Productivity in Chinese Construction Industry essay

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Impression of Migrant Employees on Complete Issue
Productiveness in Chinese language Development Trade
Gui Ye 1,2,*, Yuhe Wang 1,2, Yuxin Zhang Three,*, Liming Wang four, Houli Xie 5, Yuan Fu 1 and Jian Zuo 6
1 Faculty of Development Administration and Actual Property, Chongqing College, Chongqing 400045, China;
[email protected] (Y.W.); [email protected] (Y.F.)
2 The Worldwide Analysis Heart for Sustainable Constructed Atmosphere, Chongqing College,
Chongqing 400045, China
Three School of Supplies Science and Engineering, Chongqing College, Chongqing 400044, China
four Faculty of Civil Engineering, Interior Mongolia College of Science & Know-how, Baotou 014010, China;
[email protected]
5 Chongqing Development Know-how Growth Heart, Chongqing 400015, China; [email protected]
6 Faculty of Structure and Constructed Atmosphere, College of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005,
Australia; jian.[email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected] (G.Y.); [email protected] (Y.Z.);
Tel.: +86-139-831-75180 (G.Y.)
Obtained: 30 November 2018; Accepted: 9 February 2019; Printed: 12 February 2019

Summary: Complete issue productiveness (TFP) is of important significance to the sustainable growth of
building industry. This paper presents an evaluation on the influence of migrant employees on TFP
in Chinese language building sector. Curiously, Solow Residual Method is utilized to conduct the
evaluation by means of evaluating two eventualities, specifically the situation with out contemplating migrant employees
(Situation A) and the situation with together with migrant employees (Situation B). The information are collected
from the China Statistical Yearbook on Development and Chinese language Annual Report on Migrant Employees
for the interval of 2008–2015. The outcomes point out that migrant employees have a major influence on
TFP, throughout the surveyed interval they improved TFP by 10.42% in complete and promoted the annual
common TFP development by Zero.96%. Therefore, it may be seen that the influence of migrant employees on TFP is
very important, while the principle motive for such influence is believed to be the development of migrant
employees’ high quality obtained primarily all through studying by doing.
Key phrases: building industry; migrant employees; complete issue productiveness (TFP); Solow Residual
Method; studying by doing
1. Introduction
Complete issue productiveness (TFP) performs a significant position in selling the sustainable growth of
the development industry. From the attitude of financial development, financial theories, sometimes
the classical development principle [1], the neoclassical development principle [2,3] and new development principle [4,5] all
counsel that the drivers of building development are labor, capital and TFP. Because the earlier researchers
famous, the expansion introduced by the rise of labor and capital is exogenous and has a diminishing
marginal utility, and a gradual state of zero development will method in the end [6,7]. Thus, labor and
capital-driven growth is unsustainable. Quite the opposite, TFP-driven growth is endogenous
and sustainable. As a result of this growth primarily depends on innovation, equivalent to technological progress,
enchancment of laborer’s high quality and administration innovation [8,9], which doesn't diminish moderately
even will increase the marginal utility. To realize sustainable growth, consequently, it's a frequent
technique for any nation to pursue greater TFP in building.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926; doi:10.3390/su11030926 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 2 of 18
To enhance TFP, it's elementary and important to measure it correctly, nonetheless, the absence of
migrant employees knowledge might affect the measurement results of TFP. Typically, the measurement
of TFP is a posh input-output course of, involving various enter sources [9]. In these sources,
labor is a very powerful one for labor-intensive building industry. Thus, accuracy of labor enter
knowledge has a major impact on the rationality and validity of TFP measurement. Though quite a few
measurement practices have given labor enter appreciable consideration [8–13], it's famous that the official
statistic knowledge which don't often embrace the knowledge of migrant employees have been utilized to
measure TFP. This phenomenon happens largely as a result of the group of migrant employees has had a poor
standing and been handled unfairly [14,15]. With the motivation to avoid every kind of labor laws
and unionization [16,17], a statistical discrimination towards migrant employees arises in building of
most international locations, which is achieved primarily by means of the manners of unregister and non-contract [18,19].
Naturally, such teams have been virtually omitted in official statistics [20,21]. The earlier associated
research haven't targeted on this issue [8–12,22–27], possibly these researchers mistakenly imagine
that the official knowledge used already include the information of migrant employees. Sadly, migrant
employees have gotten overrepresented in building of developed and growing international locations [17,28].
Subsequently, TFP measurement outcome will clearly not be exact if the impact of migrant employees is
not included.
In keeping with earlier research [14,29,30], on this paper migrant employees by definition imply grownup
employees coming into into a unique nationwide or non-local labor market. In that case, some international locations equivalent to
China the place migrant employees account for a major proportion of building employees, measuring
the influence of migrant employees on TFP needs to be specifically marked. Because of hukou (family
registration) system, China has a lot of migrant employees (often known as Nongmingong in
China) making up nearly all of the labor pressure [30,31], whereas the development industry, apart from
manufacturing, has lengthy been the biggest industry to supply employment alternatives for this
group [32,33]. The nationwide survey organized by the Chinese language Bureau of Statistics [34] reported that
greater than 80% employees (54 million) employed in building had been migrant employees in 2017. Subsequently,
the influence of migrant employees on TFP should not be ignored in Chinese language building sector. In different
phrases, we suspect that migrant employees could have a major influence on TFP in Chinese language building
industry. Nevertheless, there was few measurement practices being attentive to this group.
In opposition to this distinctive background, the principle goal of this paper is to validate and measure
the potential influence of migrant employees on TFP in Chinese language building industry. To the perfect of our
information, there aren't any prior research including the issue of migrant employees to measure TFP in China
and elsewhere. Subsequently, we innovate within the area of TFP measurement research with consideration of
migrant employees. On this foundation, the second goal is to debate and analyze the attainable causes for
such an influence, which contributes to acquiring extra data to raised perceive how you can enhance
TFP successfully by making use of the issue of migrant employees.
The contribution of this text is twofold. In principle, our work tries to make up for the prevailing
defects and to counterpoint the physique of data on TFP measurement in building industry by means of
consideration of the issue of migrant employees. In follow, our conclusions are of nice significance
for coverage makers and building agency managers, as a result of they'll purchase priceless reference to
progress TFP development. As well as, our findings can't solely be tailored to Chinese language building sector,
but in addition might be utilized to most international locations, equivalent to Malaysia and Singapore the place the proportions of
migrant employees have reached about 69% and 64%, respectively [17,35].
The remainder of this paper is structured as follows. We describe the methodology within the subsequent part.
Part Three introduces the information used on this research. Sections four and 5 current the outcomes and dialogue.
The ultimate part attracts the conclusions.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 Three of 18
2. Methodology
2.1. Analysis Design and Scheme
As a complete indicator for evaluating effectivity in useful resource utilization [36], TFP is simply
measured not directly by means of a comparability between enter and output [11,37], specifically counting on
the index system of enter and output [38,39]. Subsequently, this can be very troublesome to measure the influence
of migrant employees on TFP immediately. In that circumstance, we draw classes from the frequent paradigm
of experimental design to evaluate the influence not directly by setting Situation A and Situation B. On this
foundation, a comparative evaluation regarding two eventualities is carried out to acquire the influence of migrant
employees on TFP not directly. Therefore, the next three-stage analysis design and scheme is deliberate,
simply exhibited in Determine 1.
on TFP immediately. In that circumstance, we draw classes from the frequent paradigm of experimental
design to evaluate the influence not directly by setting Situation A and Situation B. On this foundation, a comparative
evaluation regarding two eventualities is carried out to acquire the influence of migrant employees on TFP
not directly. Therefore, the next three-stage analysis design and scheme is deliberate, simply exhibited in
Determine 1.
Migrant employees
Stage 1
Set up the index system of TFP measurement
on the industry stage
Output variable
choice
Literature overview
Sensible evaluation
Stage 2
Measure TFP in Chinese language building beneath
Situation A and Situation B
Solow Residual
Method
Stage Three
Validate & measure potential influence of migrant
employees on TFP in Chinese language building
Comparative
evaluation
Talk about & analyze the explanations of the above
influence in Chinese language building
Enter variable
choice
Situation A
Goal 1
Goal 2
Situation B
Figure1.The analysis design and scheme.
2.1.1. Establishing the Index System of TFP Measurement
As acknowledged above, to measure the influence of migrant employees on TFP, an index system of TFP
measurement should be established firstly. Consequently, in stage 1 our important job is to determine the enter
components and output components within the establishing system and choose the detailed variables and indicators for
every issue. By a scientific overview of literature, a abstract of those components was recorded in Desk 1. As
might be seen, these research principally reached consensus on the identification of enter and output components.
Determine 1. The analysis design and scheme.
2.1.1. Establishing the Index System of TFP Measurement
As acknowledged above, to measure the influence of migrant employees on TFP, an index system of TFP
measurement should be established firstly. Consequently, in stage 1 our important job is to determine the
enter components and output components within the establishing system and choose the detailed variables and
indicators for every issue. By a scientific overview of literature, a abstract of those components was recorded
in Desk 1. As might be seen, these research principally reached consensus on the identification of enter
and output components.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 four of 18
Desk 1. Evaluation of the Literature on complete issue productiveness (TFP) Measurement on the Trade Stage.
Creator(s) Technique Enter-output Issue (Indicator) System
Zhi et al. [8] Manufacturing perform Three inputs: labor (hours labored), capital (mounted property), intermediate (actual worth); 1 output: complete worth added
Liu et al. [9] DEA-Malmquist 2 inputs: complete property, operational funding; 2 outputs: complete pre-tax earnings, earnings of initiatives settlement accounts
Li et al. [10] DEA-Malmquist 2 inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (building work executed); 1 output: complete worth added
Wang et al. [11] DEA-Malmquist Three inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (complete property), complete energy of equipment and gear owned;
2 outputs: complete worth added and output worth
Xiaolong et al. [12] DEA-Malmquist 2 inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (mounted property); 1 output: complete worth added
Lee et al. [13] Malmquist 2 inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (complete property); 2 outputs: complete income, market share
Tan et al. [22] DEA-Malmquist 2 inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (complete property); 1 output: complete worth added
Kapelko et al. [24] DEA-Malmquist Three inputs: labor (worker prices), capital (mounted property), materials (prices); 1 output: complete income
Chau et al. [25] Manufacturing perform four inputs: labor, materials, plant and gear, overheads; 1 output: gross output
Bernard et al. [26] Manufacturing perform Three inputs: labor (hours labored), capital (-), materials (-); 1 output: complete worth added
Lowe [36] Manufacturing perform 2 inputs: labor and capital; 1 output: complete output
Chau [40] Manufacturing perform 2 (Three) inputs: labor, capital, or intermediate; 1 output: gross output worth or complete worth added
Tan [41] Manufacturing perform 2 inputs: labor (labor hours), capital (mounted property); 1 output: complete worth added
Crawford et al. [42] Manufacturing perform Three inputs: labor (hours labored), capital (non-ICT property), materials (-); 1 output: complete worth added
Ruddock et al. [43] Manufacturing perform Three inputs: labor (hours labored), capital (non-ICT & ICT property), intermediate (-); 1 output: complete worth added
Chancellor [44] DEA 2 inputs: labor enter (variety of staff), capital enter (capital inventory); 1 output: complete worth added
Will a et al. [45] Färe-Primont DEA four inputs: variety of staff, paid up complete capital, complete property, complete energy of equipment and gear owned;
2 outputs: output worth, flooring area of buildings accomplished
Moreno et al. [46] Manufacturing perform Three inputs: labor (variety of staff), capital (mounted property), materials (prices); 1 output: complete gross sales
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 5 of 18
By way of output, the variety of output indicators is said to the analysis technique. Typically,
the measurement technique at building industry stage might be divided into two varieties: manufacturing
perform technique and DEA-based index technique (see Desk 1). For perform technique, the decision-making
unit (DMU) is just one, while the output is a single-output. Against this, for index technique,
DMU is often a number of and the output generally is a single-output or multi-output. For instance,
Wang et al. [11] and Will et al. [45] used DEA-Malmquist and Färe-Primont DEA to measure TFP
in Chinese language building industry, respectively. Of their research 31 provinces had been handled as 31 DMUs,
2 outputs had been chosen. Equally, Li et al. [10] and Chancellor [44] regarded eight states as eight DMUs to
measure TFP in Australia, however the complete worth added was the one output. From a sensible evaluation
perspective, on this paper we innovatively measure TFP by taking the issue of migrant employees into
account. Nonetheless, the sensible knowledge of migrant employees have solely the entire knowledge on the industry
stage (see Part Three), which suggests just one DMU. In the meantime, the entire worth added and complete output
worth are often used to measure the gross output, whereas the previous is extra most popular than the latter
because it may keep away from double–counting [25,40]. Consequently, we select the manufacturing perform technique
to finish the measurement, while the entire worth added is chosen as the one output variable.
By way of enter, labor and capital should be thought-about. As well as, intermediate enter together with
supplies bought, power items and non-industrial companies [8,43], can be an necessary enter
issue. Nevertheless, attributable to knowledge constraints, intermediate enter will not be a compulsory choice [9–12,22,23].
Moreover, taking account of the truth that the information of intermediate enter are not often obtainable in
a growing nation like China, labor and capital had been in the end chosen because the enter variables.
On this foundation, for labor enter, variety of staff and hours labored are different indicators,
what's extra, the latter is really helpful by OECD [47]. Nevertheless, attributable to knowledge limitations, quantity
of staff was chosen as labor enter moderately than hours labored. Equally, mounted property inventory and
complete property inventory are two primarily employed indicators (see Desk 1), however complete property embrace intangible
property equivalent to trademark proper and enterprise fame which needs to be seen extra as final result than
enter [48]. Thus, we lastly chosen mounted property because the indicator to measure capital enter.
2.1.2. Creating Situation A and Situation B
In stage 2 our important job is to create Situation A and Situation B based mostly on stage 1’s findings.
In Situation A, all enter and output knowledge don't embrace the information of migrant employees, the measurement
result's thought to be a baseline for the following comparability evaluation. Correspondingly, in Situation
B the associated knowledge of migrant employees are added into Situation A from each the enter and output aspect.
Therefore, from the attitude of experimental design, Situation A is taken into account to be management group,
whereas Situation B is simply the experimental group the place migrant employees are the one management variable.
2.1.Three. Measuring the Impression of Migrant Employees on TFP
In opposition to this background, in stage Three our important job is to measure the influence of migrant employees on
TFP and to discover the potential causes. As a mature manufacturing perform technique, Solow Residual
Method is chosen to carry out the above scheme. This technique has the next benefits. Firstly,
few variables are used, which makes knowledge assortment comparatively simple [2], particularly within the international context
of lack of information on migrant employees [20]. As well as, this technique is especially utilized to measure TFP
from a macro perspective, equivalent to nation and industry [37], consequently, it's appropriate for our analysis.
Intimately, we apply Solow Residual Method to measure TFP beneath Situation A and Situation
B firstly. Subsequently, a comparative evaluation in regards to the influence of migrant employees on TFP in
Chinese language building industry is carried out. In that case, the influence of migrant employees on TFP might be
expressed all through a subtraction method, i.e., the influence of migrant employees on TFP = measurement
end in Situation B – measurement end in Situation A. On this foundation, causes for the above influence are
mentioned and analyzed.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 6 of 18
2.2. Solow Residual Method
Solow Residual Method, proposed by Robert M. Solow [2], is a neoclassical economics device
measuring the contribution of TFP to financial development. Such technique requires an mixture manufacturing
perform, in keeping with the earlier analysis [49–51], the perform is written as
Y = A(t)f(Okay, L) (1)
the place Y is the mixture output measured by complete worth added, Okay and L characterize capital and labor
enter in interval t measured by mounted property and variety of staff, A(t) expresses the extent of TFP.
TFP measurement includes varied behaviors and expertise assumptions. For this research, fixed
return of scale and Hicks-neutral manufacturing expertise are assumed. Differentiate Equation (1) with
respect to time, we derive
dY
Y

= dL L + A(t)fK dK Okay (2)
To reduce value or maximize revenue, in keeping with marginal utility principle, the next equation
is established (Three)
aK = A(t)fK
, aL = A(t)fL
dA(t)
A(t) + A(t)fL YL YK Okay
Y YL the place aK and aL are the earnings shares of capital and labor, with the situation of fixed return of
scale, Equation (2) is rewritten as
dY
Y =
dA(t)
A(t) + aL
dL
L + (1 – aL)dK Okay (four)
For discrete knowledge equivalent to time collection on this work, Equation (5) is derived as [52]
DY
Y =
DA(t)
A(t) + aL
DL
L + (1 – aL)DKK (5)
If we outline Solow Residual is SR, TFP change price in manufacturing might be obtained
SR ≡ DY
Y – aL
DL
L – (1 – aL)DKK (6)
To measure SR, the three development charges and parameter aL on the precise aspect of Equation (6) are
calculated. Typically, Y is often precise worth of the present interval. Herein, to acquire DY/Y, the impact
of value issue might be excluded firstly.
In keeping with statistical guidelines and former analysis [12], the gross worth added (Y) consists of 4
elements, simply exhibited as follows
Y = D + R + M + N (7)
the place D is depreciation of mounted property in research interval, R represents employees salaries together with laborage
payable and welfarism payable, M displays revenue, N presents tax and surtax.
aL can be decided upfront. From an economics perspective, aL is the earnings share of labor
in essence [52]. Beneath this circumstance, we derive
aL =
RY
(eight)
As well as, the expansion charges for enter variables are additionally estimated. For labor enter, the quantity
of staff is adopted, subsequently, DL/L can be obtained simply. Quite the opposite, for capital enter,
DK/Okay is far more durable to acquire than DL/L, as a result of mounted property are cumulative figures which can be effected
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 7 of 18
by depreciation, incremental mounted property funding and value issue. To unravel this downside, the
Perpetual Stock Technique (PIM) is used as follows [53–55]

Kt+1 = Kt(1 – dt+1) + PItt++11
= Kt(1 – DKt+t 1 ) + PItt++11 , t = Zero, 1, (9)
· · ·
the place Kt+1 and Kt characterize mounted property within the interval t+1 and t, dt+1 and It+1 specific depreciation price
and incremental mounted property funding, Dt+1 and Pt+1 mirror depreciation of mounted property and the worth
index. Herein, K0 is mounted property inventory in Zero interval, it's calculated as follows [50,53].
K0 = I0
(g + d) (10)
the place I0 is preliminary incremental mounted property funding, g and d are the common capital development price and
depreciation price. On this foundation, DK/Okay is obtained.
Three. Analysis Information
Based on the analysis scheme reported in Part 2.1, the enter and output knowledge with out
together with migrant employees (Situation A) and the related knowledge of migrant employees should be obtained.
On this foundation, the information of Situation B might be acquired and introduced in Determine 2. Because of knowledge availability,
the surveyed interval is restricted from 2008 to 2015.
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW Three of 18
Three
As well as, the expansion charges for enter variables are additionally estimated. For labor enter, the quantity
of staff is adopted, subsequently, ΔL/L can be obtained simply. Quite the opposite, for capital enter,
ΔK/Okay is far more durable to acquire than ΔL/L, as a result of mounted property are cumulative figures which can be effected
by depreciation, incremental mounted property funding and value issue. To unravel this downside, the
Perpetual Stock Technique (PIM) is used as follows [53–55]
= ,
t 1
t 1 t t 1
t 1
t 1 t 1
t
t t 1
I
Okay Okay (1 δ )
P
D I
Okay (1 ) t Zero,1,
Okay P
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
= – +
– + = 
(9)
The place Kt+1 and Kt characterize mounted property within the interval t+1 and t, δt+1 and It+1 specific depreciation
price and incremental mounted property funding, Dt+1 and Pt+1 mirror depreciation of mounted property and the
value index. Herein, K0 is mounted property inventory in Zero interval, it's calculated as follows [50,53].
)
Zero
Zero
I
Okay
(g δ
=
+
(10)
The place I0 is preliminary incremental mounted property funding, g and δ are the common capital development
price and depreciation price. On this foundation, ΔK/Okay is obtained.
Three. Analysis Information
Based on the analysis scheme reported in Part 2.1, the enter and output knowledge with out
together with migrant employees (Situation A) and the related knowledge of migrant employees should be obtained.
On this foundation, the information of Situation B might be acquired and introduced in Determine 2. Because of knowledge
availability, the surveyed interval is restricted from 2008 to 2015.
The information of
Situation A
Enter knowledge
Output knowledge
Variety of staff
Fastened property
Complete worth added
China Statistical
Yearbook on
Development; China
Statistical Yearbook
The information of
migrant employees
Enter knowledge
Output knowledge
Variety of migrant employees
Salaries of migrant employees
Chinese language Annual Report
on Migrant Employees
The information of
Situation B
Enter knowledge
Output knowledge
Fastened property
Complete worth added + Salaries of migrant employees
Variety of staff + Variety of migrant employees
Determine 2. The method of information assortment.
On this paper, TFP measurement is predicated on two-input components comprising mounted property and
variety of staff and an output issue being the worth added. As talked about in Part 1, the
official statistics of Chinese language building sector (Yearbook) doesn't embrace the knowledge of
Determine 2. The method of information assortment.
On this paper, TFP measurement is predicated on two-input components comprising mounted property and quantity
of staff and an output issue being the worth added. As talked about in Part 1, the official
statistics of Chinese language building sector (Yearbook) doesn't embrace the knowledge of migrant employees.
Subsequently, in Situation A the related uncooked knowledge excluding migrant employees is especially sourced from
China Statistical Yearbook on Development printed by the Chinese language Bureau of Statistics. For output
knowledge, the uncooked worth added knowledge are present worth. Thus, the worth added index in building deriving
from China Statistical Yearbook was launched to remove the impact of value issue. By doing so,
2008 was chosen as base yr, all uncooked output knowledge had been on the value stage of 2008. Equally, the mounted
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 eight of 18
property funding value index originating from China Statistical Yearbook was utilized to take away the
impact of value issue on capital enter. Nevertheless, simply as described in Equation (9), mounted property are
additionally influenced by depreciation and incremental mounted property funding. Accordingly, these knowledge
from China Statistical Yearbook on Development are collected. As well as, the choice of Zero interval
in PIM may be very very important. Because of knowledge limitation, 1989 was thought-about as Zero interval, while the interval of
1989 to 2000 was chosen to calculate the common capital development price (g) and depreciation price (d).
In truth, these preparations had been affordable, as a result of the common depreciation price was as much as eight.23%
within the interval. In different phrases, mounted property fashioned earlier than 1989 can be absolutely depreciated in 2000 at
the most recent. Then, in keeping with Equations (9) and (10), all uncooked mounted property knowledge had been on the 1989 value
stage. Thankfully, knowledge assortment of labor enter is far simpler. Following the earlier research [10],
the variety of staff needs to be embodied by annual common numbers. Nonetheless, the uncooked
labor enter knowledge are a year-end quantity, so we handled it just by following method: the present
labor enter = (year-end variety of staff + final year-end variety of staff)/2 [56]. Concerning
labor enter, worker wage knowledge from China Statistical Yearbook on Development must also be
collected, which is used to estimate the share of labor enter.
As we have now famous, the manufacturing instruments which will kind mounted property are supplied by building
enterprises moderately than migrant employees who're typically solely pure suppliers of labor pressure [33].
Which means that migrant employees solely have an effect on labor enter and don't have an effect on capital enter
in any respect. Aside from an enter perspective, in keeping with Equation (7), migrant employees can even impact
output by salaries of migrant employees. Subsequently, the information of migrant employees collected are simply the
quantity and salaries, that are primarily from Chinese language Annual Report on Migrant Employees. For the
variety of migrant employees in Chinese language building, the Report didn't present immediately, however the complete
quantity in China and the detailed proportion in building might be obtained. Thus, the uncooked quantity
of migrant employees can be acquired by means of a easy multiplication. In truth, the information might embrace a
fraction of migrant employees who've been counted in China Statistical Yearbook on Development.
Therefore, to keep away from repeated statistics as a lot as attainable, we have to determine the proportion of migrant
employees ignored within the Yearbook. Based on Chinese language prevailing labor regulation and social insurance coverage
regulation, contract signing price and pension insurance coverage participation price of migrant employees can successfully
mirror the ignored proportion [33], particularly the latter which is a compulsory rule. The 2 charges
have been about 25% and 5% since 2008, respectively [57], which meant that almost all of migrant
employees (95%) weren't included into official statistics within the surveyed interval. Subsequently, the quantity
of migrant employees is derived based mostly on such proportion in the end, specifically the migrant employees enter
= the common quantity illustrated within the Report × 95%. For the salaries of migrant employees, aside
from the issue of the entire quantity, the common month-to-month wage stage and months labored in a yr
are additionally necessary affecting components. The information of those two components each come from the Report, besides
the common months labored in 2008 and 2009 (no statistics within the Report). Nonetheless, throughout the
entire research interval the common months labored of migrant employees had been very steady. To unravel the
lacking knowledge, a linear single transferring common technique with the reverse path was used. In accordance
to software ideas, the space per transferring was Three. On this foundation, wage knowledge of migrant employees
had been obtained, specifically the salaries of migrant employees = the variety of migrant employees × the common
month-to-month wage × the common months labored. Clearly, the method of information assortment on migrant
employees is predicated on a significant speculation, specifically the official statistics (Yearbook) doesn't embrace the
knowledge of migrant employees, or no less than it excludes the overwhelming majority. To this point, this speculation is simply
proposed based mostly on literature evaluation, which isn't sufficient. Thus, within the subsequent part we are going to additional
analyze and validate this speculation, which can even verify the rationality of the information assortment
course of on migrant employees.
In abstract, the information of Situation A and migrant employees had been collected and listed in Desk 2.
On this foundation, as might be introduced in Determine 2 the information of Situation B can be obtained. As well as,
assumptions used within the modelling and knowledge assortment are very important, that are the premise of this analysis.
Thus, a scientific abstract on these assumptions may be very obligatory, reported as follows:
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 9 of 18
• Assumption 1: The information of migrant employees are assumed to not be included within the official statistics
of Chinese language building sector (Yearbook).
• Assumption 2: For Situation B, capital enter is assumed to not be affected by migrant employees.
• Assumption Three: Free competitors market is assumed in Chinese language building industry.
• Assumption four: Return of scale is assumed to be fixed.
• Assumption 5: Hicks-neutral manufacturing expertise is assumed.
Desk 2. The associated knowledge of enter and output from 2008 to 2015.
Indicator
Yr
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Complete worth added
(Billion yuan RMB) 1248.89 1535.87 1754.67 1836.39 2162.95 2660.54 2819.37 2969.29

Fastened property 401.61 420.60 456.49 493.01
(Billion yuan RMB)
Variety of staff 336.93 375.64 507.29 531.31
(10 hundreds of individuals) 3224.33 3493.76 3916.50 4006.46 4059.86 4397.80 4532.67 4815.32
Salaries of staff (Billion
yuan RMB)
Variety of migrant employees 730.63 949.11 1130.64 1308.15 1635.28 2109.97 2215.04 2274.19
(10 hundreds of individuals) 2955.26 3318.02 3704.91 4250.50 4590.42 5671.94 5803.63 5561.89
Salaries of migrant employees
(Billion yuan RMB) 444.27 528.40 706.56 992.22 1206.12 1664.91 1910.56 1970.62
four. Outcomes
four.1. TFP Measurement beneath the Circumstance of Situation A
By making use of the information collected in Part Three to Solow Residual Method, the measurement outcome
on TFP beneath the circumstance of Situation A is obtained. Determine Three simply presents the outcomes.
5
this foundation, as might be introduced in Determine 2 th knowledge of Situation B can be obtained. As well as,
assumptions used within the modelling and knowledge assortment are very important, that are the premise of this analysis.
Thus, a scientific abstract on these assumptions may be very obligatory, reported as follows:
• Assumption 1: The information of migrant employees are assumed to not be included within the official
statistics of Chinese language building sector (Yearbook).
• Assumption 2: For Situation B, capital enter is assumed to not be affected by migrant employees.
• Assumption Three: Free competitors market is assumed in Chinese language building industry.
• Assumption four: Return of scale is assumed to be fixed.
• Assumption 5: Hicks-neutral manufacturing expertise is assumed.
Desk 2. The associated knowledge of enter and output from 2008 to 2015.
Indicator Yr
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Complete worth added
(Billion yuan RMB) 1248.89 1535.87 1754.67 1836.39 2162.95 2660.54 2819.37 2969.29
Fastened property
(Billion yuan RMB) 336.93 375.64 401.61 420.60 456.49 493.01 507.29 531.31
Variety of staff
(10 hundreds of individuals) 3224.33 3493.76 3916.50 4006.46 4059.86 4397.80 4532.67 4815.32
Salaries of staff
(Billion yuan RMB) 730.63 949.11 1130.64 1308.15 1635.28 2109.97 2215.04 2274.19
Variety of migrant
employees
(10 hundreds of individuals)
2955.26 3318.02 3704.91 4250.50 4590.42 5671.94 5803.63 5561.89
Salaries of migrant
employees (Billion yuan
RMB)
444.27 528.40 706.56 992.22 1206.12 1664.91 1910.56 1970.62
four. Outcomes
four.1. TFP Measurement beneath the Circumstance of Situation A
By making use of the information collected in Part Three to Solow Residual Method, the measurement outcome
on TFP beneath the circumstance of Situation A is obtained. Determine Three simply presents the outcomes.
Determine Three. Determine Three.Gradual Residual ( Gradual Residual ( SR)SR)measurement in Situation A. measurement in Situation A.
The determine exhibits that in the entire pattern interval (T: 2008/2009–2014/2015) TFP elevated
by 60.44%, while an enormous development fluctuation all the time existed. Based on the fluctuation pattern, our
outcomes point out that throughout the first interval (T1: 2008/2009–2010/2011) TFP rose considerably (19.80%),
SR (TFP change price) was 13.40% in 2008/2009, then dropped shortly and constantly to a backside of
1.36% in 2010/2011. Nevertheless, in subsequent years (T2: 2011/2012–2012/2013) TFP raised noticeably
(36.59%), SR grown dramatically to a brand new high (14.80%) in 2012/2013. Against this, within the final two years
(T3: 2013/2014–2014/2015) TFP climbed up barely (four.05%), SR plunged steeply to a brand new backside
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 10 of 18
(-Zero.37%) in 2014/2015. Moreover, on a yearly foundation, the outcomes present that the annual common TFP
development was 6.99% throughout the surveyed interval in Situation A.
Nevertheless, we pay particular consideration to the phenomenon that SR plunged steeply to be unfavorable in
2014/2015. For the collapse, we insist that some necessary issue may be ignored, as migrant employees
talked about in Part 1. Aside from this attitude, the share of labor enter (aL) can additional show
our inference. From a perspective of economics, aL is the earnings share of labor enter in essence [52].
Therefore, in keeping with Equation (eight) the change of this parameter might show some priceless evidences to
help the above discovering. Desk Three simply studies the parameter beneath Situation A and Situation B throughout
the surveyed interval.
Desk Three. The share of labor enter beneath two eventualities.
aL
Yr
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Situation A Zero.59 Zero.61 Zero.60 Zero.59 Zero.62 Zero.64 Zero.63 Zero.63
Situation B Zero.69 Zero.71 Zero.71 Zero.72 Zero.74 Zero.76 Zero.76 Zero.76
As might be seen within the desk, in Situation A the share gained the highest by Zero.64 in 2013, while throughout
all the analysis interval the common share was solely Zero.61. Nonetheless, in keeping with the earlier
research, this share was often 2/Three and even as much as Three/four in developed international locations [58–61]. For growing
international locations, it's thought-about to be greater, as a result of the marginal product of capital is predicted to be
greater [49,62]. In addition to, for a labor-intensive industry, the share is taken into account to be a lot larger than a
common industry. For instance, as a labor-intensive industry, agriculture in China was proved to have a
greater share reaching to just about Zero.75 in a earlier research [63]. Thus, as a labor-intensive industry in a
growing international locations like China, the share of labor enter needs to be extra practically Three/four moderately than 2/Three
in Chinese language building sector, however all of our knowledge in Situation A had been lower than 2/Three. In different phrases,
some necessary components about labor enter within the Chinese language building sector are certainly ignored throughout
this era. Against this, in Situation B the common share was Zero.73 throughout the entire analysis interval
which is in keeping with earlier analysis and the above evaluation. Thus, the information of migrant employees
will not be included within the official statistics. Clearly, besides literature evaluation, assumption 1 has additionally
been confirmed and supported from the attitude of theoretical evaluation. On this case, it's obligatory
to think about the issue of migrant employees to re-measure TFP beneath the circumstance of Situation B.
four.2. TFP Measurement beneath the Circumstance of Situation B
Subsequently, including the information of migrant employees described in Desk 2 into Situation A (detailed
course of might be seen in Determine 2), the measurement outcome on TFP in Situation B might be introduced
graphically, as proven in Determine four.
This determine illustrates that in Situation B TFP cumulatively elevated by 70.86%, whist the annual
common TFP development was 7.95% throughout the research interval (T: 2008/2009–2014/2015). Equally, an
apparent development fluctuation all the time existed, SR confirmed principally the identical pattern as Situation A, specifically
downward, upward and downward in flip. Based on the pattern, our outcomes exhibit that throughout the
first downward interval (T1: 2008/2009–2010/2011) TFP grew considerably by 22.07%, SR was 10.80%
in 2008/2009, then dropped steadily to a backside (Three.23%) in 2010/2011. Nevertheless, in subsequently
upward years (T2: 2011/2012–2012/2013) TFP elevated remarkably by 32.68%, SR rose quickly to a
new high (12.82%) in 2012/2013. Quite the opposite, within the final two years (T3: 2013/2014–2014/2015) TFP
climbed solely by 16.11% in complete, SR introduced a gradual downward pattern, and at last reached to a brand new
backside (four.20%) in 2014/2015.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 11 of 18
Sustainability 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18
7
Determine four. SR measurement in Situation B.
This determine illustrates that in Situation B TFP cumulatively elevated by 70.86%, whist the annual
common TFP development was 7.95% throughout the research interval (T: 2008/2009–2014/2015). Equally, an
apparent development fluctuation all the time existed, SR confirmed principally the identical pattern as Situation A,
specifically downward, upward and downward in flip. Based on the pattern, our outcomes exhibit that
throughout the first downward interval (T1: 2008/2009–2010/2011) TFP grew considerably by 22.07%, SR
was 10.80% in 2008/2009, then dropped steadily to a backside (Three.23%) in 2010/2011. Nevertheless, in
subsequently upward years (T2: 2011/2012–2012/2013) TFP elevated remarkably by 32.68%, SR rose
quickly to a brand new high (12.82%) in 2012/2013. Quite the opposite, within the final two years (T3: 2013/2014–
2014/2015) TFP climbed solely by 16.11% in complete, SR introduced a gradual downward pattern, and at last
reached to a brand new backside (four.20%) in 2014/2015.
four.Three. The Impression of Migrant Employees on TFP
Primarily based on the leads to Situation A and Situation B, by conducting the comparative evaluation
reported in analysis design and scheme, the influence of migrant employees on TFP is derived, as might be
seen in Desk four.
Desk four. The accumulative influence of migrant employees on TFP throughout the surveyed interval.
Indicator (%) Situation A Situation B The influence of migrant employees
(1) (2) (Three)=(2)-(1)
Accumulative TFP development 60.44 70.86 10.42
Annual common TFP
development 6.99 7.95 Zero.96
On the one hand, the desk reveals that migrant employees dramatically improved TFP by 10.42%
in complete throughout the surveyed interval. Alternatively, the outcomes present that the annual common TFP
development was elevated by Zero.96% deriving from migrant employees. Though Zero.96% appeared very small,
in contrast with the baseline of 6.99%, it emerged wonderful development by 13.73%. Subsequently, our findings
successfully confirm and validate our preliminary suspicion and guess reported in part 1, specifically monumental
affect of migrant employees on TFP does exist in Chinese language building industry.
Aside from the view of entire surveyed interval, on the premise of the fluctuation pattern acknowledged in
Determine Three and four, from a sub-period perspective, the influence of migrant employees on TFP is exhibited
clearly in Desk 5.
Determine four. SR measurement in Situation B.
four.Three. The Impression of Migrant Employees on TFP
Primarily based on the leads to Situation A and Situation B, by conducting the comparative evaluation
reported in analysis design and scheme, the influence of migrant employees on TFP is derived, as might be
seen in Desk four.
Desk four. The accumulative influence of migrant employees on TFP throughout the surveyed interval.
Indicator (%)
Situation A Situation B The Impression of Migrant Employees
(1) (2) (Three) = (2) – (1)
Accumulative TFP development 60.44 70.86 10.42
Annual common TFP development 6.99 7.95 Zero.96
On the one hand, the desk reveals that migrant employees dramatically improved TFP by 10.42%
in complete throughout the surveyed interval. Alternatively, the outcomes present that the annual common TFP
development was elevated by Zero.96% deriving from migrant employees. Though Zero.96% appeared very small,
in contrast with the baseline of 6.99%, it emerged wonderful development by 13.73%. Subsequently, our findings
successfully confirm and validate our preliminary suspicion and guess reported in Part 1, specifically monumental
affect of migrant employees on TFP does exist in Chinese language building industry.
Aside from the view of entire surveyed interval, on the premise of the fluctuation pattern acknowledged in
Figures Three and four, from a sub-period perspective, the influence of migrant employees on TFP is exhibited

clearly in Desk 5.
Desk 5. The accumulative influence of migrant employees on TFP throughout the sub-period.
Accumulative TFP Progress (%)
Situation A Situation B The Impression of Migrant Employees
(1) (2) (Three) = (2) – (1)
T1(2008/2009-2010/2011) 19.80 22.07 2.27
T2(2011/2012-2012/2013) 36.59 32.68 -Three.91
T3(2013/2014-2014/2015) four.05 16.11 12.06
T(2008/2009-2014/2015) 60.44 70.86 10.42
The desk exhibits that the influence of migrant employees on TFP was primarily concentrated within the third
sub-period (T3: 2013/2014–2014/2015), on this sub-period, migrant employees improved TFP by 12.06%.
In distinction, the influence was not important in T1 and T2, though these two intervals had extra years
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 12 of 18
(5 years) in contrast with T3 (two years). Intimately, within the first sub-period migrant employees elevated
TFP solely by 2.27%, apparently, within the second sub-period the accumulative influence was even -Three.91%.
Clearly, with out contemplating the optimistic or unfavorable, the influence in T2 was a lot larger than T1.
Consequently, the influence of migrant employees on TFP appears to have an intuitive rule, specifically the
affect of migrant employees on TFP has been growing with the extension of time.
5. Dialogue
Primarily based on the above findings, it may be seen that migrant employees have a major influence on
TFP enchancment. Based on analysis goals and design of this text, therefore, within the following
dialogue we primarily give attention to what the explanations of such monumental influence is. By doing so, we are able to
present sufficient and full interpretations for the above monumental influence. On this foundation, the intuitive
influence rule of migrant employees on TFP is analyzed and mentioned. Concurrently, to enhance TFP
successfully, some strategies are proposed.
5.1. Trigger Evaluation on the Important Impression of Migrant Employees on TFP
From a motive perspective, it's believed that the development of migrant employees’ high quality primarily
leads to the above monumental influence. On the one hand, TFP might be improved by many components, equivalent to
technological progress, enchancment of laborer’s high quality and administration innovation [8,9], however TFP
development most often arises due to elevated information about manufacturing strategies [37]. In different
phrases, on the private stage, TFP development primarily relies on high quality enchancment. TFP was evaluated
by Solow residential method on this work, the place all of the labor enter together with migrant employees was
thought to be a homogeneous particular person. Throughout this course of, high quality distinction and alter will not be
taken into consideration in any respect. Subsequently, we clarify the influence of migrant employees on TFP solely from
the view of high quality distinction and alter. Alternatively, Kangasniemi et al. [64] acknowledged that
migrant employees are thought to be no totally different to the official statistic staff, besides the standard they
embody. In the meantime, the earlier research argued that the standard enchancment of laborer would
enhance TFP [37,65,66]. Thus, the standard enchancment of migrant employees can enhance TFP as nicely.
On the premise of the above evaluation, high quality enchancment is taken into account to be the principle motive for the
important influence of migrant employees on TFP.
Moreover, the development of migrant employees’ high quality is taken into account to be obtained primarily
all through studying by doing. Typically, on the private stage, high quality enchancment often relies upon
on schooling, coaching and studying by doing [37,41,64]. For schooling, migrant employees are often
not well-educated [31,67], while the schooling stage of this group has not improved considerably.
For instance, throughout all the research interval, practically 60% of migrant employees’ schooling stage was
junior center college [34]. Therefore, schooling will not be the principle method to enhance the standard of migrant
employees. Equally, migrant employees’ high quality enchancment is probably not primarily attributed to coaching.
As a result of they often lack coaching as nicely [31,67], embarrassedly, this case has not been successfully
improved. As an illustration, in keeping with Chinese language Annual Report on Migrant Employees, throughout the surveyed
interval the proportion of skilled migrant employees didn't develop outstandingly, and all the time remained
about 30% [34]. On this case, studying by doing is taken into account to be the principle method to enhance migrant
employees’ high quality. In truth, studying by doing is work-based studying, specifically it primarily depends on the
accumulation of labor expertise to enhance high quality. Curiously, migrant employees usually have low
ranges of absence and work longer hours [14,67]. Subsequently, these options simply supply the chance and
foundation for studying by doing.
Subsequently, from a path view, studying by doing to develop migrant employees’ high quality is assumed
to principally depend on an invisible path dependency on migrant employees’ work choice. For migrant
employees in Chinese language building sector, on the one hand, they're often not well-educated, and
lack coaching, work ability and expertise [31,68]. Therefore, the preliminary high quality of this group is simply too poor,
they can't discover a higher job in different industries. On this case, low high quality often forces migrant employees
to serve in building, as a result of they don't have a better option. Alternatively, in keeping with
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 13 of 18
Chinese language Annual Report on Migrant Employees, throughout the entire research interval migrant employees in
building had greater earnings by practically 15% than different industries, in the meantime, migrant employees
in building had been usually supplied free lodging which may save about 15% of earnings [34].
Thus, extra earnings (among the finest choices) and lack of ability and schooling (no better option) have
inspired migrant employees to remain and serve in building for a very long time. In that situation,
whether or not it's a passive or energetic alternative, a digital path dependence on work choice has been fashioned,
which causes migrant employees to work in building industry for a protracted interval. On this foundation,
in keeping with the so-called financial principle of studying by doing [41], the standard of migrant employees
might be progressively improved primarily by studying by doing. Specifically, for this path of principally
replying on the buildup of labor expertise to enhance high quality, low high quality of migrant employees
simply supplies extra enchancment areas.
5.2. Trigger Evaluation on the Intuitive Impression Rule of Migrant Employees on TFP
As acknowledged within the final part, we analyzed and confirmed that the development of migrant
employees’ high quality is the principle motive for the huge influence of migrant employees on TFP, while discussing
and verifying that high quality enchancment is obtained primarily all through studying by doing in Chinese language
building sector. Beneath this proposed logical body, path dependence on work choice to kind
and promote studying by doing is explored and revealed. On the premise of those findings, subsequently,
on this part we discover and suggest the attainable explanations for the intuitive influence rule of migrant
employees on TFP reported in Part four.Three.
In our opinion, the sport between the preliminary low high quality and high quality enchancment by means of
studying by doing determines the influence ruler of migrant employees on TFP. On the one hand, throughout
the surveyed interval greater than 26 million migrant employees (see Desk 2) as new comers served
in building, whereas they had been often not well-educated, and lack coaching, work ability and
expertise [31,68]. Therefore, the preliminary high quality of those migrant employees was believed to be too poor.
Furthermore, a optimistic correction existed between the standard of labor pressure and TFP, which has been
proved by many economists [37,65,66]. Naturally, the preliminary low high quality of the brand new comers would
scale back TFP. Alternatively, based mostly on the trail dependency on migrant employees’ work choice,
all migrant employees’ high quality might be improved all through studying by doing, which might enhance
TFP. Clearly, over time the share of recent migrant employees might be much less and fewer, and reduce of TFP
attributable to the preliminary low high quality might be weaker and weaker. Quite the opposite, the share of migrant
employees with expertise and ability might be increasingly more, development of TFP from studying by doing will
be stronger and stronger. On this case, the dynamic sport between TFP lower from the preliminary poor
high quality of recent migrant employees and TFP development from the standard enchancment of all migrant employees,
simply explains and depicts the fascinating influence rule of migrant employees on TFP.
Primarily based on the above theoretical evaluation, by making use of the information of variety of migrant employees in
Desk 2, possibly extra data might be supplied to interpret the intuitive influence rule of migrant
employees on TFP acknowledged in Desk 5. Intimately, in the beginning of the analysis interval, practically 30 million
migrant employees served in Chinese language building industry, which supplied a stable foundation for high quality
enchancment all through studying by doing. In T1, the expansion within the variety of migrant employees was
comparatively reasonable, the annual common variety of new comers was about four.Three million. Therefore, high quality
enchancment all through studying by doing to extend TFP performed a significant position, the results of the sport
was that TFP solely elevated by 2.27%. In distinction, the expansion of migrant employees was extraordinarily giant
in T2, while the annual common variety of new comers was about 7.1 million; even in 2013 greater than
10 million new migrant employees poured into building. On this case, the preliminary poor high quality of recent
comers to scale back TFP acted a extra necessary position, the results of the sport was that TFP decreased
by Three.91%. Sadly, in T3 the quantity development principally stopped, subsequently, on the entire solely
high quality enchancment all through studying by doing to extend TFP labored. What’s extra, the dimensions of
studying by doing was extraordinarily enormous. Beneath this situation, the influence of migrant employees on TFP
(12.06%) was primarily concentrated on this sub-period.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 14 of 18
5.Three. Strategies and Functions
In truth, to enhance TFP, Chinese language authorities has taken a collection of measures, equivalent to buying
superior mechanical gear and introducing new approach [11,23,45]. From a based-result
perspective, the effectiveness of those measures is poor; TFP remains to be perceived to be low in contrast
with different sectors in China [6,9,69]. For this unsatisfactory efficiency, the principle motive could also be that
migrant employees are usually not taken into consideration. Embarrassedly, as an recognized necessary influencing
issue, enhancing TFP in Chinese language building industry from the attitude of migrant employees is
not often concerned amongst these measures.
Subsequently, in keeping with our findings, making coverage to enhance TFP sooner or later ought to pay
particular consideration to the group of migrant employees, particularly, some measures needs to be made to
enhance the standard of migrant employees. For instance, from a coverage perspective, these measures,
equivalent to encouraging communication and respecting studying amongst migrant employees, needs to be
taken to reinforce the impact of studying by doing. In addition to, as a short-term and efficient technique,
extra trainings, together with on-job and even off-job coaching, needs to be supplied to migrant employees.
Extra importantly, the comparative benefit of building (relative excessive earnings vs poor working
surroundings and labor safety) is progressively disappearing [34]. Extra importantly, well-educated
younger migrant employees are reluctant to work in building industry, while the skilled migrant
employees have been leaving building sector since 2014 [34,70]. Accordingly, as a long-term technique,
these actions, equivalent to enhancing the poor working circumstances and proving sufficient labor rights, should
be carried out instantly to draw and retain migrant employees.
6. Conclusions
On this paper, we measured and verified the influence of migrant employees on TFP in Chinese language
building industry throughout the interval of 2008–2015; Solow Residual Method was used to conduct
the measurement all through evaluating two eventualities, specifically Situation A with out contemplating
migrant employees and Situation B together with migrant employees.
The findings of this work might be summarized as follows. Firstly, for Situation A, throughout the
surveyed interval TFP elevated by 60.44%, while the annual common TFP development was 6.99%. Secondly,
for Situation B, the entire and annual common TFP development was 70.86% and seven.95%, respectively. Thirdly,
migrant employees have an excellent influence on TFP: throughout the research interval this group improved
TFP by 10.42% in complete and elevated the annual common TFP development by Zero.96%. Fourthly, from the
perspective of economics, it's believed that the group of migrant employees will not be actually lined within the
official statistics of Chinese language building sector. Lastly, the explanations for the above huge influence had been
mentioned and analyzed, which indicated that the principle motive for such an influence was the standard
enchancment of migrant employees obtained primarily all through studying by doing.
On this foundation, it's indispensable to emphasise the worth of our research. In principle, our work enriches
the physique of data on TFP measurement primarily by validating and revealing the explanations of migrant
employees’ influence on TFP. In follow, our findings can present priceless reference for making insurance policies to
enhance TFP. For instance, from a coverage perspective, the coaching of migrant employees needs to be paid
particular consideration. Extra importantly, these explored conclusions are common and relevant to any
nation proudly owning migrant employees.
The restrictions of this research are appreciated. Firstly, we validated and explored the explanations
of migrant employees’ influence on TFP. Nevertheless, we didn't talk about intimately and clarify utterly
the mechanism of forming such influence, particularly revealing the mechanism by some quantitative
formulation. Secondly, 5 necessary assumptions had been used on this work, nonetheless, solely assumption
1 and a couple of had been mentioned and verified earlier than the applying. By conference, the remaining assumptions
are used immediately. Clearly, this will likely pose a sure menace to our conclusions. Final however not least,
attributable to our analysis intention and design, it's detached to detailed talk about and analyze the leads to
Figures Three and four, particularly from a yr by yr perspective to debate the evolution of SR. Undoubtedly,
Sustainability 2019, 11, 926 15 of 18
we might purchase extra plentiful data to help our findings if they're analyzed and revealed.
Trying to the longer term, these limitations might be overcome.
Creator Contributions: G.Y. had the thought and completed the conceptualization; G.Y. and Y.W. conceived and
designed the analysis scheme; G.Y. and Y.Z. supplied supervision; Y.W. carried out the scheme; Y.W., H.X. and
L.W. collected and analyzed the information; G.Y., Y.Z., H.X. supplied the tactic of estimating capital inventory; Y.W. and
Y.F. wrote the paper; G.Y., Y.Z. and J.Z. modified the draft. All of the authors permitted the ultimate manuscript.
Acknowledgments: The funding of this work from the Elementary Analysis Funds for the Central
Universities (No.2018CDXYJG0047, 2018CDJSK03PT17), Graduate Scientific Analysis and Innovation Basis
of Chongqing, China (No. CYB18065) and Social Science Planning Undertaking of Chongqing, China (No.2018YBGL055,
2018ZD04) is gratefully acknowledged.
Conflicts of Curiosity: The authors declare no battle of curiosity.
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