Music Article3
British Discussion board for Ethnomusicology Birds of Wasulu: Freedom of Expression and Expressions of Freedom within the Standard Music of Southern Mali Writer(s): Lucy Durán Reviewed work(s): Supply: British Journal of Ethnomusicology, Vol. Four, Particular Concern: Introduced to Peter Cooke (1995), pp. 101-134 Printed by: British Discussion board for Ethnomusicology Secure URL: http://www.jstor.org/secure/3060685 . Accessed: 15/02/2013 14:45 Your use of the JSTOR archive signifies your acceptance of the Phrases & Circumstances of Use, obtainable at . http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps students, researchers, and college students uncover, use, and construct upon a variety of content material in a trusted digital archive. We use info know-how and instruments to extend productiveness and facilitate new types of scholarship. For extra details about JSTOR, please contact assist@jstor.org. . British Discussion board for Ethnomusicology is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, protect and lengthen entry to British Journal of Ethnomusicology. http://www.jstor.org This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/motion/showPublisher?publisherCode=bfe http://www.jstor.org/secure/3060685?origin=JSTOR-pdf http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp VOL Four BRITISH JOURNAL OF ETHNOMUSICOLOGY 1995 Birds of Wasulu: freedom of expression and expressions of freedom within the fashionable music of southern Mali Lucy Durdn Wassoulou is a sort of semi-acoustic music that has been fashionable in Mali for the reason that 1970s. This paper, an ethnography of wassoulou, traces its roots to the music of masquerade and the hunters' traditions of the Wasulu area within the south, and explores the methods wherein the cultural worlds of those traditions come to mind by means of the music. Wassoulou performers are referred to as birds (kono) and occupy a social r0le that enables them to touch upon social points with impunity, with gender taking part in an vital half. INMALI, a sort of music often known as wassoulou has develop into more and more fashionable up to now decade.1 Named after the Wasulu (Wasolon) area in southern Mali the place the music initially developed, and with which it continues to be related, it's of current (post-independence) origin, although its roots are far older. It first emerged in Bamako, the capital of Mali, within the early 1970s, reaching a peak of success in 1989 with the discharge of a cassette by the feminine singer Oumou Sangare (Fig. 1). This cassette, entitled Moussolou ("ladies"), offered extensively all through West Africa, consolidating a world viewers. There are at present dozens of younger artists performing and recording wassoulou in Mali, Ivory Coast, and Europe. One of the crucial vital traits of wassoulou is that its performers describe themselves as konow (sing. kono), that means "birds". By doing so, they're differentiating themselves from the endogamous social group or "caste" of musicians, the Mande2 jeliw, who in any other case dominate musical life in western 1 To tell apart between Wasulu, the identify of the area, and wassoulou, the fashion of music, I've adopted the 2 completely different spellings, and italicised the latter. The primary (Wasulu) is in accordance with modem Bamana orthography; the second displays frequent utilization within the native music trade. 2 Using "Mande" versus "Manding" to indicate a big group of West African peoples with a standard ancestry and talking the intently associated languages of Maninka, Bamana, 101 This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 102 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Fig. 1: Oumou Sangare (seated) with members of her group, backstage: singers Nabintou Diakite (left, standing), Alima Toure (proper, standing), Kassim Sidibe (kamalengoni) and Basidi Keita (djembe), Lille, 1995. In background: bogolanfini fabric. Mali. Although they share many primary cultural expressions with the Mande, the performers of wassoulou see themselves as fulfilling a really completely different social r61e from the jeliw. The fowl is a logo of freedom, knowledge and great thing about voice in Mande. The konow are musicians by alternative and pure potential, with a "fowl's eye" view of society, permitting them to touch upon social points in "freer" musical and textual methods than these of the jeliw. Regardless of its reputation each in Mali and overseas, there have been no research of wassoulou. This text presents an ethnography of the music,three its origins and growth, and inspecting its representations of the world of Wasulu hunters. It explores the (hitherto unreported) significance of using "fowl" as a time period for singer/musician, and the roots of that metaphor in oral Wasulunke, Jula (and so forth.) is problematic. In accordance with most present Anglophone scholarship I've chosen "Mande" as essentially the most handy time period. An outline of the historical past of those phrases and the confusion arising from them, plus some urged options, might be present in Vydrine (1995). three Primarily based on analysis carried out in Mali throughout one-month durations in 1986, 1987, 1991, 1993 and 1995, and intensive analysis with Malian musicians performing in Europe, from 1986 onwards. All interviews (listed on the finish of this text) have been performed on my own; translations into English are my very own. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp DurAn: Birds of Wasulu 103 traditions that date again to the start of the Mande empire (13th century). It argues that a part of the energy of wassoulou derives from its youth ethos. Wassoulou has created an area for youth basically, and single ladies particularly, to problem social norms, particularly these affecting gender relations. The patrilineal and gerontocratic nature of Mande society has largely offered the cultural and social fashions for the modem nation-state of Mali, whose former two presidents, Modibo Keita (1960-68) and Moussa Traore (1968-91) have been each members of aristocratic Mande lineages. On this mannequin there was little formal outlet for youth to claim themselves.Four Through the late 1980s, when disenchant- ment with Traore's regime was reaching a peak, numerous youth and scholar actions performed a big rOle in precipitating political adjustments, finally resulting in Traore's downfall in 1991, and transition to multi-party democracy within the following yr.5 It's no coincidence that wassoulou achieved its widest viewers exactly throughout this era. The explanations for this are embedded within the supply traditions of wassoulou, which pulls on three genres which can be attribute of the Wasulu area: kamalengoni, didadi, and sogoninkun. The primary of those is the dominant fashion in modem wassoulou, and consists of the appropriation by single youth of the ritual songs of hunters' societies. Didadi is a feminine harvest dance from the jap a part of Wasulu, and sogoninkun is a masquerade. The latter two are linked to festivities organised by age-set associations for agricultural cycles. These associations play a central function in Mande tradition extending far past their authentic social contexts.6 Due to its origins, wassoulou music operates on a unique "cultural axis" from the music of the jeliw who, because the hereditary musicians, have monopolised public efficiency. This distinction has given rise to a discourse, mentioned additional beneath, on the relative deserves of every, reflecting altering attitudes in direction of established hierarchies of age and lineage. Jeliw from Mali draw on comparable repertoire and efficiency kinds to the jeliw of Guinea, Ivory Coast, and to some extent even from Senegal and Gambia. Wassoulou, alternatively, is particularly Malian.7 But it has a large constituency extending far past its regional or linguistic borders. It's in some ways analogous to Bamana mudcloth (bogolanfini)--a comparability that's not arbitrary given their frequent hyperlinks with hunters. Bogolanfini is a sort of material Four Within the context of this text, youth is outlined primarily as single youth, each as audiences of the music, and as performers, who are sometimes of their teenagers. The music texts of feminine wassoulou singers are sometimes from the attitude of the single feminine or bride-to-be; e.g. Oumou Sangare's albums. 5 For an account of the financial and social issues dealing with Mali's city youth, and their function lately as "political actors", see Brenner, forthcoming. 6 See Meillassoux 1968b. Brenner, forthcoming, describes how these associations have been re- created as grin, a sort of casual city youth membership. 7 I've been unable to hint any variations of wassoulou as a modem fashionable style in Guinea, even supposing Wasulu can also be in Guinea. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 104 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) dyed a darkish brown or black from mud, often with white patterns. Initially made by ladies and worn throughout circumcision and excision rites, additionally one of many ritual cloths worn by hunters, bogolanfini has develop into one of the conspicuous symbols of Malian identification lately, particularly for the reason that democratic Third Republic. Throughout the nation it has now develop into inter-ethnic and is extensively utilized in style, artwork and textiles; musicians typically put on costumes produced from this fabric.s It's a image of custom that additionally accommodates a broad vary of latest expression.9 Each bogolanfini and wassoulou signify and encourage two-way hyperlinks between metropolis and countryside, custom and innovation. For these causes, an evaluation of wassoulou opens up new views not simply on the examine of Mande society, but additionally furthers our understanding of fashionable tradition in West Africa as we speak. Wasulu regional identification The illustration of Wasulu ethnicity and regional identification performs a elementary r^le within the music. As described beneath, the time period wassoulou itself solely appeared within the early 1970s; beforehand this music had been recognized by its constituent names. It started to be referred to as wassoulou in response to the truth that it was being carried out exterior the area, and was subsequently seen as a portrayal of regional "folklore". Wasulu is a geolinguistic space in southern Mali and jap Guinea (although right here we're involved completely with Mali). The a part of Wasulu that falls into present-day Mali lies inside Mali's third administrative area, Sikasso, comprising the cercles (administrative areas) of Yanfolila, Kolondieba and Bougouni simply south of the traditional heartland of the Mande (Mali) empire. It's typically described as distant and inaccessible (see Garrard 1995:31, 55, 139). Mande discourse typically depicts Wasulu as a spot of ample crops, with a lot time for leisure and the pursuit of musical leisure.10 There are various blacksmiths within the space, and robust pre-Islamic beliefs in occult energy persist. The realm is characterised by savannah forest, with agriculture and looking as the primary conventional occupations. The music related to these actions has performed a central rtle within the emergence of wassoulou as a well-liked fashion. In response to some oral traditions, Wasulu was outlined as a area through the reign of Sunjata Keita (c. 1230-55) with the settlement of a Fula brigand military underneath the Fula warrior Yoro, who additionally gave Wasulu its identify when he declared in Eight This may be seen within the BBC tv documentary "Below African skies: Mali" (1989), wherein lots of the bands proven wore bogolanfini. Oumou Sangare's musicians wore bogolanfini costumes throughout their current tour of Europe (Nov-Dec 1995). For a dialogue of bogolanfini see Imperato 1970. 9 Most just lately it has additionally develop into (together with Kente fabric) a well-liked expression of African identification within the USA. 10 Sidibe interview 1989; Clemens Zobel, pers. comm. 1995. See additionally Imperato 1981: 47: "historic proof of ample wildlife in southeastern Mali, and particularly Wassalu, has greatest been offered by A.H.W. Haywood, a British colonial official and looking fanatic who traversed the area on foot within the early a part of the century." This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Duran: Birds of Wasulu 105 Maninka "N te wa so toun: ne be n'solon ay la yan" ("I cannot return house; I entrust myself to you right here"), which grew to become abbreviated to Wasolon (Cisse and Kamissoko 1991:172). Amselle, who has written extensively about Wasulu, provides a number of different etymologies (1990:123). The area got here notably to the eye of French colonial directors (and ethnographers) throughout its conquest by the imam warrior Almamy Samory Toure (1835-1900). Samory Toure's army exploits are a topic of sogoninkun songs,11 as additionally of Mande jeliw's repertoire, however are conspicuously absent within the music texts of city wassoulou, which evoke a way of historical past in different methods. The origin legend cited above displays the blended identification of the area, which performs an vital function in wassoulou. The individuals who name themselves Wasulunke outline their ethnicity as tripartite: they're of Fula (Fulbe, Peul) lineage; their cultural framework falls inside the Maninka-Bamana matrix; and these two identities intersect in configurations which can be particular to the area. As well as, there's a lot interplay with neighbouring peoples such because the Senufo. Thus a part of the character of Wasulu is its variety. Imperato estimates the Wasulunke inhabitants at c. 100,000 (Imperato 1981), although this isn't based mostly on a agency census; many maps of ethnic teams and languages in Mali fail to quote the Wasulunke, classifying them as both Fula or Bamana. As well as, the Wasulunke have migrated extensively each as seasonal staff to Bamako (Meillassoux 1968b:49, 96) and as settled communities to the Gambia,'2 the Ivory Coast and inside Mali itself. Wasulunka is intently associated to Maninka, the language of the Mande heartland (which borders on Wasulu), differing primarily by means of pronunciation and a few vocabulary. Although they don't converse Pulaar (the Fula language), and certainly don't seem to have performed so for a lot of generations (Amselle 1990:73), the Wasulunke preserve not less than symbolically a powerful sense of Fula heritage. The 4 essential patronyms of Wasulu-Diallo, Diakite, Sidibe and Sangare- are clan lineages that are stated to be descended from the 4 sons of 1 Fula girl (Amselle 1990:35; Cisse and Kamissoko 1991:160fn). As Amselle has proven, nevertheless (1990: ch.three), the notion of Fula ethnicity is ambiguous and primarily related in relation to neighbouring identities. Music is a technique wherein the Wasulunke reclaim their Fula heritage, notably with teams who're exterior the area as an announcement of their very own identification. It's vital that a number of modern wassoulou singers have been born in Bamako (e.g. Oumou Sangare). Fula identification is symbolically emphasised in names of ensembles comparable to Wasolonfenin ("the cream of Wasulu")--a reference to the normal occupation of the Fula as cow-herders and sellers of milk, in addition to a metaphor that means "the perfect of'.13 Sure songs within the wassoulou 11 See Imperato's account of Sogoninkun (1981: 46) and Meillassoux 1968b: 99. 12 For instance it's stated that the oldest part of Bakau, a small coastal city within the Gambia, was settled by folks from Wasulu; this part remains to be referred to as Wasulunkunda ("the Wasulu compound"). 13 Featured on Electrical and acoustic Mali CD band 11 This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 106 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Fig. 2: Kassim Sidibe (kamalengoni participant), Lille, 1995 repertoire, comparable to Jula Samba, additionally make use of remoted Fula phrases.14 Two devices extensively related to the Fula have been launched into wassoulou ensembles up to now decade: the one-string horse-hair fiddle soku (actually "horse tail"; as utilized by e.g. Sali Sidibe); and the rim-blown cane flute fle, typically substituted by an orchestral flute and violin.15s Most vital is using the kamalengoni (youth harp; see Fig. 2), which is particular to Wasulu, and which has such a particular timbre that it instantly indicators regional identification, a lot the identical manner that, for instance, the sound of Uillean pipes indicators Irish music. 14 The music, in reward of a Fula cow-herder referred to as Samba, features a refrain in a mix of Pulaar and Mande phrases; cf. Sali Sidibe's Santana, from her cassette Sali Sidibe. 15 Notice that the pentatonic scales render a Fula ethos to the mix of violin and flute, which in any other case is related to the Cuban "charanga" orchestral formation, fashionable in Mali through the 1970s; cf. Oumou Sangare, Moussolou, CD. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durin: Birds of Wasulu 107 This may also be seen as a part of the development of some wassoulou kinds in direction of folklorisation, i.e. a acutely aware illustration of inter-ethnicity, wherein one can see the affect of cultural insurance policies initiated after Mali's independence, such because the formation of regional and nationwide ensembles. For instance, some wassoulou ensembles have included the bolon, the Maninka four-string bass harp previously performed to incite kings to struggle, and now not often heard exterior the context of state-subsidised regional ensembles. The big Senufo pentatonic gourd- resonated xylophone can also be featured in lots of wassoulou ensembles, reflecting the proximity of Senufo tradition within the Wasulu area (cf. Fig. three). One other facet of Wasulu identification, bolstered in nearly all types of wassoulou, is the affiliation with the cultural, ethical and non secular world of hunters, for which the area is known. This can be mentioned in additional element beneath. Fig. three: Karinyan (iron scraper), kamalengoni (participant sporting hunter's hat) and Senufo balafon; a part of Sali Sidibe's ensemble, 1989 '1 ;L '6 '" ": " :,tY::: ?'i ?"' ~:~P?. *; .,;a~'~?~--'=:"?'~?~'' -? ?, r t-~ c P?:" -'? '76:: ?.?~ i- :? r ii r t X; .r :lb c .iE ?: This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 108 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) The kono (fowl) as metaphor for musician One of many principal methods wherein the performers of wassoulou articulate their sense of a particular identification is within the social r61e and standing of their musicians. The important thing problem right here is the designation "birds" (konow, sing. kono). The konow outline themselves as musicians and singers by choice--not birth--who have the particular r6le of conveying vital messages. This units them diametrically other than the jeliw, the endogamous class of hereditary musicians, who underpin Mande social construction, and who concentrate on narrative histories and genealogies of Mande lineages. No documentation seems to exist on kono as a basic time period for Wasulunke musicians. That is presumably as a result of a lot of the music of the konow has not been studied, and likewise exactly as a result of they don't represent a particular social group. The time period emerges primarily in their very own discourse, as a manner of differen- tiating themselves from the jeliw. Although little doubt this has develop into extra of a difficulty for the reason that emergence of wassoulou on the favored music scene, there's loads of proof to counsel that the time period kono is way older than wassoulou itself. Certainly a number of key informants state that it's as previous because the time period jeli, although not as widespread.16 The metaphor of fowl for singers is, in fact, not at all unique to Wasulu. In lots of cultures world wide they signify nice voices-for instance the feminine Egyptian singer Um Kalthum was referred to as the "nightingale of the Nile"; the Peruvian singer Victor Alberto Gil, fashionable through the 1970s, was often known as "the hummingbird of the Andes"; whereas the canary in Spain and the mockingbird in Cuba are different examples of birds as metaphors for virtuosic voices.17 What is maybe singular to Wasulu is the way in which wherein the time period "fowl" is used not simply as an epithet, however as a particular appellation for all musicians who carry out music by alternative. For instance, the hunters' donsongoni participant is named "string- taking part in fowl" (jurufo kono) and the singer merely kono. In Cashion's transcription of the hunters' narrative Famori, Seydou Camara typically refers to himself as each kono and jurufo kono, in such a manner that it's clearly accepted utilization; e.g. "will you not give some meat to the string-playing fowl? I've given you renown" (I te ne jurufo kono son sobo la, n y'i son togo la), and "Hunters have gone to relaxation, Lore Tanin shouldn't be in the home...nostalgia entered the birds" (nyinansuma donin konoi la); "Mali cash has been given to the fowl, I thanks" (Mali wari dilen kono ma, ko barika). Cashion explains that "the 'birds' refers to these singers, each previous and current, who sang their [the hunters'] feats" (1984.2: traces 85, 129, 180; p. 336 fn). He doesn't, nevertheless, make any reference to the time period in his 16 Thus the kora participant Sidiki Diabate states, "kono is the way you name the singers who should not jeliw, there have all the time been konow" (interview 1995). 17 See Huaynos & huaylas: the true music of Peru, Globestyle CD ORBD 064, sleeve notes by L. DurAn, 1990. Feld has performed intensive analysis on fowl symbolism within the music of the Kaluli, Papua New Guinea (e.g. Feld 1982). This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp DurAn: Birds of Wasulu 109 description of the hunters' musician as performer, utilizing as an alternative the higher recognized phrases donsojeli and serewa (1984.1:286). In Mande, birds are a logo of knowledge, the human spirit, and all types of singing.18 In view of this, it's suprising that so little info on the kono as singer exists. The connection between birds and verbal expertise in Mande is historic and vital. The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, who visited Mansa Sulyeman's court docket in Mali in 1355, describes the r6le of "poets" (whom Battuta additionally calls jali) on a feast day. Every of them has enclosed himself inside an effigy product of feathers, resembling a [bird called] shaqshaq, on which is fastened a head product of wooden with a crimson beak as if it have been the pinnacle of a shaqshaq. They stand in entrance of the sultan on this comical form and recite their poems. I used to be advised that their poetry is a form of exhortation wherein they are saying to the sultan "This banbi on which you might be sitting was sat upon by such and such a king and of his good deeds have been so-and-so...so that you do good deeds which can be remembered after you". Then the chief of the poets mounts the steps of the banbi and locations his head within the lap of the sultan. Then he mounts to the highest of the banbi and locations his head on the sultan's proper shoulder, then upon his left shoulder, speaking of their language. I used to be knowledgeable that this act was already previous earlier than Islam, and so they had continued to do it. (Ibn Battuta, in Levtzion and Hopkins 1981:293) Battuta makes one other vital commentary: Mansa Suleyman's "interpreter" was a musician referred to as Dugha, who performed an instrument that's clearly the balafon (ibid), within the custom of Sunjata's personal jeli, Bala Faseke Kouyate. Duga means "vulture", a logo of bravery and knowledge in Mande, as within the proverb "the eldest/wisest fowl is the vulture" (kono korolin ye duga ye) (Sangare interview 1995). In Mande tradition typically, mastery is related to the knowledge acquired by means of age and expertise. Thus nice kono singers are termed kono koroba ("previous fowl") and typically merely duga ("vulture") (Sangare ibid).19 Birds additionally characteristic within the Sunjata epic as conveyors of vital messages. In Niane's model of the epic, they seem at numerous essential moments. On the eve of the decisive battle at Kirina wherein Sunjata lastly defeats his enemy Sumaoro, the latter "determined to claim his rights earlier than becoming a member of battle. Sumaoro knew that Sundiata additionally was a sorcerer, so, as an alternative of sending an embassy, he dedicated his phrases to one in all his owls. The night time fowl got here and perched on the roof of Djata's tent and spoke. The son of Sogolon in his flip despatched his owl to Sumaoro" (Niane 1965:61). The owl (gwingwin) is "the fowl that sees all, each in daylight and darkness" and is one in all many symbols of occult energy in hunters narratives (Cashion 1984.2:7, 335). As in lots of cultures, birds are thought of omens in Mande. The very best recognized instance of that is the "black fowl of misfortune" who heralded Somaoro's defeat 18 I'm grateful to Cherif Keita for elucidating many elements of fowl symbolism in Mande tradition to me; pers. comm., 1995. 19 Masterjeliw are against this referred to as ngara, "grasp musician"; see Durdn 1995. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 110 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) at Kirina (Niane 1965:65). That is the fowl that gave rise to the Kono cult celebrated yearly at Kirina, one in all six initiatory societies in Mande. It includes a masquerade with a masks that's part-elephant, part-bird, representing "man's capability for thought", which is a "fowl able to lifting an elephant and carrying it away". The songs of the cult reveal "how self-knowledge might result in satisfaction or to regret, and the way the 'inside voice' instructions or forbids such and such an motion" (Zahan 1974:19). Whereas the kono singers of as we speak's wassoulou don't acknowledge any direct relationship with the Kono cult, this assertion echoes with outstanding accuracy their very own discourse on their r61e and performance, as described beneath. There are a number of Mande fowl masquerades in Mali as we speak (McNaughton 1988; Arnoldi 1983). Along with the Kono secret society, there are additionally kono masquerades of age-set associations in Bougouni cercle wherein the masks represents the hornbill, whose "shrewdness and intelligence are hidden beneath a maladroit exterior". Imperato (1980:54) reviews witnessing a efficiency wherein feminine singers accompanied on drums sang kono si te kamale kono bo ("no fowl is as nice because the younger folks's fowl"). Birds are represented as symbols of knowledge and ancestry in masquerades and sculptures amongst different neighbouring cultures, e.g. the Senufo and the Dan (Garrard 1995:457; Zemp 1993). The nightingale (sorofe) additionally has robust associations in Mande tradition with verbal arts.20 It might be related to quote right here one other use of the time period kono: Leynaud reviews on the r61e of a kid termed kono, within the choice course of for the pinnacle of a senior Mande lineage.21 The kono within the musicians' discourse To know the importance of kono standing, it's essential to summarise right here the place of musicians typically among the many Mande. The three social courses of the Mande-the horon (freeborn; descendants of Sunjata and his generals); the nyamakala (craft-professions--music, reward, smithery, leatherworkers); and the jon (descendants of slaves), have been a lot researched and debated (see Conrad and Frank 1995). The hereditary musicians (jeliw) belong to the nyamakala class, and sing the histories, praises, and genealogies of the horon, with whom they've a patron-client relationship. Comparable endogamous teams exist amongst neighbouring peoples and are certainly additionally attribute of Wasulu. The jeliw are inclined to monopolise most types of public and professional efficiency (see Charry 1992; Camara 1992; Conrad and Frank 1995), except for some kinds 20 As within the cassette Jamana Sorofe, which options interviews with 4 main jeliw on the character of their musical and verbal artwork. 21 E. Leynaud (1960) Les cadres sociaux de la vie rurale dans la Haute-Vallge du Niger, Paris, pp.23-Four, cited in Meillassoux 1968b. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Dur-n: Birds of Wasulu 111 of drumming.22 Social attitudes in direction of the jeliw and the nyamakala as "folks of caste" have had a profound impact on these few people who, although "freeborn", have chosen music as their occupation, notably within the case of singers within the fashionable area.2 The konow fall exterior this social hierarchy and specific nice pleasure on this. They might reward people, simply because the hunters' musician might, however they don't sing genealogies or reward names. They co-exist with jeliw, however they're the "songsters" whereas the Wasulunke jeliw are story-tellers. The jeliw of Wasulu function in a restricted area, utilizing the speech mode often known as tarikou. Amongst Maninka jeliw, that is thought of the optimum mode for narrative, essentially the most tough and prestigious, carried out solely by senior male Mande jeliw (Duran 1995). The artwork of the kono, alternatively, is music, not speech: they see themselves because the voice of the folks, freed from any restrictions, whether or not of gender, age, efficiency mode or repertoire. They've two duties: to sing superbly, and to convey issues of significance. Oumou Sangare describes the respective roles of jeli and kono as follows: In Wasulu we now have numerous griots, born griots, they're often males...however they not often sing. They're historians, our griots. They take an ngoni, [lute], they sit down and inform all of the historical past of Wasulu. That is what we name griots, the wasulunkajeli. They inform how Wasulu was created...their music is totally completely different from mine. However they'll additionally do the music I do, everyone seems to be free to do it, you do not have to be a jeli...to do the normal music of Wasulu...We're kono as a result of we're messengers, we sing for a cause, with a purpose, to advise folks or move messages...not just like the griots. Earlier than, in Wasulu,...if a king needs to battle with one other king, he takes a fowl, writes a letter, attaches it to the leg of the fowl, then lets it go. When the hunters see the fowl they kill it, they know the message is for them, they learn it, the struggle begins. Lengthy way back! (Sangare interview 1995) This description has robust resonances with the owl episode in Sunjata quoted above. It have to be stated, nevertheless, that the jeliw typically additionally name themselves kono. Whereas extra analysis must be performed on this, it seems that such utilization doesn't change the time period jeli, however qualifies it, to indicate a very nice singer, or to sign a message of nice significance. For instance, the feminine jeli (jelimuso) Nantenegue Kamissoko, a grasp singer (ngara) from Kirina, calls herself Kirina kono and Lembouroula kono (the fowl of Kirina, the fowl of the lemon tree). The truth that she is from Kirina, house of the Kono cult, might presumably of some significance on this connection (Cherif Keita pers. comm. 1995). One other nice jelimuso, Fanta Damba "no.1", in speaking of Samory Toure's jeli Tasirimaghan, 22 The oppositional interplay between drumming and jeliw is clearly demonstrated in Meillassoux's account (1968a) of the famend septennial re-roofing ceremony at Kaaba within the coronary heart of Mande. 23 E.g. Salif Keita and Ali Farka Toure; see L. Durdn (1996) "Salif Keita", Folks Roots 149: 42- 48; L. Durin (1995) sleeve notes to Ali Farka Toure, Radio Mali, World Circuit WCD 044. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 112 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) says "when the monkey climbs the tree you may catch it by its tail, however not the fowl".24 Not surprisingly, birds are talked about steadily within the music texts of the jeliw each as omens and as metaphors for heroic sorts. Two of the oldest and most vital songs in thejeli's repertoire commemorate birds: Koulandjan (marabou stork), is a music in reward of hunters, and Duga (the vulture) is about bravery in battle.25 In Cono, a music by Salif Keita, one in all Mali's hottest singers (who although not a jeli has been influenced by the fashion of jeliw), the fowl represents a voice "of paths, of hills, of the river, of the gods" which has come "to not convey you struggling however to warn you as an alternative".26 In Simba, a music by the jelimuso Ami Koita (who by the way can also be from Kirina), a fowl performs an vital r61e as an omen, representing a non-Islamic voice. Simba tells the story of a lady who's having difficulties conceiving. She hears the voice of the koyankono, a fowl "who has two songs, one in all good omen, the opposite dangerous". This fowl mocks her by saying she's going to by no means have a toddler, however she replies, "I hear your voice, however I have not but heard the voice of God". Ultimately, her prayers to God are answered and she or he provides beginning.27 Many jeliw songs include the phrase: "the voice of the fowl of Mande has come forth" (Mande kono kan bora), typically as a repeated chorus.28 This components additionally happens in wassoulou lyrics. Not less than a 3rd of the songs recorded by Oumou Sangare's include phrases comparable to "hearken to the voice of the Wasulu kono".29 Her guitarist, Boubacar Diallo, explains that that is her manner of claiming "this message is vital; it comes from Wasulu, however it's for everybody, so concentrate" (Diallo interview 1995). The roots of wassoulou Wassoulou has its roots in a lot of kinds and dance rhythms carried out in quite a lot of contexts all through the Wasulu area. This paper focusses on the kamalengoni as the most important supply of wassoulou, however first, it outlines briefly the opposite genres which have contributed to the music, specifically sogoninkun and didadi. 24 From the cassette Jamana Sorofe, aspect B. 25 Chicken (1972b: 468) describes this music as "the oldest and most widespread music recognized in West Africa, recorded in early Arabic texts." 26 Salif Keita, Soro, Stems 1020 (1987). Cono is one other spelling of kono. 27 From Ami Koita, Tata Sira: the quotes are her personal explanations, from an interview, 1991. 28 Many examples might be cited, e.g. the younger jelimuso, Hadja Soumano: bolin ye Mande kono, kono kan ye sanukan ye--"the Mande fowl has come forth, the voice of the fowl is the voice of gold" (from her album Nteri Diaba, Syllart 38771-Four). See additionally the chorus of Mory Kante's acoustic music Teriya, which is concerning the energy of the phrase: "Ah, Mande kono kan bora"- '"the voice of the Mande fowl is out", from his album Ten Cola Nuts (Barclay BA581, 1986). 29 E.g. Oumou Sangare's music Kayini wura, wherein she sings: "Could my fathers and moms forgive me / might my wordsmith masters forgive me / for the apprentice is practising her language / Could they not be offended / Right here comes the fowl of Wasulu with the nice message / With the nostalgia of her brother Malians in her coronary heart" (from Oumou Sangare, Ko Sira: CD; translations from sleeve notes). This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durwn: Birds of Wasulu 113 Fig. Four: Djembe participant and sogoninkun dancers; child-naming ceremony, Bamako, 1995 Wassoulou performers attribute one of many roots of their music to a masquerade referred to as sogoninkun, which has specific rhythms and singing kinds (sogoninkun- folt). Sogoninkun ("the little antelope head") is essentially the most attribute masquerade of the Wasulunke and the southern Bamana, originating in Wasulu (Fig. Four). It has been documented primarily by Prouteaux (1929), Meillassoux (1968a) and Imperato (1981), and is talked about in passing by McNaughton (1988). Sogoninkun is one in all many masquerades whose authentic context was the age- set affiliation (ton). It's a fast-tempo masked dance carried out by males accompanied solely on the djembe and dundun (giant cylindrical drum performed with sticks). The lead singer (termed kono) is feminine as is the refrain. Made from sculpted wooden and heavy crimson or blue cotton fabric, the masks, which is claimed to signify a feminine antelope, covers the pinnacle fully, and hangs over the face, all the way down to the chest, with small holes for the eyes. There's a white bushy (goathair) tail on prime and smaller tufts of goathair hooked up to the perimeters of the face fabric. The masked dancers, sporting ankle rattles, work together with the drummers utilizing highly effective and supple acrobatic actions, described as these of a lion (a logo of energy). Those that have the status of being nice dancers, comparable to Amadu Ba (from Bougouni cercle), are typically referred to as "sorcier danseurs" and they're stated to "fly by means of the air" (Sali Sidibe interview). Ladies additionally carry out the sogoninkun as a dance, however with swish calm gestures (Diallo This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 114 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) interview). The songs assist to contextualise the masks and interpret their messages; the lyrics might confer with the prowess of sure animals and likewise to nice heroes of the previous. The dancers additionally work together with the singer: "the feminine soloist steadily locations her hand on the sogoni koun [sic] dancer's shoulder, allaying his fears, slowly singing his praises..." (Imperato 1981:45). Imperato states that sogoninkun is one in all a number of "animal kids" (wara deoun) masked dances carried out for public leisure, often for agricultural festivities. He reviews that whereas it has declined for the reason that Second World Conflict, "some very proficient sogoni koun performers have develop into theatrical stars with audiences and reputations nicely past their native districts" (Imperato 1981:40). Meillassoux's examine of Bamako within the 1960s reveals that migrant staff from Wasulu have been a major factor of the town's inhabitants; he describes an "inter-ethnic" Bougouni affiliation who carried out sogoninkun and different masked dances. The masked dancers have been "youthful males between fourteen and twenty, who have been born in Bougouni and stay quickly on the town as seasonal staff, typically unemployed...between the appearances of the masks younger males and even kids of the affiliation step in to carry out yayoba, an acrobatic dance..." (Meillassoux 1968b:97, 99). However, Imperato's account of sogoninkun performances in Mali through the late 60s reveals robust parallels with wassoulou. He describes how the singers addressed numerous messages to each dancers and viewers; the younger feminine soloist would "ask everybody's forgiveness, for herself and the troupe, for any direct or oblique insults that will inadvertently come up throughout her singing...[because] she is younger and like all younger folks is able to committing errors".30 He additionally recounts an occasion wherein one (feminine) singer brazenly ridiculed a European within the viewers who was attempting to file the efficiency, satirising first him as a person, after which Europeans basically: "Hey massive fats white man/you within the shorts/you with gray hair and glasses/I see your crimson shirt/your white socks/that stick you might be hiding/it's a microphone..." (Imperato 1981:46). Sogoninkun and different masked dances disappeared through the radical measures of Modibo Keita's regime previous to his overthrow in 1968, and thereafter went right into a decline (Imperato 1981). The extreme droughts that Mali suffered have additionally taken their toll on traditions related to the agricultural cycle. However sogoninkun continues to be carried out as a masked dance amongst Wasulunke each within the area and in Bamako, at weddings and circumcision celebrations, however not within the context of wassoulou music, the place it was recreated as a rhythm and elegance of singing.31 However, lots of the early wassoulou artists of the 1960s and '70s such because the late feminine singer Kagbe Sidibe, began out as sogoninkun singers. Abdoulaye Diabate, a well-liked singer initially from Segou, however now based mostly in Koutiala, who 30 Cf. Oumou Sangare's music Kayini wura, cited in earlier footnote. 31 E.g. in Oumou Sangare's music Djamakaisoumnou, from her CD Moussolou. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durnin: Birds of Wasulu 115 incorporates wassoulou kinds into his recordings, has a music entitled Sogoninkun, wherein he celebrates the custom. One of the crucial influential singers of wassoulou, Coumba Sidibe, can also be extensively related to sogoninkun; her father was reputed to be a terrific exponent of the dance.32 The second most vital supply of wassoulou, described by some musicians as even older than sogoninkun, is a ritual fertility dance which in its secularised fashionable model is named didadi an onomatopoeic sound for the drum rhythm, beforehand termed jakawara.33 The dance includes a semi-circle of girls and ladies, who bend forwards on the waist and dance with pelvic actions, to point out "the corpulence of the buttocks" (Diallo interview). Didadi has develop into a mode in its personal proper in wassoulou, differentiated from different kinds by the absence of the kamalengoni (youth harp). Some artists are inclined to concentrate on didadi, comparable to Nahawa Doumbia, a feminine singer from the Bougouni cercle. Her first album was entitled Didadi). Abdoulaye Diabate additionally is understood for his didadi fashion, as within the music Sissi kouloun wherein the refrain (didadi foli kera jinna foli ye "didadi is the music of djinns") reinforces the affiliation of wassoulou music with occult energy. Kamalengoni, wassoulou and the evocation of the hunters' world Probably the most distinctive and widespread fashion of wassoulou, nevertheless relies on the music of the kamalengoni, the six string "youth" harp. There may be in follow little distinction between the kind of music often known as kamalengoni and wassoulou. Each kamalengoni and its companion instrument the karinyan (iron tube scraper) present a direct hyperlink with the world of hunters, from which they've been appropriated. The kamalengoni represents a secularisation of the donsongoni, the hunters' harp, (donso = hunter; ngoni = string instrument) which is a ritual instrument, believed to include nyama34 (occult power, power). The donsongoni has a extremely distinctive timbre, which evokes, by associative course of, the "mystique" of looking (donsoya), and its values--bravery, talent, crafty and entry to that esoteric energy that grasp hunters possess. Taken out of this context, the kamalengoni is a powerless, playful youth model of the hunters' harp. But, with nearly similar taking part in approach and sound, it inevitably evokes an identical associative, emotional and aesthetic response; which contributes to the enchantment of wassoulou. 32 See her compact disc Sanghan, sleeve notes: "son pare dtait un sorcier danseur du Sokoninkou, toujours du grand Wassoulou". 33 In response to Oumou Sangare (interview 1995). I've discovered no additional info on the topic, aside from a music entitled Djaka wara by Fanta Naya Diawara, wherein she sings of djaka wara as synonymous with didadi; the music is in didadi rhythm and elegance (audio cassette Fanta Naya Diawara). Meillassoux supplies an outline of a masked dance referred to as jarawara which often is the identical (1968b: 91). 34 The idea of nyama has preoccupied students of Mande tradition for the reason that flip of the century; see McNaughton 1988. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 116 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Hunters play a particular r61e in Mande society, a r1le which has been nicely documented by Cisse, Chicken, Cashion and others. Although looking as such is a vanishing lifestyle, it stays in Mali (and elsewhere in Africa, as Herbert has proven) a "locus of perception' wherein "bush and forest are cosmological in addition to geographical constructs" (Herbert 1993:166). It's extensively accepted that hunters' societies contributed to the founding of the Mali empire. The respect for hunters and the world they symbolise--"an exercise that refuses to confess its anachronism" (ibid:164)--fimds many expressions in present-day Malian considering and cultural expression, together with music. Many songs of the jeliw both confer with and reward hunters, or include musical quotes from well-known songs by hunters' musi- cians.35 Nevertheless, jeliw and hunters occupy very completely different cultural and ideological domains, a distinction which is bolstered in a lot of origin legends.36 That is bolstered through the sound of the kamalengoni, the kono standing of its musicians, and using sure imagery, textual formulae, and music construction. For instance, Coumba Sidibe's mid-1980s music Mougoukan ("the sound of gunpowder") is devoted to the late president of the Ivory Coast, Houphouet Boigny, and his spouse (Madame Th6rbse). The music compares Boigny (and his military commanders) to the grasp hunter, whereas she claims for herself the authority of a fowl who observes from the gap of tree-tops: That is the dance of males, that is the sound of hunters' weapons, the sound of gunpowder places worry into the hearts of males you might be right here Boigny, that is the sound of the drum of Wasulu. Mine Therese, that is the sound of your drum. For you, the president of Ivorian ladies, right here is the sound of the Wasulu drum. The lion is harmful, commander Salimou, when the lion comes, everyone seems to be within the palms of their mom. Once I converse of males, Houphouet Boigny is a superb man...he has gunpowder with him, it is true! I am on prime of 1 tree, I'm going to a different tree, I converse of 1 individual, then I name one other...37 The fixed chorus of i ya dunun kan ye ("that is the sound of your drum") that follows every identify and place talked about on this music is an actual reproduction of the components utilized by Seydou Camara (see Cashion 1984.2: traces 90-249) and different hunters' musicians, often in direction of the start of their narratives. Certainly the 35 Thus Balakononfin, a music made well-known by the blind Maninka harpist/singer Bala Jimba Diakite, has been recorded in lots of fashionable variations by the Rail Band, Mory Kante, Salif Keita, and most just lately by the feminine singer Kandia Kouyate on her cassette Sa kunu sa. It has a easy, repetitive accompaniment on the simbi harp, which is instantly distinctive within the fashionable variations as nicely. 36 E.g. the well-known story of the 2 Diabate brothers, Damansa Wulemba and Damansa Wulending: the latter (youthful) brother is the nice marksman and manages to kill a wild beast, whereas the older brother sings his praises. See Darbo 1976. 37 Coumba Sidibe, Mougoukan, from her CD Coumba Sidibe, linear translations by Boubacar Diallo. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp DurAn: Birds of Wasulu 117 frequent reference to gunpowder and drums in each hunters' songs and wassoulou is arguably extra symbolic than literal. One other components of the hunters' songs that's echoed in wassoulou lyrics is the declaration that a jinn has "come out" for the individual to whom the music is devoted. This can be a manner of building the ability (nyama) of that individual, as in Sali Sidibe's music Diaby, which opens with the chorus Ah, Diaby, jinne bora Diaby ye ("Ah Diaby, the jinns have come out for Diaby").38 Comparable connections between wassoulou and hunters' music are made by means of references to sure hunters' dances such because the ntanan, that are reserved just for grasp hunters, e.g. those that have killed a lion; violation of this rule is believed to have severe penalties for the person. Therefore, wassoulou titles comparable to Ntanan (a 1988 music by Sali Sidibe, devoted to Mali's former president, Moussa Traore) have highly effective connotations. Herbert has proven that hunters in Africa together with smiths and kings are a "tripartite illustration of male energy", however in contrast to the latter two, hunters should not decided by lineage. Hunters' societies are egalitarian each when it comes to class and ethnicity; the title of "nice hunter" could also be conferred on any member, regardless of social standing age or ethnic background (Coulibaly). Certainly its solely exclusion is gender-based. Hunters' societies operate as a form of freemasonry, and although looking is now closely restricted (by laws, lack of recreation, deforestation and so forth.) the societies meet on a lot of events, for instance on the funeral of one in all their members. Sporting mud-dye fabric tunics lined with amulets, they fireplace their weapons into the air, and dance to the songs accompanied on donsongoni and karinyan. Though these are non-public gatherings, they typically entice a big public, inspiring respect and awe, in addition to a deep aesthetic response.39 The kamalengoni: development and tuning Hunters' harps are present in most of western, central and southern Mali, a raised bridge at proper angles to the sound desk,40 differing primarily in accordance with whether or not they have both one or two rows of strings, and are pentatonic or heptatonic. The Wasulu donsongoni, like its youth counterpart the kamalengoni, has two parallel rows of three (nylon, previously twisted rope) strings every, tuned to a pentatonic scale. Whereas the donsongoni might solely be performed within the designated ritual contexts of the hunters' societies, the kamalengoni has no such necessities, and has no particular powers. Some musicians nevertheless think about it a type of apprenticeship to the donsongoni.41 38 From her CD Wassoulou foli. Examine Seydou Camara's opening traces: A yee Famori lee, jina bolen Famori ye; Cashion 1984.2: traces 30-60. 39 See for instance Salif Keita, Future of an outcast, Island Productions, 1989. 40 Often known as ngoni, donsongoni, simbi (among the many Maninka and Khassonke) and tata (among the many Gana). The simbi has just one row of steel strings in heptatonic tuning (as within the music of the well-known blind harpist and singer Bala Jimba Diakite (Coulibaly and so forth.)). 41 In response to the late musician Alou Fane, a singer and kamalengoni participant from Ganadugu (on the periphery of Wasulu), and former musician with Tremendous Djata band: "When the hunter This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 118 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Fig. 5 The kamalengoni strings, their names and tuning Title Pitch denjurufitini D (little baby string) jemanje juru fitini A (little string within the center) bajouroufitini E (little massive string) LEFT HAND ROW (first finger and thumb) Title Pitch kumabal denjuru C (massive sound/baby string) jemanjejuru kumaba G (massive sounding center string) bajourouba D (massive string) RIGHT HAND ROW (thumb solely, however jemanje juru string may also be performed with left- hand thumb reaching over) (Participant sits right here) The karinyan (variant: narinyan; Fig. three) iron percussion rod can also be similar in identify, development and taking part in approach to the hunters' instrument. It consists of a flat piece of iron rolled right into a tube, with serrated edges which can be scraped with an extended iron needle, in a gradual down-up-down sample in both binary or ternary rhythm, additionally attribute of hunters' music. The absence of any documentation on the kamalengoni, could also be due to its current origin, or as a result of it's nearly similar to the donsongoni. Each have just one tuning (see Fig. 5), with intervals of a 4th between the strings of every row, and an total scale of DEGACD. The kamalengoni is tuned a couple of 4th increased than the donsongoni, reflecting the upper pitch of the younger singers' voices,42 in addition to the much less sombre musical fashion. It makes extra prolonged use of improvisation and particular methods comparable to harmonics. The format and tunings of the strings of the kamalengoni impose their very own stylistic parameters on the music. Most of its repertoire relies on the bottom right-hand string, referred to as bajourouba; i.e. the songs start and finish on this string. Wassoulou teams harmonise the bajourouba (DEGAC) scale on guitar or keyboard in a minor key; therefore, a lot of wassoulou music is minor key. Some alternate between the 2 minor scales based mostly on bajourouba and bajouroufitini reaches the age of 40, he turns into a terrific hunter. From this second on he performs his ngoni within the Dozon fashion" (Alou Fane, CD, 1994 sleeve notes). 42 That is confirmed by Diallo, who describes it as "the identical sort" of harp because the donsongoni. His diagram and tunings of the latter are certainly similar, besides that he provides the pitch as a 4th decrease (Diallo n.d.: 47). This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durin:Birds of Wasulu 119 Fig. 6: Kamalengoni, entrance view (EGACD) (e.g. Coumba Sidibe's Koniya, Ladies of Wassoulou CD vol. 1) whereas others comparable to Oumou Sangare's Diarabi nene begin out on bajourouba however then shift to kumaba (C) as centre, thus transferring to a significant pentatonic scale (CDEGA). The 2 center strings are sometimes additionally used as tonal centres to range the pitch and timbre. Just like the hunters' harp, the kamalengoni is constructed from an extended skinny barely curved neck which pierces a calabash resonator (fle), whose prime portion has been minimize open and lined in goatskin (bagolo). The bridge (so, actually "horse") stands at proper angles to the sound desk, placing this instrument into the class of West African bridge harps (Charry 1992, Knight 1973); the bridge is held in place with string tied to 2 lateral soundposts (Fig. 6). The 2 parallel rows of strings move by means of holes within the bridge and are wrapped round nails on the decrease aspect. There are two small cane holders (bolomenelan) that emerge upwards from the resonator and are tied to the decrease part of the neck, although solely the left one This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 120 British Journal ofEthnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) is definitely used to assist the instrument. The left little finger hooks across the holder, and each thumb and first finger are used of the left hand, whereas the suitable hand helps the instrument half-way up the neck, utilizing solely the thumb to play the strings. The distinctive "nervous" sound of the instrument is created by speedy alternating left and right-hand plucking utilizing a punchy, closely staccato strategy of damping the strings (ka dere). That is blended with harmonics ("the key of the ngoni"', as some gamers describe it), producing an interval of a 12th above the word, effected by touching the 2 highest-pitch strings with the knuckle of the thumbs or tip of the left first finger. Musicians typically evaluate the ensuing "uneven" sound (which may also be heard in hunters' music) to the funk rhythms of James Brown. The construction of kamalengoni music mirrors that of the donsongoni: it's constructed round a brief bipartite theme referred to as ngonisin, actually "the leg of the ngoni", that serves as a foundation for instrumental improvisations recognized by the overall time period of teremeli (actually, "musical bargaining"). That is similar to the r6le of kumbengo in Mandinka kora music (Charry 1992, Knight 1973). The songs are additionally much like the solo-chorus construction of the hunters' songs. The kamalengoni nevertheless has developed its personal repertoire, and new songs are always being composed. Appropriation and ethical censorship Not like didadi and sogoninkun, the kamalengoni and its music should not related to any specific event or age-set affiliation (ton). Wasulu musicians date its emergence from the 1930s or '40s, or presumably later, attributing its widespread reputation to at least one musician particularly, Alata Brulaye from Yanfolila. Former accompanist to Kagbe Sidibe, he's extensively credited with the event of the kamalengoni approach. The importance of this instrument is its placing reversal of the ritual nature of hunters' music, a reversal that was thought of surprising on the time. In response to Wasulu informants, the kamalengoni was first created in villages of Yanfolila cercle, by boys who appreciated the sound of hunters' music. Oumou Sangare explains: In Wasulu, hunters are nice healers. The kamalengoni is just like the donsongoni, which is performed by hunters and healers; it is the identical sort of instrument however performed in a different way...it is a symbolic instrument for us, it symbolises youth, as a result of it is the youth who created it. There was a second when it was a harmful phenomenon, as a result of when a youngster in Wasulu heard it, he'd cease working, he'd refuse to work, all of the youth would shout and go to the general public place within the village to bop to the kamalengoni. So the elders forbade it, they even gave it a pejorative identify, they referred to as it samakoro which implies fleas, as a result of when you've them in your mattress you may't sleep or be nonetheless...the women exit at night time and dance... (Oumou Sangare interview 1995) This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Duran: Birds of Wasulu 121 Yoro Zoumana Traore, an authority on Mande music,43 says: The arrival of the 'youth's harp' in Wasulu was a shock to the elders, as a result of they stated it was an instrument which was corrupting younger folks. When one performs the kamalengoni at night time, underneath the moon, younger ladies and boys would dance till daybreak. No lady might keep in her room if she heard it; she can be obliged to creep out to bop...The elders would say, 'this can be a dance social gathering. Let's hearken to the hunter's harp as an alternative...' When the youth harp is taking part in, it is purely for the youth. Its message is straightforward: you want me, I such as you, we rendezvous on the music. (Traore interview 1989) However the music had a strong aesthetic enchantment. "When this identical donsongoni obtained into the palms of the youth, and was very candy and simple to bop, and there have been no rites to do, then everybody went there...folks appreciated it as a result of they might not dance sure rhythms and songs which have been reserved completely for individuals who knew the best way to hunt" (Diallo interview 1995). The kamalengoni dance borrows straight from these of hunters (donsodon), but additionally reveals influences from fashionable American dances of the 1960s, notably the dances of the 1950s and '60s such because the jitterbug and the jerk (Kassim Sidibe interview 1995). It includes primarily a speedy sliding sideways foot motion; in three motions: 1) ft parallel; 2) heels collectively, toes outward in V form; three) toes collectively and heels outward in circumflex. Connections with the jitterbug are notably placing, not within the actions of the dance itself, however due to the parallel "itchy bug" terminology. Additionally, the form of ethical censorship first evoked by the kamalengoni echoes the methods wherein dances just like the jitterbug (and rock and roll basically) have been thought of immoral and corruptive once they first appeared. Such disapproval was additionally a response to the truth that many kamalengoni songs are about love, typically with overtly sensual lyrics, as within the music Diaraby Nene ("the shivers of ardour") made well-known by Oumou Sangare (see beneath), however first created as a kamalengoni piece and recorded by numerous artists. Regardless of the diversification of wassoulou kinds for the reason that late '80s, the sound of the kamalengoni regularly reinforces hyperlinks with rural Wasulu and the world of the hunters. Most just lately these hyperlinks have been made specific visually in "playback" movies of songs. Within the RTM (Radio Tv Malienne) video-clip of Oumou Sangare's music Ko Sira, for instance, a bunch of girls sing on the river whereas close by a younger hunter, wearing full hunter's costume and carrying a gun, dances to the donsongoni. 44 Arnoldi's and Brink's research of Mande theatre have proven how the Mande speak of their efficiency traditions in two total classes: nyan fe which is "severe" (sebe), i.e. non-public ritual, invested with occult energy; and nyenanje which is "playful" (tlon), i.e. public leisure (Arnoldi 1983:23-Four). The 43 Presenter of an influential weekly music programme on RTM tv, "Rencontre avec nos vedettes". 44 Ko Sira, produced Kolly Keita for RTM, 1993. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 122 British Journal ofEthnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) emergence of kamalengoni, its preliminary rejection by the elders as vulgar and corrupt, and using a pejorative identify, are all a side of motion from the "severe" to the "playful" area that may be seen in lots of fashionable music kinds. The event of wassoulou: developments, artists and lyrics Wassoulou first emerged as a named fashion within the years simply after independence, and seems to have been created when sogoninkun singers comparable to (the late) Kagbe Sidibe started to file for Radio Mali. Whereas sogoninkun was initially accompanied solely on drums, Kagbe Sidibe and others started to incorporate the kamalengoni and electrical guitars of their ensembles. Thus two completely different traditions, every with its repertoires, devices and singing kinds, have been mixed within the city context, and this mixture was seen as a illustration of Wasulu identification, therefore the identify wassoulou. The primary recordings date from the 1960s, however in any other case little info is out there on this early part. Wassoulou at this level was not widespread, and should have been eclipsed by Bamako's sogoninkun associations. However wassoulou was one of many earliest recorded kinds in Mali to characteristic feminine singers accompanied on electrical devices, not less than modern with the music of the feminine jeliw (jelimusow) who already have been "radio stars", mixing electrical guitars with conventional devices (Meillassoux 1968b:109). Some informants declare that wassoulou largely remained "underground" in Bamako through the socialist regime of Mali's first president, Modibo Keita (1960-68). Although not at all overtly political it was nonetheless seen as socially subversive as a result of it voiced the aspirations and needs of youth and girls. As has been proven, each sogoninkun and the kamalengoni have been carried out by youth who have been typically underneath the age of 20. The singers, with their "fowl" standing, operated exterior the constraints of patron-client relationships. Their r61e was thought of reverse to that of the jeliw, who within the 1960s have been "actively participat[ing] within the development nationale by means of extremely efficient pro-government propaganda, praising and explaining the leaders' and the social gathering's aims" (Meillassoux 1968b:111). The robust social messages of wassoulou have been "not all the time what folks in energy need to hear" (Diallo interview 1995). After the autumn of Modibo Keita, through the temporary interval of financial restoration underneath Mali's second president, Moussa Traore, wassoulou started to collect momentum. It developed in two essential contexts: the radio, and the Ensemble Instrumental Nationwide (EIN), a state-subsidized ensemble of some 40 musicians from completely different areas, who carried out at official features and at festivals. The primary wassoulou artist to hitch the EIN was the feminine singer Coumba Sidibe from Koninko, Yanfolila cercle, who stays one of many singers most generally related to the style. Often known as Coumba saba ("three Coumbas"): Kawako Coumba, Koninko Coumba, Bamako Coumba--"astonishing Coumba, Coumba from Koninko, Coumba from Bamako", the recognition of one in all her songs within the early 1970s raised consciousness of wassoulou as a style. Diya ye banna ("Pleasure ends") is a celebration of youth, lamenting the finite nature of all things--even the packet of sugar, which finally ends up as a mere paper bag that's crumpled up and This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durnn: Birds of Wasulu 123 thrown away. A model recorded in 1977 with the EIN has no kamalengoni, its r6le being taken by the bolon (four-string bass harp); the "folkloric" evocation of Wasulu identification is principally by means of the karinyan scraper. The music is subtitled "Wasulu folklore".45 Across the identical time, a number of the dance orchestras based mostly in Bamako started to incorporate wassoulou songs of their repertoire, which in any other case was largely based mostly on the music of Maninka jeliw (in addition to some worldwide kinds). For instance, the Ambassadeurs du Motel de Bamako carried out a kamalengoni music Deli geleman ("it's exhausting to half with somebody you've grown used to") and later recorded it in Abidjan, renamed Wassouloufoli, with the late "Mengs" Diakite as singer. The selection of Diakite (who was from Wasulu) for this music and never Salif Keita, in any other case the lead singer with the Ambassadeurs, is important. Wassoulou by no means performed greater than a marginal function in Mali's dance band tradition. Initially, it was felt that singers from the area have been required due to the difficulties of the Wasulunke language. With out this, and with out the presence of a kamalengoni, the pentatonic scales and rhythms of wassoulou weren't simply distinguishable from some types of Bamana and different regional musics. Usually it served a intentionally "folkloristic" operate in dance orchestras. By the early 1980s dance bands have been in any case on the decline in Mali; some (just like the Ambassadeurs, who have been independently financed) had left the nation, and others (just like the Rail Band, which was state subsidised) have been taking part in to diminishing audiences. Within the 1970s there have been solely a handful of artists performing wassoulou however the hole created by the demise of dance bands, and the success of Coumba Sidibe, inspired different Wasulunke musicians to maneuver to the capital. Sali Sidibe (Fig. 7), born in Bougouni cercle, was recruited in 1978 (whereas nonetheless in her teenagers) to the EIN, at a time when, in her phrases, "solely the songs of griots have been favoured by Bamako's residents". It was her concept to include the kamalengoni into the ensemble. In the future I requested Dji [the Minister of Culture, Idrissa Mariko] to introduce the devices from Wasulu into the Ensemble. He stated to me, "Why do not you do it? Sing the songs of your area for us!"...I replied, "I will not be capable of sing my songs correctly in my very own language [Wasulunka] with out my devices. The balafon [xylophone] of the jeliw is completely different from the Senufo balafon. The Senufo balafon 'speaks' my language, whereas Maninka devices just like the kora can not 'pronounce' Wasulunka." Then the Minister requested me to convey a djembe and kamalengoni, to see in the event that they actually might "converse" my language. That is how they first made their entry into the Ensemble Instrumental. (Sali Sidibe interview 1989). The brand new emphasis on kamalengoni within the EIN (Fig. Eight) was taken up within the '80s by a lot of smaller unbiased folkloric and wassoulou ensembles performing across the capital. The distinctive sound of the instrument revived the 45 A model recorded in 1977 was re-released on the LP Ensemble instrumental du Mali (Mali Stars), Syllart SYL 8379. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 124 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Fig. 7: Sali Sidibe and kamalengoni participant, at house in Bamako, 1989 connections with the hunters' world and offered a marked distinction to the music of the jeliw which used a unique instrumentation. Round this time many artists have been leaving the EIN, which was felt to be restrictive professionally, some (together with each Sali Sidibe and Coumba Sidibe) taking on solo careers. Each continued to use their standing as "free" singers by commenting on society in a lot of methods. For instance in one in all Coumba Sidibe's songs, Cautious, she condemns the corruptive nature of cash: "Coumba says cash is harmful; greenback cash is dangerous, French cash is dangerous, Malian cash is dangerous; women and men, be careful; when you have cash, however you do not use your head, that cash will destroy you". (from her CD Coumba Sidibe). This may be taken as a touch upon political corruption in addition to on the rising materialism of Malian society (and presumably additionally on the jeliw). This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durin: Birds of Wasulu 125 Fig. Eight: Kamalengoni participant (entrance) with members of the Ensemble Instrumental Nationwide du Mali, Bamako, 1987 The liberty of "fowl" singers to remark with impunity is encapsulated in a Bamana music of the interval by Abdoulaye Diabate: Yayankono, whose chorus says kono bee be kasi le, wa kiri te bo a la : "all of the birds are singing, however nobody can move judgment on them". On this music, he rebuffs criticisms which have been directed at him for issues he has sung, citing the chorus in his defence. Although Diabate is a jeli, he additionally courses himself as kono since he performs wassoulou kinds (Diabate interview 1991).46 46 See additionally above, within the description of sogoninkun and didadi, for a dialogue of Diabate's wassoulou kinds; he was the lead singer with the regional orchestras of Koutiala (Sikasso), Koule Star and Kene Star, c. 1975-85. Yayankono is on his cassette Namawou. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 126 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) The moralising tone of some lyrics mirror methods wherein Moussa Traore's financial and political insurance policies have been severely threatening the social material (see Brenner, forthcoming). In Douga Diarabi (on CD Wassoulou foli), Sali Sidibe sings: Those that are blessed on this world have an obligation in direction of those that should not. God has made some folks rich-what have they performed for God? Others He has made poor; what have they performed to deserve that? If God has listened to the blessings of oldsters and rewarded their kids with wealth, let Him not overlook the poor; if He has rewarded others with massive households, let him not overlook the orphans.47 Such songs, nevertheless, have been additionally balanced with different texts expressing nationalistic sentiments and even pan-Africanism, in addition to songs devoted to political leaders together with Traore himself,48 partly a "technique of survival" for unbiased artists who had no recourse to state subsidy or to the sorts of personal remuneration given to jeliw by their patrons (see Durin 1995). The oppositional relationship of jeli and kono mirror the rising rivalry between the 2; certainly some jeliw regarded the arrival of wassoulou onto the skilled music scene with concern and even hostility. Oumou Sangare recollects: "At first, when ladies singers of wassoulou wished to carry out in public, the jeliw gave us a tough time. They complained that since we're not born into the caste, we had no proper to sing. The caste had an actual monopoly on music in Mali. However our folks have turned all that round, as a result of even when we're not jeliw, we are able to nonetheless be 'artistes'. This has been an actual wrestle for us however in the long run we're popping out on prime as a result of the general public is bored with being extorted for cash." Ami Koita, the most effective recognized and hottest and profitable feminine jeliw (jelimusow) of the mid-'80s and early '90s, articulates a widespread view amongst these singers that they have been the r61e fashions for the feminine "stars" of wassoulou. "Possibly [Wasulu] ladies started to sing their music due to our personal success. Once I was little, each women and men sang wassoulou but it surely wasn't very fashionable, largely it was one thing you heard within the area. It's totally current that folks like Oumou Sangare are profitable with this fashion and I consider it is due to us" (Ami Koita interview 1991). The discourse on the relative deserves of wassoulou vs. jeliya (the artwork of the jeli) extends to ideas and evaluations of musical creativity. The jeli works from a longtime repertoire and inside well-defined parameters of efficiency modes,49 whereas the konow are free to compose new items for which they themselves regularly reset the parameters. On this, parallels between the kono and hunters' musician might be seen. The songs of the jeliw are "merchandise of an extended 47 This (non-linear) translation by Annick Sy was performed to convey the general sense of the music for sleeve notes of the CD. 48 E.g. Coumba Sidibe's music in reward of Houphouet Boigny, and Sali Sidibe's music Ntanan for Moussa Traore, cited above. Sali Sidibe's music Faso Bara encourages Francophone international locations to unite; from her cassette, La perle noir du Wassoulou. 49 These are mentioned intimately by Knight 1972, Charry 1992, and Durdn 1995. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durmn: Birds of Wasulu 127 custom of singers. Nobody artist can create a brand new epic, whereas it isn't out of the bizarre to discover a [hunters'] artist who creates new heroic songs..." (Chicken 1972a:290). Wassoulou is by nature eclectic, combining completely different supply traditions in different methods wherein the kono is seen to have a extra particular person r81e as composer. The folks of Bamako...have grown bored with all the time listening to the identical items carried out repeatedly and invariably by the griots, all the time saying the identical issues. For example Yoro Zumana50 as soon as requested the griots why they do not innovate, do musical analysis, and compose new melodies, they manner that the singers of Wasulu do. The griots replied: "We do not innovate as a result of we now have been born into this, we observe the custom of our moms and dads." This isn't the case [of the kono], and this must be emphasised. (Sali Sidibe interview 1989) Through the 1980s wassoulou underwent an attention-grabbing reversal of the prevailing tendency in Malian fashionable music. At a time when the jeliw have been going more and more "hi-tech", a brand new wave of younger wassoulou artists have been transferring in direction of a extra conventional sound highlighting the kamalengoni but additionally bringing collectively a variety of different regional kinds and devices. One of the crucial influential of those musicians was Oumou Sangare. Born in Bamako, with a household background in Wasulu (her mother and father are from Medina Diassa in Yanfolila and her mom is a sogoninkun singer), Sangare started performing professionally with the folkloric group Djoliba Percussions in 1986. She recorded her first album in Abidjan in 1989 when she was simply 21 years previous and nonetheless single. It was thought of radical in a lot of methods, most of all due to her lyrics brazenly tackle feminist points. The kono, Islam, and gender This raises broader questions of the extent to which gender performs a r61e in wassoulou music, since lots of its greatest recognized exponents are ladies. A full consideration of this problem is exterior the scope of this examine, however right here a number of vital factors could also be raised. In Mande society, singing is usually constructed as a feminine exercise. Camara, in his intensive examine of Maninkajeliw, states categorically that "in Maninka nation, males don't sing in any respect, aside from the griots" (Camara 1975:124; my translation). This division of musical labour (music = feminine; instrumental efficiency, and use of the speech mode = male) (see Durin 1995) has been remarked in passing (although not analysed) by many students. In Meillassoux's dialogue of on the inter-ethnic gumbe5t associations of Bamako within the 1960s, he feedback: "as in different forms of conventional associations, singing is the enterprise of women" (1968b:126). Arnoldi's examine of puppet theatre among the many Bamana provides frequent examples of feminine singers (1983:14, 149, so See word 44 above. 51Gumbe is a mode of youth city music fashionable in Bamako within the 1960s, having arrived there from Senegal within the 1930s; it's widespread in west and central Africa, and was first launched into Sierra Leone within the mid- 19th century by re-settled freed slaves from Jamaica. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 128 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) 200). In each kamalengoni music and sogoninkun the singers are invariably women-indeed within the latter their r1le "is proscribed to singing" (Meillassoux 1968b:96-100). Even within the in any other case all-male hunters' societies, ladies contribute as singers; each Chicken and Cashion confer with the r61e of Seydou Camara's spouse as singer in his in any other case all-male ensemble of apprentices (Chicken 1972a:279; Cashion 1984.2:333 fn Four). The assemble of singing as feminine among the many Mande is a particularly advanced topic.52 Elsewhere, I've famous how feminine jeli singers (jelimusow) dominate fashionable kinds of jeliya in Mali, to the extent that male singers are not often profitable (Durin 1995). In wassoulou, nevertheless, singers could also be of both gender, and it's clear that this represents a break from custom, since in its preliminary phases the singers are invariably feminine. The pioneer singers of wassoulou within the 1960s and early '70s have been ladies, however for the reason that late '80s male singers-notably Abdoulaye Diabate (beforehand talked about), Yoro Diallo (kamalengoni fashion), the singers of the group Wasolonfenin and Jah Youssoufou ("wass reggae")53--have taken their place alongside the feminine konow. This, I counsel, shouldn't be as a result of males are "taking up", however as a result of, with its ethos of social equality and freedom of expression, wassoulou supplies a discussion board for difficult prevailing gender relations, together with the belief that girls ought to be the only real singers. Wassoulou is commonly perceived as reinforcing hyperlinks with non-Islamic perception, and right here too gender performs a r1le. The all-male hunters' music on which wassoulou attracts makes intensive reference to occult energy, since, within the phrases of the singer Seydou Camara, "one can not develop into a hunter/ if no sorcery is in him/ you don't develop into a hunter/ when you have no fetish/ you can not develop into a hunter/ for those who possess no altering energy" (Cashion 1984.2:traces 225-30). Such references are acceptable inside the context of the hunters' world; it's nevertheless one other matter for girls to sing of such issues in public. Sali Sidibe, whose father was the village Imam, says: God made music my factor. However when the authorities [the Ministry of Culture] got here to search out me, my father most popular to go away by the again door not correctly dressed reasonably than must greet them. He stated to me, "Sali, you might be damned in my household! How can I proclaim the phrase of God when you sing profane and animist songs? Clearly, you might be damned. I will not tackle a phrase to those that encourage you in your alternative."...However God made me love music, which I've been performing as much as this present day. I really like nothing extra on this planet than music. (Sali Sidibe, interview 1989) Wassoulou ladies singers concentrate on gendered themes comparable to fertility, wherein occult powers are referred to as upon for assist (infertility is all the time seen as a feminine 52 Some wassoulou and kamalengoni informants present a easy clarification: ladies concentrate on singing as a result of they exhort their menfolk to work the fields. 53 Wass reggae first appeared within the early '90s as a mixture of reggae rhythms with the instrumentation and sound of wassoulou. Most just lately the hyperlinks with wassoulou by self-styled wass reggae artists comparable to Askia Modibo are musically tenuous; Modibo is himself not from Wasulu. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durin: Birds of Wasulu 129 Fig. 9: Oumou Sangare's group in efficiency: Boubacar Diallo (left, guitar), Alima Toure (dancing), Basidi Keita (djembe), Oumou Sangare (proper, background), with calabash percussion, Lille, 1995 downside). For instance, the younger singer Dieneba Diakite had a "hit" in 1993 along with her music Dougou dasiri wherein she implores the dasiri (the sacred defending spirit of the village) to offer her a child, providing sacrifices of crimson kola nuts, a black cockerel and a white sheep in return.54 Typically ladies singers of wassoulou have gotten more and more overt of their criticism of such social establishments as organized marriages and polygamy, whereas their efficiency kinds have a good time ladies's tradition, e.g. by means of using the cowry-strung calabash percussion (Fig. 9) particular to feminine marriage ceremony events. That is echoed within the many songs entitled "ladies", as in Oumou Sangare's album Moussolou. The championing of girls's rights in a society the place the prevailing gender ideology is male-biased is turning into one of the vital developments of wassoulou. In Sangare's most up-to-date recordings, one music (Tiebaw, "males") is addressed to the primary spouse of a polygamous marriage: "She feels deserted by her husband, 54 From her eponymous CD. Diakite was one of many refrain singers on Oumou Sangare's 1989 album Moussolou earlier than forming her personal group Farafina Lolo. The dasiri is claimed to inhabit a spring, rock or tree exterior the village commemorating the village's founding web site; see Zahan 1974:11-13. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 130 British Journal ofEthnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) who now provides all his consideration to the brand new spouse; he provides the whole lot to her. However God is our witness, all this struggling will finish. Ladies of Mali, ladies of Africa and the entire world, allow us to battle collectively to place an finish to this social injustice." One other (Worotan, "ten kola nuts") means that for the worth of ten kola nuts-- the ritual reward of the bridegroom's father to the daddy of the bride-a girl can nearly be offered into slavery.55 Such texts, thought of extremely provocative by extra conservative sectors of Malian society, illustrate methods wherein the konow are pushing their r6le as commentators to an excessive. In all probability essentially the most well-known wassoulou music, Diarabi nene, summarises this spirit in addition to reaffirmnning the youth voice of wassoulou. That is additionally Sangare's "fetish" piece. The time period "fetish" is utilized by performers to explain their most profitable and solicited piece, which in efficiency reconfirms their magical qualities of "stardom"; in live performance, she all the time adjustments right into a costume reflecting the temper of the lyrics (Fig. 10) (Sangare interview 1995). Diarabi nene ("Shivers of ardour") is an adaptation of an older kamalengoni music which has explicitly erotic lyrics expressing the point of view of the single feminine. In the meantime, the unmistakable sounds of the kamalengoni punctuate the music with vivid solos, drawing the listener again into the world of Wasulu hunters. Ah child, we'll see one another within the morning. Anticipate me, my love, and do not suppose an excessive amount of, do not suppose an excessive amount of concerning the shivers of ardour. ...after I speak of shivers, I am not speaking of the chilly season, or the rains, I am speaking of the shivers of affection, my candy one. my fathers, you may tut at me, my moms, I'm responsible... life is pleasurable, I swear to God. Anticipate me right here, my love. Oh God, the day that I obtained up, every to his future! to knock on the door, no want to speak, my love opened the door, no want for phrases. I put my leg on his leg, his leg is chilly, I put my hand towards his arm, my pores and skin is gooseflesh, on my love's arm. I put my hand on his chest, his chest is chilly, my love's chest. My chest is shivering. I put my hand low on his abdomen, on my love's abdomen, mm, the shivers of affection! There are various pleasures however not all are the identical! Ah child, I will see you within the morning.56 55 WCD zero45, forthcoming June 1996 (as but untitled). Descriptions of the music lyrics have been provided by Oumou Sangare. 56 From Moussolou, CD; translations with assist from Annick Sy. An older, much less elaborated model of this music might be discovered on Bintou Sidibe's eponymous cassette. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durtn: Birds of Wasulu 131 Fig. 10: Oumou Sangare performing her 'fetish' piece Diarabi Nene, Paris, 1995 Conclusion The time period wassoulou is now used to cowl a variety of musical kinds which, regardless of the identify, solely loosely signify regional identities and musical genres. Extra vital is the truth that its performers are persevering with to enact an important social r6le as musicians who carry out by alternative, not beginning, a r6le which has its roots in a lot older traditions. This "free" standing, emphasised within the time period "fowl", allows them to remark with impunity on elementary problems with relevance to Malian society, whereas re-creating the heroic values of the previous by means of their music. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 132 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This text is an growth of a paper introduced on the third worldwide MANSA convention held at Leiden, March 1995. It represents present work in direction of my PhD thesis (SOAS, College of London) on the function of girls in Mande fashionable music. I wish to thank members of MANSA who've contributed to this text, particularly Cheick Cherif Keita who offered essential insights and data, and gave generously of his time. Barbara Hoffman, Eric Charry and Stephen Belcher have additionally made helpful ideas. Thanks additionally to Annick Sy for assist with translations. REFERENCES Amselle, Jean-Loup (1972) 'Histoire et construction social du Wasulu avant Samori.' Paper introduced to the Convention on Manding Research. (1990) Logiques mitisses: anthropologie de l'identitd en Afrique et ailleurs. Paris: Bibliothbque scientifique Payot. and M'bokolo, Elikia, ed. (1985) Au coeur de l'ethnie: ethnies, tribalisme et stat en Afrique. Paris: Editions la d6couverte. Arnoldi, Mary Jo (1983) Puppet theatre within the Segu area of Mali. PhD thesis, Indiana College. Chicken, Charles (1972a) 'Heroic songs of the Mande hunters.' In Richard M. Dorson (ed.) African folklore, 275-93. Indiana Univ. Press. 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INTERVIEWS Oumou Sangare, Bamako 1991, Paris 1995, [original language: French]; Abdoulaye Diabate, Paris 1992 [French]; Sidiki Diabate, Bamako 1995 [Mandinka]; Sali Sidibe, Bamako 1989 [Bamana, trans. into French by Youssouf Tata Cisse]; Zoumano Yoro Traore, Bamako 1989 [French]; Boubacar Diallo, Paris 1995 [French]; Kassim Sidibe, Paris 1995 [Wasulunke, trans. into French by Amadou Tera]; Ami Koita, Bamako 1987, London 1991 [Maninka, trans. into French by Samir Naman] DISCOGRAPHY Diabate, Abdoulaye: Namawou (Syllart audio cassette SYL 83135) Diabate, Abdoulaye: Kassikoun (Syllart audio cassette SYL 38765-Four) Diakite, Dieneba: Dieneba Diakite (Mali Stars CD 38108-2) Diallo, Yoro: Yoro Diallo dit "Tiekorobani" vol.1 (Samassa audio cassette SAM 0182924) Diawara, Fanta Naya: Fanta Naya Diawara no.1 (audio cassette AM 91001) Doumbia, Nahawa: Didadi (Syllart SYL 8337) Fane, Alou: Fote mocoba---kamalan n'goni-dozon n'goni (Dakar Sound CD DKS 005, 1994) Jamana Sorofe: Jeliya (Jamana audio cassette Ok2043) Koita, Ami: Tata Sira (Bolibana CD 42079.2) Sangare, Oumou: Moussolou (World Circuit WCD 021) Sangare, Oumou: Ko Sira (World Circuit WCD 036) Sangare, Oumou: (title not obtainable) (World Circuit WCD zero45, forthcoming) Sidibe, Bintou: Bintou Sidibe (Tremendous Sound audio cassette ENC SS 37) Sidibe, Coumba: Coumba Sidibe (Mali Stars CD 38111-2) Sidibe, Coumba: Sanghan (Camara Manufacturing CD FDBO32) Sidibe, Sali: Sali Sidibe (Syllart audio cassette SYL 8362) Sidibe, Sali: Wassouloufoli (Stems STCD 1047) Sidibe, Sali: La perle noir du Wassoulou (Camara audio cassette CK7 044) (numerous artists) The wassoulou sound: ladies ofMali vol 1 (Stems STCD 1035) (numerous artists) The wassoulou sound: ladies ofMali vol 2 (Sterns STCD 1048) Wasolonfenin: on Electrical and acoustic Mali (EMI Hemisphere CD 72438 2818625, bd 11) This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 134 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Lucy Durin is Lecturer in African Music on the College of Oriental and African Research. Since 1976 she has performed intensive fieldwork on Mandinka music in Gambia and Senegal, altering focus in 1986 to Maninka fashionable music in Mali. She has produced a number of albums with Mande musicians. Her intensive publications and freelance broadcasting (for BBC radio and tv) have lined numerous areas of Africa and Latin America. Handle: SOAS, Thornhaugh Avenue, London WC1H OXG, England; e- mail ld@soas.ac.uk Peter Cooke was the primary to introduce her to African music, by means of recordings of amadinda. Later, they labored collectively on the New Grove dictionary of music. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Article Contents p. 101 p. 102 p. 103 p. 104 p. 105 p. 106 p. 107 p. 108 p. 109 p. 110 p. 111 p. 112 p. 113 p. 114 p. 115 p. 116 p. 117 p. 118 p. 119 p. 120 p. 121 p. 122 p. 123 p. 124 p. 125 p. 126 p. 127 p. 128 p. 129 p. 130 p. 131 p. 132 p. 133 p. 134 Concern Desk of Contents British Journal of Ethnomusicology, Vol. Four, Particular Concern: Introduced to Peter Cooke (1995), pp. i-x+1-184 Entrance Matter [pp. i-iv] Editorial Preface [p. v] Visitor Editor's Preface [p. vi] Peter R. Cooke, Checklist of Publications [pp. vii-ix] What Can We Study Piobaireachd? [pp. 1-15] Melodic Relationships in Pibroch [pp. 17-39] The Concertina as an Emblem of the Folks Music Revival within the British Isles [pp. 41-49] Music and Politics in Eire: The Specificity of the Folks Revival in Belfast [pp. 51-75] Ritual, Faith and Magic in West Mongolian (Oirad) Heroic Epic Efficiency [pp. 77-99] Birds of Wasulu: Freedom of Expression and Expressions of Freedom within the Standard Music of Southern Mali [pp. 101-134] Compositional Methods in Roman Catholic Church Music in Uganda [pp. 135-155] Evaluations of Books Assessment: untitled [pp. 157-158] Assessment: untitled [pp. 158-160] Assessment: untitled [pp. 160-161] Assessment: untitled [pp. 161-163] Assessment: untitled [pp. 163-166] Assessment: untitled [pp. 166-168] Assessment: untitled [pp. 168-169] Assessment: untitled [pp. 169-171] Assessment: untitled [pp. 171-172] Assessment: untitled [pp. 172-174] Assessment: untitled [pp. 175-176] Assessment: untitled [pp. 176-179] Evaluations of Recordings Assessment: untitled [pp. 179-181] Assessment: untitled [pp. 181-182] Assessment: untitled [pp. 182-184] Assessment: untitled [p. 184] Again Matter -research paper writing service