The Housing Problem in Hong Kong Essay

In 28 Dec.,2012, Greenview Villa started to simply accept patrons, the preliminary enthusiastic response from the inflexible demand of the property market property costs, has acquired about 600 copies of the primary day of registration, to mirror the inflexible housing demand in Hong Kong robust, to face a severe scarcity of provide, excessive property costs excessive, and the general public in shopping for tough, aside from rising rents result in the dwelling atmosphere of the grassroots extra obvious retrogression, the state of affairs is worrying.

Greenview Villa “that is the earlier authorities to ease the benefit the housing issues of the product, initially funded by the federal government, in order that the sandwich class of first-time dwelling patrons hire to purchase, named” MHPP.

Mr Tsang introduced in his coverage handle in October by 2010 to launch this program, the principle motive is the federal government stubbornly refused social resumption of HOS necessities, then submitted various to answer the voice of the general public backed housing.

Over the previous two years, the Hong Kong property costs continued to rise, the housing drawback is changing into extra deterioration from through the marketing campaign the Chief Government to after taking workplace, Leung Chun-ying are advocated re-launch the HOS insurance policies, however have to construct, ” Greenview Villa ” simply the change the “use” in some way turn out to be HOS speedy aid.

Lately, the costs of property are so excessive, it's as a result of the primary one is in brief provide, the second is the low rate of interest atmosphere “pushes” demand diminishing practically uncontrolled. I believe the one resolution is to extend provide, curb demand. Nevertheless, rising the availability of land to hurry up housing building, none of a fast repair could not three or 5 years, exhausting to bear fruit, it's removed from the water can't put out a detailed fireplace.

As well as, together with Hong Kong after the 1980s and 1990s the financial take-off, a variety of fifty or sixty members of the general public, has accomplished mortgage spare capability to help kids rising up in different dwelling possession. Like Greenview Villa “potential patrons, singletons accounted for almost all of which would be the mother and father to assist pay the down cost, I imagine a big quantity. Just like the mortgage funds and hire expense within the present atmosphere, even for flat too hire, demand for dwelling possession on this regard shouldn't be underestimated.

The ultra-high property costs, even the center class purchase their very own properties, whereas the joint rents hovering, grassroots affected much more. Unable to attend a very long time on the decrease strata of the general public housing, usually are not eligible to use for public housing and weak point of the “sandwich class” to purchase a property, compelled to pay excessive rents. Not afford the excessive hire by solely retreat Verify sub-divided items, cubicles, caged, an increasing number of individuals to keep away from decreasing the appalling dwelling circumstances.

Prior to now 12 months, the property market within the quantity of worth rise or if the state of affairs continued, planted a serious fear for Hong Kong’s social and financial improvement. First, the housing drawback triggered additional exacerbate the disparity between the wealthy and the poor, the deep social grievances Day; World financial confront unpredictable rates of interest, in spite of everything, must regain uptrend day as soon as brought on by the bursting of the asset bubble, the dire penalties of the financial blow.

Approaching in 2013, property costs within the short-term materials can be excessive consolidation, and thereafter go from right here, relying on the financial atmosphere and downs, extra to see whether or not the SAR Authorities could make a distinction. Hong Kong individuals can solely reside inside its means, ready within the wings, self-reliant.

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Confession of a Shopaholic Essay

Krysten Ritter as Rebecca Bloom wooden is an enthralling lady candy and good New York Metropolis lady who've a tiny little downside that changed into an enormous downside due to her dependancy to buy and drowning in a sea of dep’t the temptation of her being shopaholic. Whereas Rebecca has a dream to work to firm in vogue magazines. Till she discovered a job as an recommendation columnist for a brand new monetary journal printed by the identical firm. When the times previous her columns grow to be a massively standard of their city that changed into a celeb.

However when her compulsive purchasing and rising debt challenge that destroy her provider , job and love life. She struggles to maintain all of it from a spiralling uncontrolled and finally pressured to revaluate what’s actually vital in life. When she understand all of the incorrect issues that she do. She pre-sale all her issues like sneakers , clothes , garments , bag and the crucial factor that she purchase the headband.

II. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE MOVIE As I perceive this film when she was a baby when she look within the home windows she noticed one other world I believe an ideal dreamy world which have a number of stunning issues that each women obtained what they wished to get like jacket , diesel , gown , emic , belts , grasp card , sneakers and lots of extra.

When she went to a retailer she noticed a inexperienced scarf she purchase it even she a number of funds to pay. Rebecca and her greatest pal speak about her funds what she would going to do. When she’s on her means she noticed a model with a inexperienced scarf she informed to herself that she have a invoice so she don’t want a shawl however when the model speak to her that she want that scarf to maintain her neck heat. III. INSIGHTS (REACTION) All I can say to this film is that this film is so stunning if you watch it. When She was a baby her dream is to get all issues what she wished to get. She begin Purchasing when she was younger. When she look into the store window she see a unique world a world that women can get what they wished to get. She see stunning women that’s fits the clothes it seems to be like a princess In a fort and fairy within the great land. She thinks additionally that folks shopping for on the store have don’t cash as a result of all she is aware of that they pay it with a card not with a cash. However when she is an grownup she know what the magic card she referred to as is. Krysten Ritter as Rebecca Bloom wooden occupation is journalist as she say in film that I been watch.

She have lots o sneakers and various things on her home. She has a small downside that changed into an enormous downside. She has a number of credit to Derek smith. She making use of a job in a vogue journal. Earlier than she go to the corporate she noticed a inexperienced scarf in a boutique store its appear like a costly. Despite the fact that she don’t have the funds for she do all issues simply to purchase that factor. So she go to a hotdog retailer after which there’s a person shopping for hotdog and gave her cash earlier than the person left. The person says “You need your scarf and I would like my hotdog” That traces make me snort. Rebecca says to the person “THANKS YOU AND I APPRECIATE IT”. After she pay the headband she went quicker to the style journal firm for an interview. When she’s their she noticed Alicia I don’t know the surname Alicia has an extended legs if you happen to see. After which Rebecca went to the Workplace for the interview she throw her scarf on the chair as a result of she lie that she didn’t purchase the headband however the lady give it to her that’s the headband is her personal. After which the man interview her she thinks that her title was erased. When she went house Derek smith referred to as her and she or he excuse that she’s In Finland.

She says a number of excuses simply to cover her self to Derek. She has a number of credit and I believe it a 1000's. Till she do a plan along with her greatest pal. When she’s along with her father and mom out there her boss referred to as her to inform that I believe her boss informed her that she will’t work now. She went to the mail firm to get her letter get it hardly as a result of there are folks with it. She’s attempting to get it conceal after that she went to a gathering with the members of the corporate. After that Rebecca and her greatest pal when to the bookstore to purchase a e-book for these shopaholic if how can she leaved her dependancy. She have to throw all of her issues. As an alternative she throw it she put all in her cupboard to safe all her issues. She went to a convention and to get the speaker mad and she or he do it completely and her boss obtained happy with her. After the convention she noticed a that paper saying that there have pre-sale and she or he go there and she or he noticed a boots and she or he ask herself if she do want the sneakers. After that I believe she understand that she didn’t want it. On this film you may get some lesson don’t purchase issues if will not be vital it’s only a temptation for us to know.

The little issues it’s not vital to purchase. Rebecca lied to her boss she inform that Derek smith is her ex-boyfriend that annoying her all the time. Rebecca went to her dad and mom’ house to inform all the pieces if I perceive and I believe her dad and mom gave her some recommendation that she would do. After that when she was of their workplace I believe they've a a profitable demographic. Rebecca and her greatest pal went to the style to make a robe for her greatest pal’s wedding ceremony. Derek smith referred to as to Rebecca once more and Rebecca didn’t reply it. As an alternative she report her voice saying “Don't reply Derek smith cellphone name”. After that half Rebecca and her boss went to the boutique to search out some informal put on for the celebration that they going to swimsuit.

Once they went to the celebration they kiss one another. After the celebration when Rebecca goes to her work she noticed Derek smith going to their firm to her boss workplace to inform that Rebecca has a number of credit. After I watch the film I there’s some issues that flying on my thoughts. And that’s the significance of the cash. I've a number of lesson that I utilized to myself that don’t purchase issues if it's not vital spent your cash for these vital issues than to purchase these issues that’s makes you home appear like a junk store? I’ve been take pleasure in watching it these love scene her greatest pal wedding ceremony and all the pieces after I watch it. I fall asleep and dreaming what I watch. I really like this film.

A Doll’s House Analysis Essay

That she understands the enterprise particulars associated to the debt she incurred taking out a mortgage to protect Torvald’s well being signifies that she is clever and possesses capacities past mere wifehood. Her description of her years of secret labor undertaken to repay her debt reveals her fierce willpower and ambition. Moreover, the truth that she was prepared to interrupt the legislation with a purpose to guarantee Torvald’s well being reveals her braveness. Krogstad’s blackmail and the trauma that follows don't change Nora’s nature; they open her eyes to her unfulfilled and underappreciated potential.

I've been performing tips for you, Torvald,” she says throughout her climactic confrontation with him. Nora comes to appreciate that along with her literal dancing and singing tips, she has been placing on a present all through her marriage. She has pretended to be somebody she shouldn't be with a purpose to fulfill the position that Torvald, her father, and society at giant have anticipated of her.

Torvald’s extreme and egocentric response after studying of Nora’s deception and forgery is the ultimate catalyst for Nora’s awakening.

However even within the first act, Nora reveals that she shouldn't be completely unaware that her life is at odds along with her true character. She defies Torvald in small but significant methods—by consuming macaroons after which mendacity to him about it, for example. She additionally swears, apparently only for the pleasure she derives from minor riot in opposition to societal requirements. Because the drama unfolds, and as Nora’s consciousness of the reality about her life grows, her want for riot escalates, culminating in her strolling out on her husband and kids to search out independence

Electronic Money Transfer Essay

Digital Fund Switch seems for a lot of as the subsequent logical step in superior digital and computing expertise, having the potential to turn into the cash of the long run, digital fund switch (ETF) has caught the eyes of entrepreneurs, IT professionals, pc scientists and economists.

ETF is in two business merchandise, the card-based and software-based. This analysis emphasis on ETF is from the software program notion. This specialised software program that has been extensively researched and experimented is designed to allow the technique of transferring cash domestically from one level to a different.

This requires the switch of cash between events by way of digital system which were customary to take action.

This mission goals on the comfort of the switch of funds and to develop specialised software program, which is able to allow the secured and detailed switch of funds.


1.1Background of Examine
A easy and value efficient technique of transferring cash domestically from one level to a different, with emphasis on the design of a program (software program).

Digital Cash (E-Cash) could also be broadly outlined as an digital retailer of financial worth on a technical system that could be probably used for making funds to undertakings apart from the problems with out essentially involving financial institution accounts within the transaction, however appearing as a pay as you go bearer instrument (European Central Financial institution, 1998). In different phrases, Digital Cash is cash that can not be touched (cashless) or held (paperless) however might be transacted on line. These merchandise could possibly be categorised into two broad classes.

a.Software program-based Merchandise
b.Card-based Merchandise

Software program-based Merchandise: employs specialised software program on a private pc, sometimes permitting the digital worth to be transferred.

Card-based Merchandise: these are pay as you go saved worth card typically referred to as “digital purse”. Digital worth saved on a plastic card with a chip/magnetic strip.

The principle distinction between the card-based merchandise are sure points of technical security measures and the storage medium of the digital cash nonetheless, there are additionally similarities in each instances the person has to pay upfront for the worth saved as digital cash items, which may then be used for cost functions. Within the processor recollections and through transfers between them, the digital cash is represented by an encrypted string of bits. It initializes by means of units or codes that allow you to or these licensed to take action. Digital cash differs from different current types of cash in numerous methods. As compared with money, which makes use of solely bodily security measures, digital cash merchandise use cryptography to authenticate transactions and to guard the confidentiality and the integrity of information. Digital cash now not must be bodily exchanged like financial institution notes and thus might be extra simply used for distant funds.

1.2Objective of Examine

It's identified that a number of technique of switch of funds have been used to cope with the options of e-money, sadly these strategies have confirmed to be unsafe of their transactions.

As a contribution to the success of globalization, the usage of this program would supply a secured and straightforward circulate of switch of funds conveniently.

1.3Significance of Examine

The success of most software program mission improvement is set if there's a secured and correct switch of funds, which may solely be achieved if the precise software program packages are used and the precise info made.

The examine reveals methods to design a value efficient software program program as a simple means for the circulate of cash switch.

1.4Scope of Examine

This examine will likely be concentrating on the way in which cash is transferred from one level to a different, utilizing specialised software program put in on a private pc.

1.5Limitation of Examine

One of many limitations of this examine is getting info from related sources that function the switch of funds. Different limitations embody time interval and monetary constraint.

1.6Research Methodology
The knowledge used for this examine was by means of the next analysis methodology.
Completely different papers and publications have been downloaded from the web, which aimed in making the work successful.
•Textbooks on Programming Language
Some textbooks on programming language have been additionally used as a supply of data.

Money Pad Essay


“Cash within the 21st century will certainly show to be as totally different from the cash of the present century as our cash is from that of the earlier century. Simply as fiat cash changed specie-backed paper currencies, electronically initiated debits and credit will turn into the dominant fee modes, creating the potential for personal cash to compete with government-issued currencies.” Simply as each factor is getting beneath the shadow of “e” right now now we have paper foreign money being changed by digital cash or e-cash.

Hardly a day goes by with out some point out within the monetary press of latest developments in “digital cash”. Within the rising discipline of digital commerce, novel buzzwords like good playing cards, on-line banking, digital money, and digital checks are getting used to debate cash. However how are these brand-new types of fee safe?

And most significantly, which of those rising safe digital cash applied sciences will survive into the following century? These are among the robust inquiries to reply however right here’s an answer, which offers a type of safety to those modes of foreign money change utilizing the “Biometrics Know-how”.

The Cash Pad launched right here makes use of the biometrics know-how for Finger Print recognition. Cash Pad is a type of bank card or smartcard, which we identify so. Each time the person desires to entry the Cash Pad he has to make an impression of his fingers which can be scanned and matched with the one within the laborious disk of knowledge base server. If the finger print matches with the person’s he can be allowed to entry and use the Pad different sensible the Cash Pad shouldn't be accessible.

Thus offering a type of safety to the ever-lasting transaction foreign money of the longer term “e-cash”.

Key phrases:

1. Cash Pad – A type of bank card or good card just like floppy disk, which is launched to offer, safe e-cash transactions.

2. Digital or Digital Money or Digi-cash or E-cash or Ecash or Digital Cash –

These phrases are additionally used interchangeably, and so they discuss with any of the assorted strategies that enable an individual to buy items or providers by transmitting a quantity from one laptop to a different. The numbers are issued by a financial institution and symbolize sums of actual cash. Digital money is nameless and reusable.

Three. Private Digital Help – A PDA, typically known as a palm-top laptop, is smaller than a laptop computer laptop and doesn't have as a lot computing energy. Used to ship e mail through a wi-fi modem, write paperwork in a textual content editor, carry out calculations in a spreadsheet, retailer names and addresses, and carry out different frequent enterprise and private duties.

four. Biometrics Know-how – Know-how used to precisely establish and confirm a person’s identification.
5. Finger Print Reader – A machine with learn/write head able to studying the knowledge saved within the Cash Pad.
6. Float – The transaction when it comes to digi-cash, which takes zero-sum achieve, is known as float.
7. Fiat Cash – Licensed cash.
Eight. Specie-Backed – Coined cash.
9. Respectable – Legislation full.


The 21st century won't be “cashless”, as many now predict. Nevertheless, it does appear clear that the foreign money of the 21st century can be “paperless”. Paper foreign money and checks are regularly being supplanted by smartcards, digital money and prompt transfers of funds. The massive paper paperwork of banks is rapidly turning into redundant, burdensome, even antiquated. The evolution in digital cash is occurring so quick that banks can not undertake rapidly sufficient and can ultimately collapse like top-heavy giants, blown over by the winds of economic change. Possibly, or will not be, however one pattern is already clear. The pockets of the longer term will maintain much less paper money, cash and magnetic stripe playing cards. It would maintain as a substitute Cash Pad containing digital money and different monetary data, up to date — maybe routinely — by a PDA with a satellite tv for pc communication hyperlink.

As the brand new applied sciences turn into new methods of creating fee, one concern naturally arises. Will this know-how defend every particular person’s proper to privateness whereas offering the sound cash wanted for the financial well being of communities? The reply is straightforward — it relies on how the brand new know-how is used. There's nothing inherent within the know-how that makes it much less protecting of privateness and particular person rights. Development’s like Biometrics Know-how has made particular person privateness much more safe. As developments in digital cash collect tempo, safety of particular person rights should be stored in focus. As a result of the document of most governments thus far in these early phases of digital commerce has been seen by many to be confrontational and never protecting of particular person rights, it's possible that the preservation of those rights is one cause that personal currencies are prone to emerge on the Web and to ultimately play an essential position in world commerce.

To be able to defend the rights and properties of every particular person we considered offering a safety system, which each and every human being can perceive and be happy to make use of. Human beings really feel safe after they have their very own safety preparations to guard their rights and in addition to wealth. Holding this perspective in thoughts the Biometrics Know-how is use to develop an e-cash dealing with system, which is analogous to well-known bank cards and smartcards. The e-cash dealing with system is a tool that facilitates safe foreign money transactions. We name it as Cash Pad which recognises Finger Print’s of the person and decides climate the person is a authorised particular person or not. Each time the person desires to entry the Cash Pad he has to make an impression of his finger, which can be sensed and matched with the one within the laborious disk. If the finger print matches with the person’s he can be allowed to entry and use the Pad different sensible the Cash Pad shouldn't be accessible.

Technical Particulars Of The Paper

• Fundamental Of The Current System:

Presently because of the utilization of computer systems in nearly all of the fields the demand for the utilization of Digital Cash have been elevated. Funds made right now in practically all the deposit currencies on the planet’s banking programs are dealt with electronically by a collection of interbank laptop networks. Bank cards and smartcards are broadly used to enter into these interbank laptop networks with the intention to carry out transactions. These are the favored medium broadly current as a current medium of foreign money within the e-cash situation. The mode of utilization and the safety offered by these foreign money mediums are as follows.

• Credit score Card:

Bank cards are fee units that enable the buyer to make purchases inside sure assured limits as outlined by the issuer of the cardboard. To make use of a bank card most often it's adequate to current the service provider with the cardboard quantity and the cardholder’s identify and expiration date of the cardboard. These information will be conveniently transmitted over the Web. Moreover, bank cards course of funds by digital means. The person has to swap the cardboard within the card reader machine then the machine asks for authentication data like secret password and so forth. Later the person is allowed to carry out the transaction. These bank cards have a number of disadvantages like, Disadvantages:

r On the spot clearing of funds shouldn't be potential.
r Consumer is all the time beneath the strain of limits on buy outlined by the issuer of the cardboard and likewise each transaction includes sure expenses.
r Insecure transactions utilizing mounted encryption.
r The cardboard must be renewed as soon as it's expired.

• Smartcards:

A smartcard resembles a bank card besides that it has a microchip embedded inside it, which permits the smartcard to retailer data and typically to even carry out easy calculations. Widespread smartcard chips sometimes holds about Eight,000 bytes (characters) of data, which allows the smartcard to carry out a wide range of features comparable to identification, storing checking account data and holding digital money. Cost data within the type of foreign money worth is saved on this chip and will be retrieved with specifically designed card readers.

r Insecure transactions utilizing mounted encryption.
r Danger of knowledge loss resulting from chip failure.

• New Strategy

As that is an period of web each factor is getting on-line like procuring, enterprise, banking and so forth. Within the current pattern even cash is out there on-line at any time within the type of digi-cash or cybercash and so forth. These are the current medium of change, that are needed for the existence of e-banking. As in future the world goes to be paper much less money the existence of e-cash will lead e-banking. In future web goes to seize the entire world and the non-public foreign money will turn into the media of change in e-banks changing the federal government foreign money. Holding this perspective in thoughts and to over come the above drawbacks of bank cards and good playing cards right here we current a medium of change to hold digital money wherever man desires, which we identify as “Cash Pad”.

Cash Pad:

Cash pad is one such medium of change, which goals to offer safe technique of foreign money change. It’s a implies that carries digital money, as paper money goes to extinct. “To be able to use this cash pad it's essential to have a minimum of one e-bank in each metropolis”.

Cash pad is a biometric system just like a bank card or a sensible card identical to a floppy disk. It consists of a contact sensor and magnetic disk as its peripherals (Fig-1 web page -Eight). Contact sensor is used to document the fingerprint of the person. Magnetic disk, which has the learn and write permission is used to carry the authentication particulars of the person, financial institution code in addition to digi-cash. The financial institution code and account variety of the proprietor of this cash pad is current on the label.

Fig-1 A Cash Pad
Operation of Cash Pad:

• New Consumer: (Refer fig-2 web page 10)

When a person needs to have a Cash Pad, he's supposed to go to a close to by financial institution which has a e-bank facility. It's needed for the brand new person to create a account with some minimal stability. The authentication particulars alongside along with his fingerprint is recorded and saved within the information base server. The person is supplied with a account quantity and financial institution code alongside along with his Cash Pad. The Cash Pad consists of saved data like account quantity, financial institution code (from the place he has bought this cash pad) and his fingerprint.

• Transaction utilizing Cash Pad: (Refer fig-Three web page 10)

Each time a person desires to make use of the Cash Pad he has to position his finger on the contact sensor after which place it in a finger print reader. The reader will ask for financial institution code in order that he can enter into his e-bank, then his account quantity in order that he can enter into his account. After this the reader will entry the fingerprint and matches with that current on the Cash Pad in addition to current within the information base server. If a match happens the reader is aware of that he's a authorised person and permits for additional transactions. If not then the reader involves know that the person is unauthorised and a provision will be made in order that the digicash current within the Cash Pad is e-mailed again to the authorised account holder utilizing the person particulars current within the Cash Pad. Because the Cash Pad has learn and write facility it's used to down load digi-cash, stick with it transaction and retailer the stability.

Write Shield

Contact Sensor
Outer cowl
Area For
Magnetic Disk
Central Hub

Why use Cash pad?

• On the spot clearing of funds

The moment clearing of funds means the tip of ‘float’, which is the time spent ready for a fund switch to clear. Funds will be immediately made as man himself carries digi-cash with him. There isn't any want for any intermediate social gathering to clear the funds.

• Avoids the insecure method of carrying cash

The current pattern is filled with theft and theft. Man is in worry whereas he's carrying an enormous quantity from place to position. The medium of change that's launched (Cash Pad) eliminates this worry since man needn't carry any laborious money as it's saved within the type of digital cash. In case he loses the Cash Pad the availability will be made such that the misplaced money will be recurred into his personal account by e-mail facility.

• Gives sturdy safety

As we all know each physique has a unique fingerprint it's a uncommon case to have two individuals with identical fingerprint. Taking this into consideration Cash Pad makes use of Biometric Know-how to offer sturdy safety.

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