Who Governs – United States Politics
Pluralism is a political view that the decision making power lies in the hands of multiple groups. Pluralists agree that the frameworks of the government facilitate the decision making while many non-governmental groups influence whole process. Pluralism contrasts with elitism and Marxists model. In the US for example, trade unions and professional groups, civil rights advocates, environmentalists and business lobby groups exert their influence on policy making mechanism. These groups can act independently or through the sway of influential elites.
There are four ways through which political elites can be described according to various scholars. Each type of elitism and the scholars who support it will be described as well as the model that best suit American system despite its being championed as a pluralists system. ‘Communist conspiracy theory’ was developed from Carl Marx and proposes that elites are a cohesive, collectivist and internationalist group. This group dominates political parties and uses their money to influence a country and the world. ‘Power elite theory’ advanced by C.W. Mills states that influence is concentrated in the hands of elite few in corporate class, executive, the military, rich individuals and many insecure unified group holding positions in any of the above areas.
‘Governing class theory’ by G.W. Domhoff states that the top 0.5% of the entire population control vast resources occupies influential positions and control the popular belief. They also own and control business and corporate wealth, influence policy by articulating ‘matters of interest’, influence electro process, influence lobbyist, federal government as well as the congress. ‘The bias of system’ theory proposed by Michael Parenti states that it is the system that favors people who accumulate more of what is considered appealing by the society. It states that the government is nonaligned as the power is centralized in positions within institutions. The power bias in this system may result from influence over government administrators, general constraints, among others such as people’s traditions, economic realities, sluggishness in systems and ideological control of populace and difficulties of including everyone. A blend of this theory and the ‘Governing class theory’ by G.W. Domhoff describes ‘who governs’ in the US politics.
Many of the contributions made by Athens during the classical age have continued to influence European and American society up to the present day. First, what are the enduring contributions? Where can you observe them in modern American culture? What was it about Athens at the time that nurtured these developments? Why were these contributions so enormously influential?
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