# Measuring Calories and Structure and Role of Macronutrients

My hypothesis was incorrect for this experiment; the manufacturer’s calorie count was considerably higher than the results of this experiment. Originally I thought that the manufacturers would have a lower calorie count in order to attract more customers into eating their products. Major companies would have proper facilities to be able to correctly measure the amount of calories in their products; however there are several things that could have given a more accurate reading in the experiment.
I believe that this is the reason why the results from the experiment were so different to that of the manufacturers. It is important to know exactly how many calories are in the food and drinks we consume, this is because our bodies only need a certain amount which we can work out with our BMR. BMR stands for Basal Metabolic Rate and to calculate this it takes into account the persons age, weight, height and average level of exercise.
If someone who has a BMR of 2200 calories and they are consuming 2500 calories each day then that person will gradually gain weight unless they increase their level of exercise, using this same type of thinking it would work the other way around, if the same person consumed 2000 calories each day then they would gradually lose weight. Considering the experiment actually showed that the manufacturers have stated lower amount of calories I think that the main reason for this would be down to the experiment itself.

If I could do this experiment again I would try to find a way to trap more of the heat and send it towards the can, in this experiment the foil was just below the can which could allow a lot of heat to be lost to the environment which could make the results show the calories were lower than they really are. Another factor that could affect the results is that the tin can itself could take some of the heat away from the water, the experiment requires the water to get heat to gather a reading however if the can must be heated before it can reach the water then heat energy will be lost in the process.
One aspect of the experiment that I would definitely change if I did it again would be to test more foods and to test each one multiple times rather than just once each, this can ensure a more accurate reading. Explain how cells and tissues make use of macronutrients and review the scientific evidence that supports the idea that an individual with a high BMI may have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. To keep the human body functioning correctly it needs nourishment, through eating and drinking the body can get this.
The most important nutrients the body requires are called macronutrients; they are called this because they are the big (macro) nutrients. There are three macronutrients that are vital for the body to survive and these are carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Carbohydrates can be obtained through consuming bread, cereals, honey or other sugars. These carbohydrates are the bodies main source of energy, once they are in the body they can be broken down in two ways, the simple sugars can be used straight away within the cells were as the more complex sugars need to be broken down by the enzymes in the gut to make them into the simpler sugars.
Once these sugars are in the cells they can be used for internal respiration to help the cells and tissues to function. If not all the energy from the carbohydrates is required then the body can also store it as fat. Fats are used for two main purposes, the first being insulation. When the environment is too cold for the body to handle fats can help to insulate the heat and keep our bodies warm. The second use of fats is food storage, when the body is not getting enough energy from foods it can break down these food stores to produce extra needed energy.
Fats can be obtained from foods such as butter or olive/sunflower oils. Proteins are the last macronutrient, these can be used for energy however this is not their main function. The main function of the proteins is the building and repair of tissues. Our muscles are made of an estimated 20% protein, when tissues such as muscles get damaged proteins are used to repair them so the body can function once more.
Information provided by the BMJ (British Medical Journal) states that “research has shown children who have a high BMI between 9 and 12 years of age are more likely to have high blood pressure, cholesterol and blood insulin levels (all risk factors for developing heart disease) by the time they reach adolescence. ” This shows that there is a link between BMI and the causes of cardiovascular disease. An individual’s BMI can be calculated by using their height and weight so it can tell you if you are over, under or the healthy weight.
So this research is basically saying that if a child is overweight and continues to be overweight, the chances are they could develop symptoms that commonly lead to cardiovascular problems. Being overweight can be caused by the body storing too much fat, which in turn can be caused by eating too many fats and/or carbohydrates and not doing enough physical exercise. If a person has a high BMI it means that their body is getting more nourishment than it needs or is not using up enough of the carbohydrates leading to fat stores. Cardiovascular disease can be caused by a variety of different symptoms such as the ones mentioned in the report.
An example of how these could be linked to having a high BMI could be high blood pressure, if there are fats or cholesterol blocking a part of the cardiovascular system, the heart will have to work harder to pump the blood around the body and by doing this it is causing unnecessary work for the heart, and this is what leads to more life threatening problems. What is the role of vitamins and minerals in the human diet? Give one example of each of the above that affect the same body tissue/organ if that are deficient. As well as the macronutrients the body also needs micronutrients (minerals) and vitamins.
Examples of minerals would be calcium, iron, etc. These are important like the macronutrients however they are just needed in smaller doses giving them the name micro (small). Examples of vitamins would be vitamin C which is found in citrus fruits and vitamin K which can be found in leafy green foods such as broccoli or spinach. Much like minerals, these are important just like the macronutrients but these vitamins are just needed in very small doses. Examples of how these can affect the human body would be calcium and vitamin D.
Calcium can be mainly found in dairy products as well as leafy green vegetables. Calcium is what builds and maintains our bones. Without calcium in our bodies bone density would decrease and would be more likely to suffer from breaks. As well as consuming enough calcium the body also relies on a healthy level of vitamin D, this is mostly produced in the skin through the use of ultra violet rays from the sun. Vitamin D promotes calcium absorption within the body. This means that bones rely on a healthy balance between both calcium and vitamin D.
If the body is deficient in either one of these two nutrients the whole skeletal system could be at risk of developing problems such as ricketts or osteoporosis. Ricketts is when the bones a softened due to the lack of calcium present in them, causing them to be prone to fractures or deformity. Osteoporosis is when the bones become less dense causing them to weaken, become brittle and break. The main problem with osteoporosis is that once the bones have broken, they are difficult to heal again as there is simply not enough calcium to maintain them again.

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