Styles of Leadership in Different Cultures

Govt Abstract

There are numerous motivational theories and kinds of management that are being practiced by organizations worldwide. Sure motivational theories and kinds of management would solely be relevant primarily based on elements such because the tradition inside which the group operates. Sri Lanka being a rustic the place “energy tradition” has been dominant has to observe much less versatile, extra excessive motivational theories and kinds of management akin to McGregor’s XY Concept and Autocratic or Authoritarian Management type respectively.

It has been recognized that there are numerous benefits and downsides of pursuing sure management kinds. Nonetheless, it's clear that unbiased of the type of management used, if the chief is an efficient chief, this is able to be an excellent power for a company.

Normal Chartered Financial institution having reported seven successive years of report earnings and steady enlargement of market share, regardless of the present international financial situation, has been acknowledged as one of many world’s main banks. The success is totally a results of the hassle of worker teams and leaders of the financial institution who've been uncovered to a singular tradition which has been introduced up on the financial institution.

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A corporation could be outlined as a gaggle of people working collectively to realize a standard aim or goal. To attain these widespread objectives and aims a company would require management in addition to motivation. There are numerous kinds of management and motivational theories that are practiced by organizations to be able to obtain the specified consequence. Above all, efficient management could possibly be recognized as among the best motivational elements.

An in depth evaluation concerning Normal Chartered Financial institution has been carried out with the aim of analyzing features of teams, groups and management inside organizations.

Normal Chartered PLC is a British monetary companies firm headquartered in London, England with operations in additional than seventy nations. It operates a community of over 1,700 branches and retailers (together with subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures) and employs 80,000 individuals. Regardless of its British base, it has few prospects in the UK and round 90% of its income come from Asia, Africa, and the Center East.

Motivational Theories and Management

Motivation could possibly be outlined as a psychological course of the place inside and exterior elements affect an individual to be repeatedly thinking about pursuing and attaining objectives. It could possibly be stated that motivation influences an individual’s behaviour at work and in the end how he performs throughout the job. There are numerous motivational theories adopted by organizations to encourage their staff and a few of these theories are mentioned under.

Motivational Theories

Douglas McGregor’s Concept X and Concept Y

Douglas McGregor has developed two fashions that are generally known as Concept X and Concept Y. These two theories have been formulated by way of examination of theories on particular person behaviour at work.

Douglas McGregor’s Concept X states that a mean human being dislikes work, prefers to be directed, avoids duty, has little or no ambition, works for cash and primarily safety.

Concept X has given rise to 2 administration approaches, that are the comfortable and exhausting method. Below the comfortable administration method, managers search concord with the workers below the impression that staff would cooperate with them when vital. The place, below the exhausting administration method an worker needs to be coerced, managed, directed and threatened until the anticipated consequence it achieved.

Nonetheless, it needs to be famous that not one of the extremes are appropriate as staff require greater than financial rewards, they require fulfilling their increased order wants. It's understood the primary purpose for organizations to make use of this method is to make sure that staff behave within the anticipated method.

Concept Y, in contrast to Concept X appears at a mean human being from a extra optimistic angle. Concept Y states that a mean human being likes work, directs himself, accepts and seeks duty.

Concept Y could be extra legitimate and is utilized by organizations as this is able to end in increased ranges of motivation for workers by way of matching organizational objectives with private objectives. Additional, this is able to result in worker empowerment as creativity and alternative to train initiative is allowed.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Wants Concept

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Wants Concept speaks of 5 teams of fundamental wants which often encourage behaviour in lots of cultures. These fundamental wants are Physiological, Security, Social, Esteem Wants and Self Actualization.

Determine (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Wants)

In Maslow’s Hierarchy of Wants Concept, as soon as a necessity has been glad, the need to fulfill a better want rises. Therefore, an individual could be motivated to carry out higher.

Organizations would use this principle to determine on what sort of motivation must be given to its staff. Organizations use this principle by figuring out,

Behaviour of a person at a given second depends upon his strongest want

Physiological wants have the best power and a majority of staff would work to fulfill this stage solely

An unhappy want acts as a motivation issue

As soon as a necessity is glad the need to realize a better order want rises

A glad want would now not act as a motivation issue

ERG Concept

ERG Concept resembles Maslow’s Hierarchy of Wants Concept. ERG Concept has three teams of wants. The place the primary group could be Existence Wants (i.e. bodily and materials needs), second group could be Relatedness Wants (i.e. want for interpersonal relationships) and third group could be Development Wants (i.e. want to be inventive and productive). Nonetheless, in contrast to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Wants Concept, the ERG Concept states, if pissed off in attempting to fulfill Development Wants, Relatedness Wants will re-emerge (frustration regression course of).

Organizations would use ERG principle to assist them establish their worker’s dynamic wants and assist the organizations to know why staff have such dynamic wants (i.e. as soon as satisfaction development happens the wants change and as soon as frustration regression happens wants change as soon as once more).

Herzberg Two Issue Concept or Motivation Hygiene Concept

Herzberg after finishing up many surveys concluded that to know worker satisfaction or dissatisfaction work needed to be divided into two classes.

Motivation Components: Components that are robust contributors to job satisfaction.

Hygiene Components: Components which aren't robust contributors to job satisfaction however which have to be current to fulfill an worker’s expectations and forestall job dissatisfaction.

Hygiene Components:

Job safety

Relations with others

Bodily working circumstances

Firm insurance policies


High quality of supervision

Motivation Components:




Alternatives for private development

Promotion alternatives

Organizations use Herzberg’s Two Issue Concept firstly to establish if their worker’s hygiene elements are met by way of which an evaluation could possibly be made concerning whether or not the worker is glad with the job or not. If not, the group can establish which elements must be adjusted in order that this may increasingly alleviate job dissatisfaction.

Nonetheless, to encourage somebody to carry out higher or to extend satisfaction motivation elements have to be addressed by the group. Utilizing this principle, a company would have the ability to establish which type of motivation could be essential to encourage an worker as motivation elements relate to the character of the work itself and the way in which the worker performs it. It needs to be additional famous that this principle has a twofold method of eliminating dissatisfiers and enhancing satisfiers.

Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Concept

In keeping with Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Concept staff will work exhausting to realize rewards that they values and that they take into account obtainable. Additional, Victor Vroom states that an worker will probably be motivated to exert a excessive stage of effort to acquire reward below three circumstances.

The worker believes that his or her efforts will end in acceptable efficiency.

The worker believes that acceptable efficiency will result in the specified end result or reward.

The worker values the reward.

(Karen Collins, 2007 cited in Flatworld Information, n.d)

Determine (Expectancy Concept Mannequin)

(Karen Collins, 2007 cited in Flatworld Information, n.d)

Organizations would use this principle as it might assist the group to know and interpret,

How staff determine to work

The impact of deliberate rewards applications

The impact of such deliberate rewards on the productiveness of staff

Sri Lanka is a rustic inside which energy tradition is dominantly seen not solely inside society but in addition inside organizations. Because of this tradition which has not modified a lot all through the years, work drive of a company would naturally await orders from the highest and will not be to take initiative in most conditions even when given the prospect. Therefore, when contemplating motivational theories which are actually extensively practiced by way of the world the place a way of motivating staff in a pure method is used, it could possibly be understood that such motivational theories if utilized inside organizations of the nation might not consequence within the anticipated end result. Based mostly on this data it's attainable to reach on the conclusion that essentially the most appropriate motivational principle for use by organizations working inside Sri Lanka is McGregor’s XY Concept the place Concept X assumptions have for use.


Management Types

Management could possibly be outlined as a relationship by way of which one particular person influences the behaviour or actions of different individuals.

There are numerous elements which needs to be thought of when deciding on a method of management. For instance, nature of activity (i.e. Urgency, Complexity), sort of individuals being led (i.e. Maturity, Technical Expertise, Competence), and so on. There are primarily three forms of management.

The Authoritarian or Autocratic Type: A frontrunner exercising this type would make choices alone with out recommendation from their followers and would state what needs to be carried out and the way. Such a method could be appropriate in an event when all of the required data to unravel an issue is on the market, there's a lack of time and the workers are nicely motivated.

The Participative or Democratic Type: A frontrunner exercising this type would contain staff within the choice making course of. The management features are shared with members of the group leading to larger interactions inside the group. “The group members have a larger say in choice making, willpower of coverage, implementation of programs and procedures.” (Laurie J. Mullins 2007, p. 371) Nonetheless, it needs to be famous that the chief maintains the ultimate choice making authority.

A Laissez – Faire (Real) Type or Delegative Type: A frontrunner exercising this type would permit the workers to make choices after observing how staff work on their very own. That is carried out when staff are capable of analyze a state of affairs and determine what needs to be carried out and the way. Nonetheless, the chief would nonetheless be liable for the selections made.

Past these management kinds, it needs to be understood that management behaviour may both be directive or supportive.

Benefits and Disadvantages of Management Types

Management Type



The Authoritarian or Autocratic Type

Extra group productiveness whereas chief watches

Resolution making course of is faster because the chief makes the choice individually

The group might reply to hazard rapidly

The extent of dependence on the chief will increase

The extent of hostility amongst staff might enhance

Work drive might dislike being ordered round leading to worker de-motivation

The Participative or Democratic Type

A optimistic work atmosphere may develop

Motivates inventive considering

Reduces worker turnover because of much less friction between the work drive and the leaders

Slower choice making

Arguments might come up

A Laissez – Faire (Real) Type or Delegative Type

Ends in worker empowerment

Promotes unbiased considering

Motivates creativity

Workers can misuse the liberty given to them and carry out poorly

Determine (Benefits and Disadvantages of Management Types)

Management and Motivation Distinguished

An authoritarian or autocratic management type is adopted when staff are dependant and resist change. The effectivity of such staff could be low. By way of excessive ranges of supervision, command and management which is exercised by such leaders would encourage staff primarily in three kinds. They're,

Peer Motivated: As staff want to be like others

Authority Motivated: As staff would observe insurance policies

Risk and Worry Motivated: As staff would react to drive

When a participative or a democratic management type is adopted there could be larger interplay inside the group and therefore the persona and effectivity of staff depends upon the chief’s abilities and the work atmosphere which he has created. When following such a management type, staff could be motivated in three kinds. They're,

Objective Motivated: As staff might acknowledge some alternative

Reward Motivated: As staff would acknowledge some alternative for some materials reward

Recognition Motivated: As staff would acknowledge a chance for change in social standing

A Laissez – Faire or delegative type is adopted when staff take up management, thrive on change or alternative, are unbiased and are achievers. Such staff could be very environment friendly in comparison with staff below different management kinds. Leaders following this type would have restricted supervision and would delegate choice making duty to staff. When following such a management type, staff could be motivated in two kinds. They're,

Self Motivated and Workforce Motivated: As staff are allowed to follow creativity

When the above three forms of management and motivation related to them are analyzed, naturally a participative or a democratic management type is finest to observe as a result of in a team-motivated atmosphere, dependant staff will probably be impressed and can try to be acceptable with unbiased considering co-workers.

Nonetheless, because it was talked about earlier than, because of the tradition component of the nation work drive of a company would naturally await orders from the highest and will not be to take initiative. Subsequently, a management type the place excessive ranges of supervision, command and management is practiced could be extra relevant for such an atmosphere that means, essentially the most appropriate management type to encourage staff inside organizations could be the authoritarian or autocratic management type.

Efficient Leaders; A paramount to an Group

It could possibly be stated that efficient leaders are the important thing for fulfillment of any group. There are various traits an efficient chief ought to have. Based mostly on the data given under it's attainable to know that an efficient chief is power to a company in lots of elements. Given under are 5 elements which make an efficient chief a paramount to a company,

An efficient chief would have the ability to affect and encourage individuals to perform a aim, or an goal of a company. It needs to be understood that management isn't about energy and has no relationship with driving staff to perform their duties and duties out of worry. It ought to additional be understood that an efficient chief would assist to encourage or encourage different staff to take up management, forming a profitable and a strong workforce.

An efficient chief could be a visionary particular person that means consciousness of organizational objectives, aims and imaginative and prescient. Provided that staff see that their chief is conscious of the path which he should head they'll observe him. This could possibly be a bonus to a company as such an individual would have the ability to lead the workers of the group in such a way that they'd obtain organizational objectives and aims.

An efficient chief could be a reliable particular person. It needs to be understood that belief if a pacesetter is reliable his staff would trust in him even at robust occasions. Therefore, it needs to be understood that if a company has such a pacesetter who has good relationships, is reliable and follows moral requirements that this is able to be an enormous power for the group as this could possibly be thought of the bottom for an efficient group. Additional, this is able to assist the group to develop a superb impression by way of the group by which it operates.

An efficient chief would have the ability to talk the organizational objectives, goal, imaginative and prescient, information and technical experience to the organizations staff. This may assist the workers of the group to develop into efficient too as they'd acquire the required information, abilities and an concept about organizational objectives, aims and imaginative and prescient.

An efficient chief would have the ability to make “profitable” choices primarily based on instinct. This might lead a company to success as at occasions there could also be a must make choices rapidly which perhaps of very excessive significance and worth when time for gathering data could also be very restricted.

Teams, Groups and Management

It's no secret that behind the success of Normal Chartered Financial institution, the workers of the financial institution has performed an important position. Efficient management and nicely motivated workers has been the important thing for this glorious efficiency. To help and enhance management growth inside the financial institution, Normal Chartered Financial institution now has seven core management growth applications together with suggestions applications such because the 360 suggestions instrument. Normal Chartered Financial institution provides particular consideration not just for management but in addition for elements akin to worker relations, staff constructing, tradition and values, and so on.

Nature of Teams and Workforce Roles

Nature of Teams

A bunch could possibly be outlined as a set of people that work together with one another over time to be able to attain objectives. These teams can both be formal or casual, the place each forms of these teams are seen at Normal Chartered Financial institution. One notice worthy function of those teams at Normal Chartered Financial institution is that the teams consist of people who come from numerous backgrounds, cultures and have completely different abilities. Nonetheless, Normal Chartered Financial institution has made positive that no battle amongst financial institution workers happens however as an alternative understanding and growth in a number of fields happens; nice instance for this would be the worker trade program (first time in 2008, between India and China) which the financial institution launched not too long ago. By way of this method, Normal Chartered Financial institution has been capable of,

Align groups with enterprise imaginative and prescient and aims

Construct workers engagement and dedication

Create alternatives for open and brave conversations

Make clear dependencies

Speed up excessive efficiency by leveraging strengths

Workforce Roles

A staff position is, “a sample of behaviour, attribute of the way in which by which one staff member interacts with one other whose efficiency serves to facilitate the progress of the staff as a complete.” (Laurie J. Mullins 2007, p.332)

As Belbin has acknowledged, although there are 9 staff roles, it's uncommon to search out members who're robust in all 9 staff roles. Normal Chartered Financial institution too has acknowledged this and to be able to construct up groups who're expert in a number of methods the financial institution follows job rotation applications and likewise because it was talked about above worker trade applications. By way of the worker trade program or slightly the expertise trade program the financial institution expects to forge stronger working relationships and cultural understanding between the 2 strategically vital markets

“All our growth is predicated on the philosophy of being a strengths-based organisation. We encourage people, managers and groups to establish and deal with their distinctive skills, and consistently problem them to realize extra with them. We recognise that particular person strengths are distinctive, and that every worker will ship in a job otherwise.”

(Normal Chartered Financial institution, 2009)

As it's quoted above, the financial institution encourages recognition of particular person strengths by way of which the financial institution expects to realize larger strengths. By way of the interplay of people of such nature the financial institution expects to develop a extremely gifted work drive by way of staff work. Regardless that a person member will not be extremely gifted he will probably be motivated to realize and develop new strengths when he could be allowed to work together with individuals gifted in a number of fields. Subsequently, it could possibly be understood that staff roles play an important half within the growth strategy of the financial institution.

Levels of Workforce Constructing

Given under are the phases of staff constructing or staff growth,

Forming – formalities are preserved and members are handled as strangers (well mannered however untrusting).

Storming – members begin to talk their emotions however in all probability nonetheless view themselves as a part of their mum or dad division slightly than a part of the staff. They assault others insular attitudes whereas guarding their very own (testing others).

Norming – individuals really feel a part of the staff and realise that they'll obtain work in the event that they settle for different viewpoints (valuing different sorts).

Performing – the staff works in an open and trusting ambiance the place flexibility is the important thing and hierarchy is of little significance (flexibility from belief).

(Carter McNamara, 1999)

The above 4 phases of staff constructing or growth are very evident at Normal Chartered Financial institution. The preliminary two phases could be very clearly seen at the start when an worker could be newly chosen and/or once they swap branches (take into account the worker expertise trade program for instance). Nonetheless, as time passes by (a interval of three months for the worker expertise trade program) staff would study one another, would worth one another particularly their tradition and would have the ability to carry out with flexibility which might construct up from belief. An instance for the final phases of the staff constructing course of could be when prime executives often fill in for each other, whether or not main regional celebrations, representing Normal Chartered Financial institution at key exterior occasions, or initiating inside dialogues with staff. They make their collaborative behaviour seen by way of intensive journey and photographs of leaders from diverse websites working collectively.

Past the above talked about 4 staff growth phases, there may be one further step which is named adjourning. This may imply disbanding of the group on account of completion of a activity, members leaving the group or transferring on to different duties.

Workforce Cohesiveness

It is without doubt one of the most important tasks of a pacesetter to make sure that the members of his work group cooperate in order that the work group would have the ability to obtain the anticipated outcomes. It's clear that cooperation amongst members of labor teams is more likely to be larger in a cohesive group leading to helpful results for the group. There are various elements which have an effect on group cohesiveness. These elements could possibly be categorized below 4 main headings as proven within the diagram under.

Determine (Components Contributing to Group Cohesiveness & Efficiency)

(Laurie J. Mullins 2007, p.307)

Regardless that it's acknowledged that there are disadvantages of cohesive teams such disadvantages have been minimized at Normal Chartered Financial institution by way of the distinctive tradition which has been bread. The disadvantages of cohesive teams have been overwritten by the benefits of cohesive teams at Normal Chartered Financial institution leading to an total optimistic end result. These teams have helped the financial institution by way of elevated interplay between members of numerous cultures and ethnicities, development of abilities and information of members by way of mutual assist, decrease turnover because the member feels that the group has develop into part of him, and so on.

Motivational Instruments and Methods

Normal Chartered Financial institution follows a variety of strategies to encourage or encourage their staff. Motivation at Normal Chartered Financial institution takes place by way of,

Studying and Improvement: Studying and Improvement course of at Normal Chartered Financial institution begins as soon as an worker joins the financial institution and it will proceed until the worker resigns the group. Normal Chartered Financial institution makes use of advance new know-how to make this course of an attention-grabbing one and provides encouragement for members to take part. Examples for Studying and Improvement at Normal Chartered Financial institution: Proper Begin, Job rotation, Expertise Trade, Core Management Improvement, 360 feedbacks and so on.

Worker Relations: Normal Chartered Financial institution follows an method the place it might take care of staff on a person foundation slightly than a collective foundation. This method focuses on direct communication, managing organisational change and involving and motivating staff.

Reward and Recognition: There are two parts to remuneration inside Normal Chartered Financial institution; an annual wage and a efficiency primarily based component. At Normal Chartered Financial institution efficiency wouldn't imply simply “attaining objectives” as an alternative it means how staff exhibit the financial institution’s distinctive tradition and values of their working lives. Workers would obtain particular person scores however these with lowest values of scores won't obtain any efficiency associated bonus even when they've achieved their last targets.

Nice Working Setting & Different Amenities: Normal Chartered Financial institution has an atmosphere which could possibly be acknowledged as among the best environments to work at. The constructions have been constructed in line with anticipated requirements and newest know-how has been used the place attainable. Additional, the financial institution gives different amenities, such because the day care centre the place numerous types of schooling could be given for the kids of the workers, releasing the workers from the burden of worrying about their kids throughout working hours.

Influence of Know-how on Workforce Constructing

It's clear that technological modifications have enabled Normal Chartered Financial institution to realize new heights in lots of fields. When contemplating staff constructing, because it was talked about above within the earlier part, Normal Chartered Financial institution makes use of know-how proper from the start of an worker’s profession. “Proper Begin” is the brand new induction course of which the financial institution makes use of for brand spanking new staff. It's clear, that even this easy step will assist the group to develop higher groups inside shorter time intervals leading to simpler end result. Therefore, it's understood that know-how has an enormous affect on staff constructing course of.

“Our induction course of for brand spanking new staff was enhanced throughout the 12 months with the launch of a brand new on-line digital world. The Proper Begin Studying Journey presents entry to crucial details about our historical past, core companies and supporting features, sustainability agenda and rather more in a enjoyable and interactive manner. New staff can go to the positioning, which was created by our Studying and Improvement Workforce, as typically as they like whereas a dialogue discussion board permits them to speak with different new recruits.”

(Normal Chartered Financial institution, 2009)

It ought to additional be understood, that this identical course of of latest staff attending to know different staff and build up profitable groups would have been a really gradual course of inflicting attainable inefficiencies for the group in oblique methods.

Regardless that know-how has had its optimistic affect on the staff constructing course of it could possibly be stated that there are drawbacks if extreme know-how is used as it might lower individual to individual interactions leading to decrease consciousness or understanding concerning each other. Nonetheless, this example isn't but seen at Normal Chartered Financial institution because the financial institution arranges sure social occasions the place staff can get to know one another higher, unbiased of their place on the financial institution.


As a result of robust cultural impact persisting inside Sri Lanka, staff would naturally require excessive ranges of supervision, command and management ensuing within the utilization of management kinds akin to authoritarian or autocratic management and excessive motivational theories akin to McGregor’s XY Concept (Concept X assumptions), neither of which couldn't be thought of as your best option. To beat this example, modifications to the tradition inside the group could possibly be carried out by way of an eventual course of and in such a way that staff wouldn't really feel threatened. Additional, it could possibly be understood that an efficient chief may carry concerning the desired change even in such a tradition.

Behind each profitable group there would at all times be a extremely gifted and dedicated work drive as at Normal Chartered Financial institution. Based mostly on the data which was acknowledged within the physique of the report, it was attainable to reach on the conclusion that because of the distinctive tradition which has been introduced up at Normal Chartered Financial institution the place know-how and plenty of different parts have performed an vital position, each worker would have a chance to both be a superb staff participant or to be a superb chief. To additional enhance, the financial institution can combine extra staff primarily based discussions and such actions the place know-how could possibly be utilized in a balanced method.