Psychotherapy and the Biological Basis EssayDiscussion: Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis?
Many studies have found that psychotherapy is as effective as psychopharmacology in terms of influencing changes in behaviors, symptoms of anxiety, and changes in mental state. Changes influenced by psychopharmacology can be explained by the biological basis of treatments. But how does psychotherapy achieve these changes? Does psychotherapy share common neuronal pathways with psychopharmacology? For this Discussion, consider whether psychotherapy also has a biological basis. Learning Objectives
Evaluate biological basis of psychotherapy treatments
Analyze influences of culture, religion, and socioeconomics on personal perspectives of psychotherapy treatments
To prepare: Review this week’s Learning Resources.
Reflect on foundational concepts of psychotherapy.
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the "Post to Discussion Question" link and then select "Create Thread" to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking Submit! By Day 3
Post an explanation of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis. Explain how culture, religion, and socioeconomics might influence one’s perspective of the value of psychotherapy treatments. Support your rationale with evidence-based literature. Read a selection of your colleagues' responses. By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your colleagues by providing an additional scholarly resource that supports or challenges their position along with a brief explanation of the resource. =======
Psychotherapy and the Biological Basis Psychotherapy refers to the relationship and interaction between qualified health care professionals and clients. Exploring thoughts, feelings, and behaviors with the ultimate goal of achieving higher levels of mental function (American Psychiatric Association, 2016). Medical diagnosis is said to be biological as it does not target just one receptor or a few neurotransmitters, this has been deduced based on the fact that it taps into all the biological regulations underlying complex brain responses. According to Fournier etal, 2014, neuroimaging may answer some of the questions asked around psychotherapy being biological based- “Neuroimaging studies are broadly consistent in observing associations between response to psychotherapy and baseline activity in several key regions within the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic areas. These regions are involved in the generation and regulation of emotion, fear responding, and response to reward” it connects the response to psychotherapy based on these consepts. Psychotherapy provides answers to clients in the areas of healthy coping, cognitive thinking, emotional, and internal regulation processing (Kandel, 2014). Psychotherapy facilitates positive processing changes in the brain (Kandel, 2014). Cultural Influence The culture people have, as well as their beliefs affect many aspects of psychosocial intervention. Cultural assessment should always be completed and is imperative during the initial treatment phase. This assessment will facilitate the basis for treatment outcomes and usually, the interventions are tailored towards the treatment plan according to the individual clients. Cultural evaluations completed by the healthcare professional promotes the trust that is imperative in a professional therapeutic relationship (Wheeler, 2014). Religious Beliefs Most people often have a religion and spiritual belief base. This could be used to provide healthy coping mechanism and intervention through mediums such as prayer and journaling. The Religious Cognitive is a new form of cognitive theory based on religious approaches that have shown to be beneficial in specific treatment therapies. There have been many spiritual psychotherapy theories proposed but no general theories in this field so far. Religion and beliefs help people to gain high self - esteem or confidence, and to plan in their life and consider their worth (Rajaei, 2010). Socioeconomic Status According to Hawley, Leibert, & Lane, (2014), the socio-economic status of individuals, affect the therapeutic outcomes and significance of therapeutic intervention. Following a research conducted, the level of education, health insurance benefits have been noted to attract greater compliance with the treatment regimen, therefore, improving client outcome and follow-up. The same study also noted that individuals with low socio-economic Status have a higher incidence of family dysfunction, and poor counseling outcomes Conclusion For Nurse Practitioners to successfully diagnose and treat mental illness, ethnicity, religion, race, social, economic Status, and culture are imperative to address, and with the competence gained during the initial goal setting and assessment all the factors above must be thoroughly assessed and discussed (Wheeler, 2014). Preparing for successful intervention will encompass the whole patient to include support, socioeconomic means to healthy living and personal spiritual beliefs will identify what drives the client internally for holistic health. References American Psychiatric Association, (2016). Retrieved May24, 2019 from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/psychotherapy American Psychological Association, (2014). Retrieved May 24, 2019, from http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2014/03/religion-spirituality.aspx Fournier, J.C., & Price, R.B. (2014). Psychotherapy and neuroimaging. Psychotherapy: New Evidence and New Approaches, 12(3), 290-298. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4207360/ Hawley. D. L., Leibert. T. W. & Lane. A. J. (2014). Relationship of social Economic status and counseling outcomes. Retrieved May 24, 2019, from https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/coun_fac/34/ Kandel. R. E (2014). The New Science of Mind. Retrieved May 24, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/08/opinion/sunday/the-new-science-of-mind.html Rajaei, A. R. (2010). Religious cognitive-emotional therapy: a new form of psychotherapy. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 5(3), 81–87. Retrieved May 24, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430504/ Wheeler, K (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company