National Highway Authority Of India

After Independence in 1947, India adopted socialist insurance policies and had meagre progress fee of three.5 per cent. All this modified when India opened its gate to reforms in 1991, which accelerated the expansion to eight %. Throughout this era the coverage makers burdened on the significance of infrastructure growth and freeway growth bought priority. To extend the highway transportation community in India Nationwide Freeway Authority of India (NHAI) was setup.

Together with bettering the prevailing highways, NHAI embarked its journey with two iconic initiatives: The Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) and North-South East-West Hall that had been geared toward protecting size and breadth of India. The section I and section II of the challenge geared toward building and up gradation of 13,146 km of nationwide highways into four to six lanes.

The most important challenges dealing with NHAI had been

Financing of initiatives: The lengthy gestation interval and unsure future money flows make it very tough to avail finance for challenge. To unravel this downside lots of finance fashions like BOT, EPC and so forth., have been tried. However the passable answer is but to be reached.

Land Acquisition: In accordance with the legislation the land needs to be valued at costs on the date of notification and the compensation needs to be paid accordingly. Nonetheless, this had led to broad unfold criticism and protests from land house owners. The federal government has been dragged into quite a lot of disputes pertaining to land acquisitions

Coordination amongst ministries: In India getting approvals for infrastructure initiatives requires an in depth coordination between varied central, state and native municipal ranges. It includes coordination amongst all these events and results in delay in getting challenge permitted.

Change of presidency and its priorities: Due change in authorities there was a gradual shift of focus from infrastructure to rural growth, resulting in lack of funds and focus that in the end led to delay of initiatives

To beat these challenges lots of adjustments are required by authorities to maintain regular progress of freeway growth in India.

Nationwide Freeway Authority of India

India had its tryst with future on 15 August 1947 when it bought independence after nearly 200 years beneath British rule. India began its course of to construct up the nation then by adopting the insurance policies of socialism, planning commissions. Nonetheless it was marked by crimson tapes, controls, paperwork hurdles, and authorities intervention. For nearly 40 years India grew at a sluggish tempo of three.5% which is now known as Hindu fee of progress. In 1993 India dwelled into a brand new path to progress. The markets had been opened; liberalisation and globalization had been the phrases of the day. Nonetheless India might by no means change into the success story which it grew to become with out revamping its a long time outdated transportation infrastructure. India was now rising at a modest tempo and to guarantee that the expansion ranges are elevated and maintained it grew to become crucial that the logistic infrastructure be improved.

Recognizing these threatening issues India beneath the rule of NDA (Nationwide Democratic Alliance with the BJP as largest occasion within the alliance) with the aegis of the then prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee introduced a large challenge to revamp its infrastructure. It was known as “Nationwide Freeway Improvement Challenge” which paved the trail for a brand new period of progress.


Nationwide Freeway Improvement Challenge was applied in 1998. It deliberate to widen, rebuild the nationwide highways of the nation which accounted for lower than 2% of the entire highway community in India however carried about 40% of the highway site visitors. Street density in India is among the many lowest at 2.75km per 1000 individuals and 770 km per 1000 sq. km in comparison with 6.7 and 841 resp. (TCA Anant, 2008)

The section I of the challenge was known as the Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) Challenge. Subsequently seven extra phases have been launched and the challenge has been prolonged to cowl all of the vital hubs, ports to this nationwide freeway grid.

The Challenge

The company accountable for implementation of NHDP was Nationwide Freeway Authority of India (NHAI). It's a nodal company ruled by the Ministry of Street Transport and Highways, Authorities of India. The section I and section II of the challenge geared toward building and up gradation of 13,146 kM of nationwide highways into four to six lanes. The golden quadrilateral challenge and the north south and east west corridors had been a part of these phases. Golden quadrilateral challenge geared toward bettering highway connectivity between the 4 metropolitan cities of India specifically, New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. Different main cities like Ahmedabad, Surat, Vishakhapatnam, Pune, and Bengaluru had been additionally speculated to be part of these nationwide highways. East west hall linked Silchar in east to Porbandar in West. North south hall linked Srinagar in north to Kanyakumari in south. Part III plans to combine the state capital and main financial hubs with the NHDP I and II and complete 12,109 km of highways will likely be upgraded on this section. In section IV round 20,000 km of nationwide highways will likely be constructed and upgraded. These are majorly the highways that weren't part of section I, II and III. Part V envisages to improve 5000 km of four lane roads into 6 lane roads. The federal government nonetheless has to determine which sections of the highways will likely be upgraded on this section. Part VI plans to assemble expressways in India on BOT foundation. These expressways will join main industrial cities of India. Part VII plans to construct bypasses, flyovers, ring roads to extend highway community in cities to nationwide highways.

Financial Impression

As the varied initiatives had been launched there was a fast rise within the creation of jobs. There was additionally an enormous employment era in each expert and unskilled sectors. In the course of the section I round 250000 individuals per day had been required or round 40 individuals per km per day. ( Numerous sectors like metal, cement trade and tools producers noticed excessive progress charges throughout the interval. As per figures from press info bureau, Authorities of India progress fee in cement, metal and industrial autos had been eight.1%, 6.eight% and 55% respectively Supply:

There was a direct correlation within the progress of the challenge and the GDP progress. By the point the section one was nearing completion India was clocking a GDP progress of greater than eight% persistently. In accordance with World Financial institution the annual advantages the annual advantages had been round Rs 8000 crore [1] on the GQ challenge itself.

There have been lots of oblique advantages which had been to be realized with the challenge. These had been primarily a discount in time for transportation of freight and passengers. There can even be a discount in automobile working prices, gas prices, and upkeep prices. Because the roads will likely be made the connectivity of rural components with the close by main cities will enhance thereby impacting the event of the world. It could result in sooner motion of the produce and can profit commerce. Most significantly there can be a terrific discount in accidents.

In the course of the time one other scheme “Pradhan Manti Grameen Sadak Yojana” (Prime Minister’s Rural Street Improvement Plan) was additionally envisaged and applied by the federal government. The scheme vowed to enhance highway infrastructure within the rural areas. It was determined to construct roads within the villages and join them to the nationwide highways. Thus the pondering on the a part of the federal government to enhance fundamental infrastructure was actually commendable.

In January 2012 when the federal government introduced that the golden challenge is full it was the fifth longest freeway on the earth. The challenge was accomplished in Rs. 32000 crores and was beneath price range as the federal government had estimated that the challenge value can be Rs. 60000 crore (at 1999 costs). The challenge was additionally a primary of its variety when it was accomplished earlier than schedule which is new for a challenge of this scale.

The federal government was very devoted to finish the challenge and due to this allowed 100% FDI within the sector. This was one of many earliest sectors the place 100% FDI was allowed. Nonetheless, realizing that it will nonetheless not be capable of generate sufficient financing for the challenge varied financing fashions was adopted. Cess on petrol and diesel together with exterior and market borrowings had been adopted to boost capital for the challenge. Personal partnership was launched to boost finance and joint ventures with worldwide contractors had been made.

Financing of Freeway Tasks

Historical past

Till the creation of Nationwide Freeway Authority of India (NHAI), roads had been handled as public items. The financing for growing and keep these roads got here primarily from taxes. There was no or little or no connection between value of growing the roads and the revenue from the taxes. There was little or no try at direct highway pricing.

The Issues

Restricted Funding: Freeway growth requires massive investments however the authorities was already beneath massive fiscal deficit.

Inefficiencies: There have been massive inefficiencies that led to challenge over runs thereby escalating the challenge budgets exponentially.

Threat: With total growth with authorities, all danger was concentrated at one level. This strained the financing functionality of the

Creation of NHAI

NHAI began its operation in 1995, the foremost motivation for an autonomous physique beneath authorities of India was to extend the speed at which nationwide highways had been been developed. One of many main hindrances in rising this tempo was the restricted capital obtainable with the federal government. NHAI realized that to full fill its imaginative and prescient it has to look outdoors authorities for capital to develop its nationwide highways.

The Monetary Improvements

To know the monetary improvements at NHAI, first we have now to grasp the varied dangers related to building of Nationwide highways

Pre-development: Environmental clearance, land acquisition and different such necessities earlier than the development of roads could be carried out. Delays in getting clearances trigger delays and expensive challenge over runs.

Building: Modifications in designs, climate and geological situations, funds unavailability, flawed planning of fabric availability and unexpected labour shortages might result in challenge over runs

Utilization: Lower than anticipated highway utilization, person’s unwillingness to pay greater toll fee, might considerably influence the revenues from the highway.

Overseas change fee: Fluctuations in change fee might result in vital value over runs for abroad developer

Act of God: Pure calamities like earthquake, floods might result in delays and rework. These will result in vital value influence on the challenge.

Political Dangers: Change of presidency, termination of the challenge, undue imposition of excessive taxes, might put appreciable monetary danger on the challenge.

The assorted financing mannequin applied by NHAI are

EPC (Engineering procurement and building) contract: The challenge is totally finance by the general public funds (E.g. World financial institution/ADB). Aside from building danger all dangers are borne by NHAI. The benefits that NHAI has achieved by means of this mode are speedy implementation of initiatives, improved high quality of roads, international investments kind massive multinationals. The inefficiencies concerned in growth of huge infrastructure initiatives like nationwide highways have been minimized. Overseas multinationals have arrange joint ventures with Indian corporations driving up improvements and profitable implementation of initiatives

Annuity Contract: Financing of challenge is finished from the contracted annuity. Challenge is financed by means of these annuity receivables. However the monetary danger is borne by NHAI. Right here NHAI is accountable just for financing the initiatives. Benefit for NHAI on this mode of financing is that, it has to pay the contractor yearly certain amount to construct the highway.

BOT contract: Construct function and switch because the identify counsel, the corporate to wins the contract has to construct the roads, keep it and generate revenues in order to get again all the cash invested after which switch the freeway again to authorities after particular time period. These contracts are challenge funds, with all of the capital coming from the non-public gamers. A particular objective firm is created and all the chance apart from political danger is borne by it.

EPC and Annuity presently dominate bulk of the initiatives. Thus many of the danger continues to be with NHAI.

For challenge financing as in case of BOT contract, the knowledge of utilization of highways and thereby the toll assortment could be very much less. This places lots of danger on the investor and due to this fact only a few BOT contracts have been materialized.

Is Securitization the answer?

Nationwide highways have lengthy gestation intervals, with money flows coming very late within the complete challenge period. This places appreciable monetary dangers on the non-public firm to take is such initiatives. To attenuate this danger securitization mechanism could be put in place.

Securitization is a mode of finance wherein varied money flows are pooled collectively and offered to particular objective automobile created to implement this challenge. SPV then points debt securities that are backed by the money flows.

Is the viable answer to spice up freeway growth in India, ought to NHAI implement this mannequin?


Land Acquisition Act, 1984

When railway community was being expanded in India within the 19th century the British Authorities then rulers of India confronted issues associated to the non-public land acquisitions. They then enacted and handed the legislation whose first regulation was handed as early as 1824. India adopted the legislation in 1947 to primarily care for land acquisition for public use. Nonetheless this was only a land acquisition legislation and didn't had provisions for rehabilitation. At present the federal government has to take care of this act together with 16 different acts for controlling non-public land acquisitions by the federal government and its our bodies.

In accordance with the legislation the land needs to be valued at costs on the date of notification and the compensation needs to be paid accordingly. Nonetheless, this had led to broad unfold criticism and protests from land house owners. The federal government has been dragged into quite a lot of disputes pertaining to land acquisitions. At present over 80 NHDP initiatives are getting delayed on account of disputes in land acquisition. It's argued by a bit of society that the foundations beneath the act are draconian. The compensation paid by the land acquisition officer to the land house owners can also be lower than the market worth on account of cash being siphoned off at many phases on account of corrupt officers. There are fees that the land is beneath evaluated by the officers and when the compensation is being paid at under market costs to the land house owners there's not a lot utility for them. Additionally, not a lot care is taken about rehabilitation of the people who find themselves displaced by the initiatives.

The federal government had appointed committee to see into all these points and to provide you with new suggestions to enhance the act. The federal government is planning to desk a brand new legislation within the parliament nevertheless the draft has led to contemporary considerations by the industries and social activists alike. The brand new legislation will make value of land acquisitions as much as 4 instances the market fee in rural areas and twice the market fee in city areas. Nonetheless the social activists argue it to be pro-market and one which is able to enhance land disputes. The traders and corporations argue it to be one which is able to make investments in initiatives pricey. Confederation of Indian Industries CII) is of the view that the committee has made suggestions with out considering the necessity of the trade.

Coordination amongst ministries

In India getting approvals for infrastructure initiatives requires an in depth coordination between varied central, state and native municipal ranges. It includes coordination amongst all these events and results in delay in getting challenge permitted. This in the end makes the monetary viability of the challenge questionable. (Wang et al, 2000). Regardless of authorities assurance of a single window and quick clearance of infrastructure challenge they're nonetheless getting delayed due clearances concerned.

Change of presidency and its priorities

The challenge was envisioned throughout the regime of NDA in 1999. Nonetheless, when the elections had been held in 2004 UPA (United Progressive Alliance) got here in to energy and has been in energy for the final eight years. There focus has shifted to different welfare schemes like MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi Nationwide Rural Employment Assure Act), farm mortgage waiver amongst others. This has shifted the priorities of the federal government to boost funds for its welfare schemes and never the NHDP initiatives. Subsequently, the initiatives have been working on delays and plenty of initiatives have delayed as a result of the contracts have nonetheless not been handed over.


There was a lot information highlighting the rampant corruption in awarding the tenders to sure events, contractors. Instances of broad unfold siphoning off the cash by the federal government officers was additionally reported. Satyendra Dubey, a challenge director who grew to become the whistle blower in a letter to Prime Minister’s Workplace (PMO) in August 2003 raised lot of doubts concerning the happenings in Jharkhand concerning the challenge. He was subsequently transferred to Gaya, Bihar towards his needs the place he was murdered in November 2003. This precipitated a nationwide furore over the incident forcing the federal government to nominate an enquiry workforce. The enquiry workforce later confirmed that Dubey’s identify was leaked by PMO to NHAI and in addition confirmed the allegation of corruption raised by Dubey.


Given the challenges being confronted will the federal government now take measures to usher in contemporary reforms within the sector in order that the targets of NHDP are met? This would possibly contain taking in some powerful measures which is perhaps opposed by sections of society. Nonetheless, will a greater sense prevail and a larger good of the society, GDP progress targets be achieved.