style gets to good results, but this normally decreases fast after a certain time. This, also “democratic” called leadership style focuses on the participation of the group members on the way how to catch the target. The manager still has the lead but all group members have the chance of active participation in solving internal problems. A team that is lead in a cooperative style develops a strong team spirit and tries to develop opportunities to reduce conflicts.
Leadership through the group itself is seen, according to Fischer (Fischer, 2001) as the highest developed form of leadership. All members of a group are depended on their abilities involved in the leading. The leading passes over to a self adjustment of the group. The group is able to solve problems integrative. Definition of motivation: “Motivation is the ï¿½driveï¿½ which causes an individual to engage in specific behaviours in order to satisfy a need or expectation” (Wheeler, 2002) For managing it is very important to know what motivation there is for people, what gives them satisfaction? “The manager’s job is not to manipulate people, rather to recognize what motivates people.”(Koontz and Weihrich, 1990, p317)
A representation of “Maslos need hierarchy” and “The Pygmalion Effect” can be found in the appendix. If a new group is put together, like in our case the group of seven people, there is according to Witte (Witte, 1986, p443) always a typical order of phases the new group goes trough. The task “Waterbalance” is to move a can that is connected and in balance with a other can via a rope and trough coils without touching it. Equipment: sticks, tube etc.
Teamwork Functions of the different members were found fast. While one part of the group was delegated to look for water and how to get it to the “Waterbalance” a second part of the team developed the mechanism to poor the water into the can. Even putting together the different sub tasks to a main task was no problem for the group. As there was not enough water to successfully complete the task the team members solved this problem on their one. This shows that the functions of the different members were found.
The group started to feel as a team. Compared with the related phases of group development (Witte, 1986, p443) the group was in the “norming” phase and started to be in the “performing” phase. Management/Leadership The Management role was taken after a few minutes of discussion about possible solutions for the task by one person. The delegation of getting water was made. A solution for a part of the problem was tried out by the person himself. The solution was adapted by the group. The management style seen was “management by delegating” and “management by example” (Tannenbaum and Schmidt, 1973).
Positive/negative The group felt as a team. Teamwork had been achieved and the group members could flexible change their position in the team. The leading person delegated tasks, but did not communicate the plan for the solution to the rest of the group. He tried out a part of the solution instead of delegating this task. It would have been easier for the group members to work if they had more responsibility (Wheeler, 2002)
3.4 Blinde folde maze Task: The group had to pass a path without touching the path marks. All group members had to be blind while on the path. Teamwork The according to Witte (Witte, 1986) the group was in the “performing” stage. A long decision making process happened where new ideas could be brought in without being seen as an interruption. The roles of the group members were flexible. Different tasks could be done by different persons. Teamwork was achieved.
Leadership/Management All group members discussed about the task. One person took the leadership but was consulted by others. Every group member added his part to the discussion and possible solutions for the task. The main discussion was not about the important points for reaching the goal, but about minor important points. Decisions were made very slowly. The leadership style seen was “democratic” and “through the group itself” (Tannenbaum and Schmidt, 1973). As a result the process of making a decision as a group took a long time and the decision was deferred. Several attempts were made to solve the task in different constellations. The results were not as expected.
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