The National Tuberculosis Control Programme in South India

Evaluation of public personal combine within the Revised Nationwide Tuberculosis Management Programme in a south Indian district

Vijayshree.H.Y, Battaglioli T, G.Ok.Sanath Kumar, Devadasan N, Van Der Stuyft 

In India, Tuberculosis (TB) stays a significant world well being drawback, accounting for 26 per cent of all TB instances worldwide (World Tuberculosis Report 2013). The revised nationwide TB management programme (RNTCP) was launched in India in 1997 based mostly on the World Well being Group suggested immediately noticed therapy (DOT) technique, by incorporating a number of methods. One among such methods was, Public Personal Combine (PPM) with an goal to interact all personal sector suppliers (PSPs) in RNTCP to supply common entry to TB care.

There's a massive physique of proof to exhibit that PSPs are the primary alternative for searching for TB care in India (23,24,25,26,27, Uplekar M, Pathania V, Raviglione M. Personal practitioners and public well being: weak hyperlinks in tuberculosis management. The Lancet 2001; 358: 912–916). TB is usually inaccurately recognized and ineffectively handled within the personal sector resulting in poor therapy outcomes and purchased drug resistance.12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20. Recognising the crucial want to interact PSPs within the RNTCP, the Authorities of India (GoI) rolled out PPM schemes in 2001-20012 to collaborate with PSPs, to make sure early detection of TB and supply standardised therapy to TB sufferers. Presently there are ten PPM schemes, principally based mostly on outcomes based mostly financing (Field 1). Every scheme has particular goals that the partnership is predicted to meet by signing a Memorandum of Understanding with the district TB officer (DTO).

There are quite a few research and evaluations of PPM initiatives in India exhibiting constructive affect on case detection, therapy success charges and demonstrating feasibility and cost-effectiveness of PPM technique, however confining to at least one specific setting/context. There are only a few documented research on the contribution of PPM to case discovering in India and there are none on the contribution of personal practitioners (PPs) to RNTCP below programmatic settings. It's in opposition to this background that we carried out this research to evaluate the participation of PPs in RNTCP by way of PPM schemes and to doc their contribution to TB case discovering in a district from South India. We centered on for-profit, formally educated PPs working in clinics, nursing houses and hospitals.

1. Scheme for Advocacy Communication Social Mobilisation : NGOs are anticipated to mobilise native political dedication and sources for TB, empower communities affected by TB.

2. Scheme for sputum assortment centre: Any establishment working in ‘underserved’ areas, can gather sputum samples.

three. Scheme for sputum decide up and transport service: Any NGO with outreach actions can transport sputum samples to the closest DMCs.

four. Scheme for Designated Microscopic Centre cum therapy centre: NGO/personal lab can have interaction within the scheme to supply AFB microscopy and TB therapy companies freed from cost.

5. Lab Technician scheme: to supply lab technician for strengthening RNTCP diagnostic companies to hospitals exterior ministry of well being.

6. Tradition and drug sensitivity take a look at scheme: A well-functioning mycobacterial tradition and DST laboratory within the personal/NGO sector can take part on this scheme.

7. Adherence scheme: NGOs and personal practitioners(PPs) be sure that TB sufferers are complying with their drug routine.

eight.Slum Scheme: PPs and self-help teams working in slums can have interaction to make sure sufferers compliance to drug regimens and well timed analysis.

9.Tuberculosis Unit Mannequin: It's designed for areas the place there's already an efficient NGO at present working and who can perform all of the RNTCP companies sometimes executed by RNTCP TB items.

10.TB-HIV Scheme: NGOs already working with HIV sufferers can have interaction on this scheme to assist deal with TB below DOTS along side their HIV therapy.

Supplies and strategies:

Setting: This research was carried out in Karnataka, South India (complete inhabitants 2,716,997). Like anyplace else in India, well being care is offered freed from price in public sector well being amenities. There's a dominant personal well being sector, with big range of healthcare suppliers starting from unqualified practitioners to extremely educated specialists. Tumkur district is split into seven Tuberculosis Items (TUs), every catering to a inhabitants of 500,000 and answerable for the programme implementation. Below every unit, there are Designated Microscopy Facilities (DMCs), every catering to a inhabitants of 100,000 and performing AFB sputum microscopy (n= 28 within the district). The variety of DOT facilities within the district is 2402. Sufferers can both immediately entry these facilities or might be referred by any PSP. Laboratory technicians at DMCs are anticipated to report the small print of the referring PP or well being facility within the laboratory register for every presumptive TB case examined there.


PPs have been outlined as ‘formal’ in the event that they have been formally educated both in allopathic medication or within the Indian system of medication, AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Sidda and Homeopathy).

Specialists have been outlined as PPs who've a sophisticated coaching and we categorized them into (i) ‘related’: who doubtlessly see TB sufferers of their routine follow similar to, chest physicians, basic physicians (specialists usually medication), surgeons, pediatricians, gynecologists and (ii) ‘non- related’: who not often see TB sufferers of their routine follow similar to ENT surgeons, ophthalmologists, dermatologists, radiologists, anesthetists, and many others.

Information assortment

We assessed PP’s participation for the 12 months 2011. We collected knowledge retrospectively from RNTCP’s routine studies and registers from August to October 2012.

To doc the whole variety of PPs concerned in PPM schemes, data was retrieved from the District TB Heart (DTC) and verified on the state TB workplace situated in Bangalore.

To evaluate the whole variety of PPs referring presumptive TB instances to RNTCP for sputum examination and verify the amount of referrals by them, knowledge was collected from laboratory registers from all of the 28 DMCs current within the district. Particular person names of referring PPs and variety of referrals, have been extracted systematically and entered within the knowledge base. We cross-verified the information with routine quarterly studies and data generated at DTC.

Throughout our knowledge assortment we noticed that solely few DMCs had good documentation of PP’s referrals. Therefore, for the subsequent step and the ultimate evaluation we chosen 5 DMCs with dependable documentation (Sira city, Koratagere city, Kunigal city, SVIRHC [TB1]DMC of Pavagada city and the District TB Centre DMC of Tumkur metropolis).

As a result of absence of a registry of PPs within the research space, we carried out mapping of PPs utilizing 5 sources: Indian Medical Affiliation, Karnataka Personal Medical Institution Act, DTC, personal nursing houses affiliation, medical school and onsite verification. To establish the traits of PP, whether or not formal or casual (no coaching by any means), for revenue or not-for-profit, the kind of medication practiced (AYUSH or allopathy) and the kind of well being facility (clinic, nursing house or hospital), we visited PP’s well being amenities and documented the related particulars.

Information was analyzed utilizing Excel.


The collected knowledge was secondary from routine RNTCP registers and studies. Therefore it didn't pose any moral considerations.


  • Not one of the PPs within the district had formally signed-up/taken up any current PPM scheme throughout the 12 months 2011. PPs referred presumptive TB instances to RNTCP on an advert hoc foundation, with none formal communication with the programme.
  • We recognized a complete of 424 formal PPs practising within the research space (365 allopaths and 59 AYUSH).
  • Of the 424 PPs, 95 (22%) had made no less than one referral throughout the 12 months (desk 1). Amongst 279 specialists, 57 (20%) had made no less than one referral, 41(48%) amongst 94 [TB2]allopathic basic practitioners (GPs) and 6 (10%) among the many AYUSH.
  • There was complete 675 presumptive TB case referrals by all PPs. 316 instances have been referred by GPs, 344 by specialists and 15 by AYUSH suppliers. For the referring PPs, the median variety of referrals per PP was 2 with an inter quartile vary from 1-7. No main variation was noticed within the referral sample between specialists and GP[TB3]s (desk 2[TB4])
  • Amongst complete 4446 presumptive TB instances examined at DMCs, PPs contributed to 15% of all of the presumptive TB instances examined at DMCs (desk three)., 157(23%) of the presumptive TB instances referred by PPs have been smear constructive. PPs contributed to 23% of the detected sputum smear constructive TB instances. Huge variation was noticed throughout totally different DMCs.

Desk 1 : Whole quantity and proportion of PPs referring presumptive TB instances to RNTCP in Tumkur district, 2011

Desk 2 : Quantity of referrals per PP in Tumkur district, 2011

Desk three: Variety of presumptive TB instances examined and quantity discovered smear constructive in Tumkur district, 2011


Poor involvement of PPs:

Our research demonstrates the whole absence of formal engagement of PPs with RNTCP, twelve years after launching PPM schemes. Nevertheless, 22% of PPs within the research space had made no less than one referral throughout the research interval, contributing to 23% of detected sputum constructive instances within the district. This goes to say that the engagement exists between the RNTCP and PPs, however is principally casual(much like a research by Lönnroth etal (Smooth Contracts with Personal Practitioners to Enhance Tuberculosis Outcomes; Lönnroth, Uplekar, and Blanc (2006). Amongst allopaths, nearly half of GPs had made no less than one referral throughout the research interval, however amongst related specialists it was solely 27%. Positivity price of 23% among the many presumptive TB instances referred by PPs is way greater than usually anticipated worth of 10%, recommend that PPs do make selective referrals to RNTCP as a substitute of referring all chest symptomatics of their routine follow. PPs ought to be inspired for proper collection of presumptive TB instances to be referred.


As a result of absence of PP’s registry within the research space, we used numerous knowledge sources to map PPs within the research space, which was time consuming and useful resource intensive. Good situational evaluation of personal sector panorama to evaluate their competencies, qualification and strengths, is a prerequisite for efficient and involvement of PPs who may doubtlessly collaborate with RNTCP. It's crucial that TB programme does a periodic personal sector mapping within the area relying upon the duties anticipated by the RNTCP of the PPs ( For instance Lonnroth Ok and Uplekar M (unpublished) have listed a number of attainable instruments). In India well being sector is pluralistic. A transparent tips ought to be developed by GoI, guiding the programme managers to hold out the mapping of PSPs within the space will show helpful (Lonnroth Ok, Uplekar M. Sensible instruments for involving personal well being care suppliers in TB management. Cease TB. Geneva: World Well being Group, Geneva. Doc in preparation)

Reporting: There are variety of evaluations of assorted PPM initiatives exhibiting constructive affect on case detection and therapy success Charges. Nevertheless, routine monitoring of PPM to RNTCP is but to be launched. RNTCP boasts of getting strong reporting mechanism. However, the information generated both of case detection or therapy outcomes is simply about these sufferers notified by public sector well being amenities and doesn't embody contributions constructed from PSPs (measuring PPM contribution to TB care and World TB report 2012). Although there was many efforts by GoI to interact with PPs, there's little or no efforts in strengthening the PPM reporting system. India launched PPM recording and reporting system in 14 cities the place PPM was scaled up and intensified. Nevertheless, the system was judged to be too cumbersome for normal and countrywide reporting ( measuring PPM contribution to TB care). PPM knowledge generated at present within the programme will not be disaggregated based on kind of PP. These aggregated numbers will not be helpful to the programme mangers both for planning or making any choices in PPM space. There are a number of recording and reporting instruments developed by WHO and different organisations, to recommendation international locations on efficient knowledge assortment, administration and the way to monitor PPM actions (measuring PPM contribution to TB care ( in publication folder). RNTCP might take into account creating easy instruments for routine PPM knowledge assortment and reporting (Improvement of evaluatory and monitoring mechanisms for ongoing PPP initiatives) (Main Limitations to Public-Personal Collaboration(WHO/ & CDS/TB/2001.285., 2001). The monitoring and supervision mechanism inside medical faculties to supervise the implementation of RNTP may function a constructive mannequin for designing a system for PPM monitoring and analysis.

PPM schemes: Although many PPs are referring substantial variety of TB suspects there isn't any formal monetary funds made to them, as there isn't any provision for incentivising them for referrals within the current PPM schemes. Our research exhibits that not one of the PPs have signed an MoU with NTP to become involved with NTP by way of any accessible PPM schemes. The partnership between NTP and PPs is restricted to casual TB suspects referrals solely. Annual report of RNTCP, 2013 studies that XXX PPs are collaborating below numerous PPM schemes. However, in actuality they comprise solely a miniscule a part of the big personal sector within the nation. This subject wants additional analysis as to why PPs favor casual agreements to collaborate with NTP (Lönnroth, Uplekar, & Blanc, 2006). It's also vital to discover additional as to what approaches or methods would work for constructing long run sustainable collaboration with PPs. (WHO/ & CDS/TB/2001.285., 2001)

Conclusion: Research exhibits that nothing has modified in final 20 years within the poor TB administration practices by PPs (Udwadia, Pinto, & Uplekar, 2010) and engagement of PSPS to generate referrals to RNTCP for analysis and/or therapy, has had restricted success.(Sachdeva, Kumar, Dewan, Kumar, & Satyanarayana, 2012). Our research re emphasises the poor engagement of PPs in TB care and name for rapid actions to revitalise the PPM actions. The imaginative and prescient of the GoI is for a ‘TB free India’. To realize this, the programme has adopted a brand new technique in RNTCP Part III (2012–2017) of ‘common entry for high quality analysis and therapy for all TB sufferers by participating all well being care suppliers’7. With the intention to obtain this goal, it might want to enhance and develop its engagement with personal sector suppliers. perceive the dynamics of the personal healthcare market holistically to reach at optimum mechanisms of participating PPs (WB-TB challenge unpublished knowledge). In any other case the efforts of controlling TB by way of RNTCP will go waste negating the good points made all these years. PPs are referring substantial variety of TB suspects, though there aren't any formal monetary funds made to them. These knowledge strongly point out that systematic efforts by the Govt. to advertise the engagement of PPs in RNTCP will yield dividends. The TB programme has to reexamine the methods of collaborating with PPs.

[TB1]In full

[TB2]279+94=373 and never 365. Revise the numbers.


[TB4]Touch upon Desk: embody GPs below the allopaths.