Role of a Teacher in English Language Learning

Chapter I

Introduction

The Drawback and Significance

This investigation is basically primarily based on the scenario that the scholars reside day by day in Public Excessive College’s college students reside on a regular basis, such a case is Liceo Diurno de Esparza inside the technique of studying English for Oral Communication.

As a part of Educational Training, studying English has develop into of main significance in a globalized world. The creation and the advance of the large mass media in addition to the technique of transportation have contributed for folks to have the ability to talk extra shortly. Nonetheless, regardless of the quick development of communications, an idiomatic barrier exists, and it's imposed amongst all of the communities on the earth and that impedes to speak extra effectively.

The research of a overseas language was set so as to enhance communication amongst completely different international locations; these international locations set up a common language as a global method of communication. English is that language; it has develop into a worldwide language because of the nice variety of international locations that use it as a local or overseas language. English has develop into obligatory in all public academic establishments in our nation.

In the identical method, the introduction of transnational firms in the course of the first years of XXI, has delivered to the nation not solely the aperture of extra and larger firms, therefore alternatives to Costa Ricans, but additionally the demand on English audio system by way of high quality and amount.

In our nation is essential that not less than the idea of English are identified so as to talk in easy phrases, in our day by day life routines, additionally as a result of Costa Rica is a paradise for vacationers and it calls for a fullness in the way in which we handle this common language as a part of cultural and social variety.

The intervention of the state within the design of English applications for the general public sector was given a bit late. In line with Cordova, (1994), cited by Miranda (1997):

It was not unitl 1925, when the Costa Rican Authorities by means of the Division of Public Training decreed an inside regulation that permitted the instructing of overseas languages resembling Latin, French, and English in “Casa de Estudio Santo Tomás”. English applications weren't successful due to the dearth of supplies and English Academics; for that motive, the applications got by individuals who spoke that language they usually had supplies introduced from different international locations (p.three).

That's to say, the Division of Training didn't have as a precedence the educational of overseas languages for the scholars. Regardless of the hassle made by the Division, the standard of instructing was worse. English instructing continued being developed with out certified professionals, methodology, and materials.

English instructing and studying modified considerably in 1991, when the Nationwide Advisor determined to provide a brand new course to the applications. It was in that 12 months when a particular curriculum for English studying was created in Excessive Colleges and it lined “Tercer Ciclo” and “Educación Diversificada” (Senior Excessive). These applications have been primarily based on college students wants. Because of this advisors established in 1994 a program referred to as “Kids of Costa Rica, in a contemporary and built-in world” and determined English must be a topic contained in the curriculum of colleges. (Cabrera, 2005 p.three)

Regardless of all of the efforts, English had be taken as widespread topic contained in the nationwide check and lined solely the written ability and it didn't take note of the oral abilities. Cabrera (2005) mentioned that “…English had develop into a written check that included solely studying comprehension, and the professors have been restricted solely to show learn how to learn, however they excluded the opposite linguistic skills.” (p.1) After virtually 70 years of English instructing in Costa Rica and a number of makes an attempt to enhance the English applications, it was solely in the course of the Authorities of José Maria Figueres Olsen in 1996, once they actually started to guage the standard of the applications, and it was decided that college students from public faculties wanted to be orally proficient in English.

Some years later, the Division of Public Training introduced the primary program of Conversational English for public faculties which is a part of the technological Training. This system of Conversational English lined listening and conversational abilities to provide college students the capability to make use of any given scenario.

For the reason that 12 months 2001, the Conversational English Program has been applied within the Public Excessive Colleges of Costa Rica that need to enter Conversational English as an optionally available topic in Technical Training. The Advisors of Technical Training are aware of the accountability that the Excessive Colleges signify by way of English studying and the standard of the graduated college students for they are going to face the dynamics of the enterprise sector. Thus our present college students ought to reply to the calls for of the world in a close to future.

But, and over the last six years, the Division of Training has tried to alter English Curriculum to provide extra emphasis on the oral and listening abilities within the high quality of English instructing and studying. Regardless of all of the efforts, it's pitiful to know that after 5 or 6 years of English classes, with three weekly classes within the “Tercer Ciclo” (seventh, eighth and ninth grades), 5 weekly classes within the “Ciclo Diversificado” (10th and 11th grades) and the event of a Conversational English Program with six weekly classes, our graduates are nonetheless incapable of talking English fluently. (Al Día, 2005).

Badilla (2003), in his research “A proposal of enchancment of the applicability of the conversational English program of Public Training” expresses that:

‘The Costa Rican curriculum has suffered modifications to be tailored to globalization and the applications must be analyzed to ensure their high quality”(p.lO).

As we speak, there are few existent research associated to the Conversational English Program and its applicability in several contexts. In the identical method, it is very important point out that human beings undergo modifications by means of life, and these modifications possess some particular traits within the social and cultural facets. As well as, all societies or communities current completely different traits from others. These variations produce on any program the need of a contextualization as a result of it's not possible to develop a program in the identical method. All these facets are crucial to take note of in a program analysis or research.

Because of the little existence of analysis in regards to the social elements and an excellent instructor as a facilitator and the way in which the curriculum of the MEP is utilized, the analysis is taken into account of significance to contribute with the wants of the scholars’ studying.

The primary focus on this investigation is positioned in willpower of the subject in theoretical and social frames, based on the Costa Rican context. The investigation is construct, as a primary supply, which analyzes the principle elements which have their affect on the educational technique of English for oral communication, with a hypothetical supposing that there are lots of elements that are motivators and limitations for the method of studying English for oral communication. The analysis considers the person social traits as elements for participation within the course of as effectively. A particular emphasis within the investigation is directed in regards to the college students’ achievements towards the talents and capabilities that are required for efficiently dealing with the on a regular basis job duties and fast modifications within the college students’ surroundings and society. Analysis can be giving the solutions in regards to the Academics’ function and funding within the technique of studying of the scholars.

The entire elements if treating in constructive method will give an impetus to the educational course of of people whereas have a unfavorable affect on studying course of if appearing in a unfavorable method. However for this investigation we're considering three particular parts solely, social elements, function of the instructor and curriculum designed by the MEP.

The previous scenario justifies the significance of the current research.

Justification

As we speak’s society calls for extra energetic and dynamic communication by the used of environment friendly methods targeted on the educational of overseas languages so as to improved the common the event not solely by way of economics but additionally tradition and society. Subsequently, within the final decade many international locations have entered completely different applications for studying a second language.

English studying as a second language requires the creating of a really complicated studying course of. It has develop into a necessity above all within the Costa Rican context as a result of English turns into a language that provides alternatives to seek out employment. This is without doubt one of the higher calls for that require the Costa Rican younger inhabitants.

It is very important emphasize that English is at the moment crucial as a global language, and it's the main-reason to justify its instructing and studying to contribute to the scholar integral training. The scholar’s deficiencies to talk English are the results of some facets resembling instructing methodologies, instructor’s proficiency, quick time for the event of this system, this system design, and the scholar’s social elements.

There are a lot of causes and must be taught a second language resembling English; a few of them are the bilingual personnel that the Job market, enterprise and productive sectors demand. To cowl these wants. Costa Rican authorities has established English instructing in personal and public establishments.

The authorities of the Division of Training, completely different companies and the press have expressed concern due to the poor English fluency that college students of secondary faculties have after graduating. Umaña (2005), a journalist of “Al Día” newspaper, States: “English is more and more essential to go for a place of labor and it's a nice fear within the nation as a result of folks have very restricted preparation to satisfy the calls for of this language.” (p.13)

Moreover the imposed wants by the businesses and Jobs, different elements exist which contribute to completely different private growth of people intervals; above all, within the social, mental, emotional, and psychological facets. It is very important emphasize that the aim of the completely different English applications is to not educate a overseas tongue, it's to show folks to have the ability to talk with it. (Cabrera, 2006).

In our nation, Academic System has superior by the introduction of the Conversational English Programs in Excessive Colleges, but, there's a want for bettering.

Studying a second language, in our case English, requires of a course of adopted by steps that affect drastically the event of the scholars academically. Within the final years, and in an total method, it's clearly perceived the proof that the graduating college students have suffered the implications of a poor effectivity degree of oral communication in English acquired throughout their years in Excessive College.

Resulting from these results, it's crucial to find out and analyze the connection among the many various factors that affect and provoke whether or not a constructive or unfavorable outcome within the college students oral efficiency.

This case of research focuses on the investigation of the connection among the many primary inside parts that affect the method the educational English for Oral communication based on the present profile proposed by the M.E.P. within the 11th graders.

Communication is some ways “transferring data” (Wikipedia.org). Our instructional system locations extra emphasis in different areas of writing and studying. These two abilities are vital and half of a complete spectrum, nevertheless, there should by a higher emphasis and reinforcement on the listening because the enter and oral communication because the output.

The scholars that signify the case of research, are youngsters who've being uncovered by means of out all of the years to the Academic System. These college students carry 10 years of finding out English, and nonetheless unable to speak orally in an environment friendly method.

Along with this, the profile proposed by the M.E.P. inside the Communicative Framework makes an attempt that every one graduating college students attain a sure degree of oral communication which ample sufficient will give the longer term labour sector, the instruments to seek out effectively remunerated jobs in a aggressive world during which using a overseas language is obligatory as within the case of English. But, the intention of fulfilling the expectations should be analyzed so as to discover higher strategies and strategies within the technique of studying English for oral communication.

There's not doubt that the correct growth of the method of studying English by means of the Conversational English arises as method of given college students a brand new alternative to develop oral abilities that can outcome right into a profitable device for the longer term. It turns into of main significance that college students fulfill a collection of requirements imposed by a steady altering and demanding society during which having a backup of a second language represents a key for progress in all facets.

Whereas many discussions about studying a second language concentrate on instructing methodologies, little emphasis is given to the interior elements that affect the method such because the function of the instructor, college students social elements, and the suitable use of the curricula of the system.

Subsequently, this analysis considers that the research of the interior parts that have an effect on the educational course of involves contribute with the advance of the pedagogical apply.

State the Drawback

Primarily based on the premonition that the method of studying oral communication is influenced by a collection of things, it's crucial to establish and decide the principle questioning as observe:

Which Fundamental Inside Components Affect the Strategy of Studying English in a Conversational Course for Oral Communication primarily based on the Profile Proposed by the MEP within the 11th graders of the Liceo Diurno de Esparza in Puntarenas?

Speculation

The fundamental inside parts within the course of for studying English in a conversational course for oral communication to be thought-about the principle affect for the 11th graders are:

  • The function of the instructor as a facilitator
  • The scholars because the social middle of the category
  • The suitable use of the communicative method proposed by the MEP.
  • The impact of the interior elements within the English Conversational Class on the Liceo Diurno de Esparza.

Normal Goal

Examine how the function of the instructor as a facilitator, the scholars because the social middle of the category and the suitable use the communicative method proposed by the MEP, affect the efficiency of the scholars in the course of the technique of studying English for oral communication.

Particular Targets

  1. Analyze the scholars because the social middle of the category by means of the method of studying English for oral communication.
  2. Reveal the function of the instructor as facilitator within the technique of instructing particularly listening and talking.
  3. Relate the suitable use of the talk method as a part of college students´ achievement of the profile proposed by the MEP.
  4. Decide the interior elements impact on the 11th graders’ oral efficiency within the English Conversational Class on the Liceo Diurno de Esparza.

Scope and Limitations

As the most important scope of this research, there's the try of creating a relationship between the interior parts that have an effect on the method for oral communication within the 11th graders. The achievements of this analysis are:

  • That is centered on the Liceo Diurno de Esparza; subsequently, its outcomes to different excessive faculties or establishments of the nation can't be generalized.
  • The expectation for this case of research is to seek out and show the impact whether or not negatively or positively that the function of the instructor as facilitator, the scholar as a middle of the category and the communicative method working collectively will launch.
  • The primary goal is to compile information that launches vital info about the principle parts influencing the method of studying oral communication within the final 12 months of Public Excessive College.

The research could also be of curiosity for all English lecturers across the nation as a diagnose in regards to the significance of instructing a second language utilizing the Curricula (CLT) imposed by the MEP and beneath the stipulations of the Public Ministry of Training in addition to any

particular person concerned with having a view on the essential parts that affect the method of leaning oral communication.

In the identical method, the research could also be a place to begin for investigation that within the try and search for additional data could use this case because the primarily based for his or her investigation.

Lastly, with reference of the restrictions which may be introduced within the investigation are:

  • It's crucial to say that the Communicative Language Educating utilized by Public Training in Costa Rica entails all 4 abilities (listening, talking, studying, and writing) as an entire spectrum in an built-in method; nevertheless, this research focuses solely in Oral communication, in different phrases, within the talking together with the listening ability because the enter.
  • The little existence of investigations and research that may serve of information for the current investigation.
  • The little existence of theoretical sources in regards to the social elements and its affect on studying English for oral communication.
  • The insecurity that the instructor and college students can provide in regards to the growth of this system in its establishments.
  • The validity or fact of the solutions that the scholars provide within the completely different devices.

CHAPTER II

Literature Assessment

Position of the Trainer as a Facilitator inside a humanist and constructivist viewpoint

As we speak, lecturers should face the incorporation of latest rules taken from academic psychology, resembling humanism and constructivism. New beliefs, values and assumptions of the instructor about instructing inspired the emergence of the view of the instructor as a facilitator fairly than a transmitter of data (Brown, 2001, 1991; Cook dinner, 2003, 1991; Grasha 1996; Richards & Lockhart 1994). In line with Grasha (1996), a facilitator is a supporter, a information, and suggestions supplier; a facilitator is a monitor and observer of scholars’ progress and an aide whereas learners are constructing and appropriating their information.

        Grasha’s (1996) description of a facilitator definitely displays the affect of the humanistic view of training during which the learner is seen as an entire individual, not simply as a cognitive being whose ideas, emotions and feelings must be thought-about by the instructor who makes studying significant and interesting (William & Burden, 1997). In truth, based on these authors, making studying significant and interesting requires a facilitator who can:

        ..create a way of belonging, make the topic related to the learner, contain the entire individual, encourage information of self, reduce criticism, encourage creativity, develop information of the method of studying, encourage self-initiation, permit for selection , and encourage self-evaluation. (p.38)

Moreover, the outline of Grasha (1996) of the facilitator additionally displays the rules of constructivism which integrates two branches, the cognitive and social (Brown, 2007, p.12) on learners. A number of authors (Mitchell &Myles, 1998; Williams & Burden, 1997) describe a constructivist instructor as a mediator who encourages college students to find rules by themselves, engages in collaborative dialog with their college students to assist them join their prior information with the brand new information being acquired and presents data in a format acceptable to the learner’s degree of understanding.

The humanistic and constructivist affect on the teaching-learning technique of second languages is evident. In truth, to ensure that Communicative Language Educating to achieve its aims, it requires of a instructor who carry out a variety of roles. In line with Gebhard (1996, p.55), “instructing is multifaceted, and far of the complexity entails learn how to assume roles that capitalize on our skills in English whereas we on the similar time tackle roles that contribute to creating interplay within the classroom that's significant for each lecturers and college students,” as promoted by constructivism. This explains why a number of authors agree that lecturers carry out completely different roles within the teaching-learning course of based on the lesson stage (Harmer, 1991; Nunan &Lamb, 1996, Richards & Rodgers, 2001).

Consequently, the instructor shall be a controller when the group have to be attentive to the subject being mentioned in the meanwhile; an adviser (when the instructor corrects or provides suggestions to the scholars); organizer (when the instructor provides directions or retains the scholars working so the lesson goes on easily); encourager (when the instructor must encourage college students to take part); participant (when the instructor participates within the class actions and respects the concepts, ideas, and opinions given by college students); useful resource (when the instructor gives data and assists college students); tutor (when he/she helps to make clear concepts); researcher (when he/she observes and does some analysis on the teaching-learning procedures within the classroom), and facilitator (when the instructor creates a nice ambiance for language studying). At first, it may appear that these roles should not in step with the outline of the facilitator, it must be remembered that the facilitator would adapt its instructing to go well with the learner’s wants (Gebhard, 1996; Mitcherll& Myles, 1997).

However, the humanistic affect on immediately’s lecturers is additional observed in what Underhill (as cited in Arnorld, 1999) calls the holistic nature of facilitation. In line with this creator, each private function “emotions, attitudes, ideas, bodily, presence, actions, high quality of consideration, diploma of openness and so forth” (p132) of the teacher can affect the educational surroundings during which the learners are concerned in each lesson. This holistic nature of facilitation additionally enhances the sensitiveness of lecturers towards scholar’s reactions to class actions.

On this sense, (O’Hara, 2003, as cite in Brown, 2007), focuses on the method of learning- instructing as a “transformative pedagogy”. He states that the objective of training is the facilitation of change and studying, the place the instructor lowers to the extent of scholar.

Furthermore, Rodgers (as cited in Brown, 2007) helps this concept by stating that the possibility is established by the interpersonal relationships amongst facilitator and learners. In line with this creator, for the instructor to be facilitators, fist they have to be actual and real, discarding masks of superiority and omniscience; second have real belief, acceptance, and a prizing of the opposite individual as a worthy, invaluable particular person and third want to speak brazenly and empathetically with their college students and vice versa.

Academics are challenged in fulfilling the big selection of roles in some way to be balanced so as to create concord, constructive ambiance and steering for the scholars. But, so as to be facilitative lecturers, Krishnamurty (2001) factors out they should be

enthusiastic members within the classroom

        ..who facilitate private progress in college students, are distinctive, extraordinary, worthy of the dedication…It [Facilitation] requires a confidence, a willingness to share self, to care, to start a journey, then launch the scholar on a private quest… after we discover the instructor who's facilitator, we discover a classroom the place private progress is flourishing. (p.1)

Satir (2001) says that the facilitator promotes efficient listening, real understanding, respect, and teacher-students-students efficient communication within the classroom.

Furthermore, an efficient facilitator makes as many inquiries as doable so as to detect the strengths and weaknesses of scholars. Grasha (1996) factors out facilitator is an teacher who guides the scholars by asking questions, searching for alternate options, and pushing them to have impartial standards. For him, one of many primary objectives of a facilitator is to encourage the scholars’ autonomy.

Authors resembling (Harmer, 1991; Richards & Rodgers, 2001; Underhill, 1999) focus on completely different traits that an efficient facilitator shares. They state that the facilitator maintain a low profile in order that college students can provide you with their very own concepts in regards to the studying scenario. Academics should not intervene when the scholars are having communicative exercise however should all the time be prepared to assist college students as essential.

The facilitator doesn't solely perceive the subject material and has the flexibility to make use of strategies and strategies; the efficient facilitator additionally research and pays consideration to the psychological surroundings and the educational processes so as to let college students take accountability for their very own studying.

Significance of College students because the Heart of the Social Issue

As a part of a society, group, college group and consequently of a classroom, the scholar has an energetic efficiency. It's on the core of day by day class, thus, of the teaching-learning course of.

For a few years, conventional training has seen instructor as authority figures Oxford (1990.p10), thus, the middle of the category. In these school rooms, the scholars are objects fairly than the themes. In our nation, it is extremely prone to happen that college students have magisterial class even thought our academic system is predicated on the Communicative Language Strategy since a few years in the past already and consequently, on student-centered classroom.

The interplay and alternate of knowledge in language studying of the scholars is affected by variant social elements. Certainly, college students are a part of this “social group” during which college students are social beings that talk in many various methods, are as effectively a social issue that affect the method of teaching-learning on the inside.

The accountability for studying and progressing is attribute of the scholars:

“Learners should individually uncover and remodel complicated data if they're to make their very own, [suggesting] a extra energetic function for college students in their very own studying than is typical in lots of classroom” (Slavin, 2003, pp.257-258, as cited in Forehead, 2007, p.12)

College students should management the way in which they handle themselves inside the teaching-learning course of, the instructor is only a information and facilitator (Brown, 2007) who provides them the instruments, however it's as much as them what the outcomes could be. The entire course of focuses on the communicative competence of the scholars who're on the middle of the classroom and the actual protagonists.

Understanding Elementary Ideas on Learners

For understanding the function of scholars and their growth inside the technique of language studying, Brown (2001.p.54), displays three basic rules for understanding practices for the scholar to develop a communicative language course of.

Brown demonstrates by three primary rules, the conceptions to be thought-about:

  • Cognitive Ideas
  • Affective Ideas
  • Linguistic Ideas

Cognitive Ideas

In line with Brown (2001.p.55) “cognitive” is expounded to psychological and mental features. In different phrases, it refers to what's internal the scholars’ thoughts that influences their growth inside the teaching-learning course of.

Automaticity

This precept pertains to the educational of the language subconsciously, in different phrases, college students uncovered to language enter that later have the chance to expertise output, will be taught the language “with out” occupied with it, as in an automated method.

To ensure that college students to perform this precept it's important that they expertise (Brown2001):

  • Unconscious absorption of language by means of significant use
  • Environment friendly and fast motion away from a concentrate on the types of language to a concentrate on the needs, to which language is put,
  • Environment friendly and fast motion away from a capacity-limited management a number of bits and items to a comparatively limitless automated mode of processing language kinds, and
  • Resistance to the temptation to investigate language kinds

But, the precept of automaticity is acknowledged as observe:

        “Environment friendly second language studying entails a well timed motion of the management of some language kinds into the automated processing of a comparatively limitless variety of language kinds. Overanalyzing language, pondering an excessive amount of about its kinds, and consciously lingering on guidelines of language all tent to impede this commencement to automaticity.” (Brown, 2001 p.56)

To ensure that college students to constructed automaticity extra effectively, college students ought to use language in genuine contexts for significant functions. Furthermore, college students have to be geared toward using practical functions (Brown, 2001) for gaining extra language competence.

Significant Studying

This precept is carefully associated to the precept of automaticity. Brown enhances the energy of significant studying against rote learning- taking remoted bits and items of knowledge that aren't related with one’s present cognitive constructions(Ausubel 1963, as cited in Brown,2001). However, significant studying (Brown, 2001) incorporates new data into present constructions and reminiscence techniques.

The truth that college students affiliate sounds, phrases, constructions and discourse parts with what's related and vital of their day by day life use for information or survival is extra prone to (Brown, 2001) lead towards higher long-term retention.

Then, this precept emphasis on college students to:

  • Capitalize on the facility of significant leaning by interesting to college students’ pursuits, educational objectives and profession objectives.
  • When a brand new subject or idea is launched, try and anchor it in college students’ present information and background to affiliate with one thing already identified, additionally referred as schemata activation

However, college students ought to keep away from rote studying:

  • An excessive amount of grammar clarification, summary rules and theories, drilling and memorization.
  • Actions whose functions should not clear
  • Actions that don't contribute to the accomplish of the objectives of the lesson, unit or course
  • Mechanical strategies, as an alternative, using language and meanings.

The Anticipation Reward

Skinner (as cited in Brown, 2001p 58) states that:

        Human beings are universally pushed to behave, or “behave” by the anticipation of some kind of reward -tangible or intangible, quick time period or lengthy term-that will ensue as results of behaviour.

It's understood that individuals are in some way impressed and moved by a objective or objective and based on this creator; the anticipation of reward is probably the most highly effective consider directing one’s behaviour.

Inside the classroom utility and extra particularly with the scholars, it's important that they obtain for instance rewards for having an excellent efficiency that point out their success. On the similar, Brown (2001) agrees that it helps college students to see… that what college students are doing has relevance to their long- time period objectives in studying English.

But, it needs to be clear acknowledged that this practices have to be regulated so as to not create (Brown,2001) dependence over the rewards…to look solely over rewards and the event of personal inside…system of rewards by the scholars’ facet.

As a substitute, college students should be aimed to obtain based on Brown’s constructive classroom implications:

  • An optimum diploma of rapid verbal reward and encouragement.
  • Reward one another [students] with compliments and supportive motion
  • Quick-tem reminders of professional
Análisis de la Producción Legislativa 1990-2008

I. Resumen

El presente trabajo titulado “Análisis de la Producción Legislativa – 1990-2008”, tiene el propósito de analizar el desempeño institucional del Congreso, como Poder del Estado, específicamente a su función legislativa, en el período comprendido entre el 1° de enero de 1990 al 31 de diciembre del 2008.

Esta investigación nace de la inquietud de la relación entre el Poder Ejecutivo y el Poder Legislativo a raíz de la modificación a nuestra Constitución en el año de 1994. Luego de una disaster de legitimidad de unos comicios electorales, se modifica la fecha de las elecciones para elegir al Presidente de la República; nos encontramos con un Poder Legislativo, donde la mitad del período iniciaría con un ejecutivo y la otra mitad con otro ejecutivo diferente. Surge la inquietud de evaluar la producción legislativa y La Efectividad del Poder Legislativo: Entre el Poder Político y el Poder Institucional

Hablar de la labor del Congreso en términos de producción presenta retos conceptuales significativos pues dicha labor no es reducible a una cuantía objetiva y tangible sobre lo que pueda emitir el criterio común. Existe una dimensión cuantificable en dicha labor: el Número de leyes y Resoluciones emanados de la Asamblea Legislativa en determinado período.

Intentar dar igual peso a cada unidad de legislación representaría importantes diferencias cualitativas entre ellas. Peor aún, puede crear una ilusión de eficiencia en períodos en que crece la aprobación de leyes triviales o de ineficiencia en períodos en que se aprueban tan solo unas pocas pero fundamentales.

Es posible analizar la legislación aprobada cualitativamente, clasificando su relevancia según la opinión de expertos (Mayhew, 1991). No obstante, es imposible hacerlo sin introducir un alto grado de subjetividad en el análisis. La excelencia objetiva de la legislación aprobada solo puede valorarse con respecto a la legislación potencial-la agenda política en un momento determinado.

El estudio analiza y evalúa la producción del Poder Legislativo como órgano de gobierno. Aunque las funciones del Parlamento son muy amplias y variadas (representar, debatir, controlar) su actividad legislativa es la que lo ubica como Poder co-gobernante y le otorga una posición central en el proceso político de toma de decisiones. La razón para analizar la producción legislativa del Congreso consiste precisamente en que el cumplimiento de sus otras funciones ha sido visto, frecuentemente, como un obstáculo para su desempeño como órgano de gobierno. Adicionalmente, su condición asambleistita y el pluralismo de su integración, son los factores estructurales que apoyan una visión crítica que ve al Poder Legislativo como una institución “ineficiente” que bloquea el proceso de gobierno. En consecuencia, este análisis y evaluación de la producción legislativa del parlamento busca establecer con precisión la cuantía de su contribución al proceso de gobierno y las características con que se desarrolla.

Nuestro trabajo se centra, específicamente en las leyes y reformas a leyes aprobadas por mayoría absoluta y no aborda las otras funciones constitucionales del Congreso. Dentro de este campo, la investigación presenta los siguientes productos: a) Número whole de leyes promulgadas por el Poder Ejecutivo; b) Ordenamiento de ese conjunto en base a un “Indice de Importancia Política”, con una metodología de ponderación; c) Efectividad del Poder Ejecutivo y del Poder Legislativo en materia de iniciativas legislativas sancionadas en dicho período, d) Vetos Institucionales, e) Número de Partidos Políticos. Los resultados de la investigación en cada uno de estos puntos, se exponen en los respectivos capítulos del informe, respaldado con cuadros y gráficas.

El estudio está organizado de la siguiente manera:

El Primer Capítulo del informe es fundamentalmente un desarrollo conceptual que presenta una caracterización del parlamento como institución. Inicialmente se establecen, de forma common, el conjunto de funciones de los parlamentos en los regímenes democráticos y se muestra como sus características pueden variar en función de ciertos aspectos del diseño institucional. En el segundo apartado se da cuenta de las críticas que han recibido los Congresos tanto desde quienes le exigen eficiencia como desde los que lo acusan de debilidad institucional. Finalmente se desarrolla una caracterización del parlamento dominicano, describiendo su ubicación institucional, composición, funciones, se describen las normas que regulan el proceso legislativo y algunas puntualizaciones sobre la evolución del Congreso en las dinámicas de gobierno.

El Segundo Capítulo del informe desarrolla una propuesta metodológica para evaluar la producción legislativa del parlamento. Como es pure, el trabajo parte de la consideración de la cantidad de leyes sancionadas por el Poder Legislativo. El número whole es 1329 leyes en 18 años es en sí mismo significativo. De todas formas parece obvio que las normas aprobadas son de muy diversa naturaleza, complejidad e impacto. En consecuencia un análisis en profundidad debe necesariamente realizar una discriminación entre ellas. Es así, que de forma complementaria se propone la utilización de un “índice de importancia” de las leyes que las clasifica en cuatro categorías en función de la utilización de cuatro criterios. Los criterios refieren a: i) el origen del proyecto en función de resulta de una iniciativa del Poder Ejecutivo o del propio Poder Legislativo; ii) su alcance en términos de impacto en la sociedad; iii) la repercusión en la opinión pública; y iv) la existencia o no de debates en los plenarios de las cámaras. El índice se construye agregando los cuatro valores para cada ley generando cuatro categorías de importancia: Muy alta, alta, media y baja.

El Tercer Capítulo entra de lleno en el análisis longitudinal de la producción legislativa en República Dominicana, 1990-2008. En primer término se muestra la evolución del número de leyes aprobadas durante los 18 años incluidos en el estudio. En esta primera aproximación se constatan dos regularidades. a) Es la aparición de una tendencia creciente con el tiempo en el número whole de leyes aprobadas. b) Es la presencia de un ciclo dentro de cada legislatura que muestra una tendencia al aumento en el número whole de leyes aprobadas hacia el last de cada período legislativo.

En segundo término se observa la legislación aprobada durante el período de análisis en función de los resultados que surgen de la aplicación del índice de importancia de las leyes. Allí se observa que las leyes de baja importancia son la mayoría. Asimismo los diferentes tipos de leyes muestran comportamientos cíclicos disímiles dentro de cada legislatura. Mientras la aprobación de leyes de alta importancia se concentra en los primeros años de cada período presidencial. Se sostiene que esta diferencia obedece principalmente a dos factores. A) el Poder Ejecutivo promueve a nivel legislativo buena parte de su agenda de gobierno al inicio de cada administración. B) en los primeros años de cada mandato se constituyeron mayorías legislativas que hicieron viables los proyectos propuestos por el gobierno, esa incidencia se manifiesta de forma muy fuerte al inicio de cada administración y va decayendo con el transcurso de la misma.

El cuarto capítulo: Claramente el alto porcentaje de leyes importantes aprobadas por unanimidad en el período 1996-200 obedece a la legislación vinculada al proceso de desarrollo institucional que vivió el país. En cuanto a la disciplina legislativa de los partidos políticos, lo primero a destacar es que todos los partidos dominicanos, contrariamente a lo que se cree, muestran niveles de disciplina muy altos. Al considerar las votaciones de las leyes de alta importancia, se observa que en la gran mayoría de ellas, todos los partidos votaron en bloque.

El último capítulo del informe estudia la interposición de vetos por parte del Poder Ejecutivo a las leyes aprobadas por el Parlamento. Este comportamiento responderá de forma evidente a la existencia y permanencia de una coalición mayoritaria de gobierno o como reacción del Poder Ejecutivo, en condición minoritaria, frente a un Parlamento que tiende a mostrarse “proactivo” y ajeno a sus prioridades en materia política, a medida que se aproximan las siguientes elecciones.

En una apreciación inicial, considerábamos que los congresos eran débiles desde el punto de vista de la producción legislativa quienes otorgan la legitimidad democrática al proceso ordinario de elaboración de la ley. Es decir, el paso de las leyes por el Congreso, no sólo es obligatorio en todo proceso legislativo, sino que es el elemento legitimador de las mismas ante la sociedad. Durante el desarrollo de la investigación fue evidente que el Legislativo es un órgano sumamente complejo, que requiere de análisis muy detallados sobre las dinámicas que le dan forma. Debemos reconocer que en América Latina el Poder Legislativo es un actor más poderoso de lo que generalmente se cree y que —precisamente por ello— es necesario tenerlo en cuenta, pues en muchas ocasiones termina moldeando y acotando el poder que se atribuye a la Presidencia de la República.

La propia investigación deja abiertas varias interrogantes y muestra la necesidad de profundizar en otras funciones del Congreso, que son igualmente relevantes y que en conjunto muestran la efectiva densidad del desempeño y de la legitimidad de las Cámaras como cuerpos primarios del sistema democrático: management y fiscalización del Poder Ejecutivo y de otros organismos estatales. Dentro de este campo, la investigación pudiese desarrollar los siguientes productos: a) desempeño de los partidos políticos, en términos de incitativa legislativa y en términos de disciplina; b) análisis del proceso de tramitación de las leyes consideradas, disciplina de los conjuntos partidarios, and so forth.

Sería interesante poder evaluar la capacidad de propuesta y de respuesta de las representaciones congresionales, las modificaciones que se introducen a los proyectos en debate y los eventuales rechazos, los tipos de aprobación y sus alternativas concretas, observando las formas de disciplina, los intercambios y los procesos de negociación (inter e intra partidarios y sectoriales, entre los legisladores y los agentes ejecutivos) y estudiar los procesos de trabajo en las comisiones, que constituyen núcleos estratégicos de la labor legislativa y laboratorios privilegiados para el análisis. Todo lo cual implica una relación inter-institucional compleja y un proceso dinámico de construcción de mayorías, para la sanción de cada producto legislativo concreto.

Sin perjuicio de alguna publicación, por mí desconocida, que sirva de antecedente, el presente trabajo correspondería al primer estudio de este tipo que se realiza en el República Dominicana, lo que es un avance importante para el análisis de política comparada. Confiamos en que el producto inicial de éste informe sea de utilidad para la labor legislativa, los estudios académicos. Es nuestro interés abrir el debate de la función de los poderes legislativos en el entorno presidencialista. Esperamos que de su lectura el lector especializado pueda extraer ángulos de análisis o sugerencias que deberán contribuir al despliegue de su propia reflexión.

II. El Congreso Como Institución

2.1.Tiempos de Cambios

El Congreso ocupa un lugar relevante en la estructura de gobierno de República Dominicana, como lo establece la normativa constitucional, pero también a causa de las modalidades del régimen político y de la composición nutrida del arco de partidos, afirmando una cultura cívica con tradiciones democráticas. Es sin duda una institución estratégica de un sistema que se ha ajustado históricamente a un formato efectivo de separación, de independencia y de equilibrio entre los poderes del estado, que resulta a su vez alimentado por la dinámica política, las representaciones de la ciudadanía y la intervención consistente de los partidos.

Varias circunstancias han ayudado a éste perfil. En primer término, existe una tendencia histórica common – de larga information – que afecta a todos los sistemas democráticos y que redunda en el reforzamiento del papel del Poder Ejecutivo y de las demás unidades de la administración en los procesos decisorios. Más que órganos de ejecución tenemos así un verdadero “poder gubernamental” -según la acertada caracterización de Maurice Duverger [1](1962)- que se desarrolla como núcleo de producción política, en un sistema cambiante de relaciones institucionales, con nuevos vínculos de separación y articulación, cooperación y competencia entre los cuerpos mayores de gobierno, que modifican a su vez las características del proceso legislativo y los congresos de ejercicio de las demás funciones del Congreso.

En términos más generales, las transformaciones corrientes inciden en la configuración de los factores de poder y de las alternativas de management, en el ámbito de la economía y en el conjunto de la sociedad. Se modifican las formas, las funciones y hasta el alcances de la política, el oficio de los partidos y los patrones de legitimación, en un contexto de creciente complejidad y al tiempo que van cambiando las estructuras del estado y los modos de gobierno, los sistemas de gestión pública y los requerimientos técnicos

De este conjunto de factores y de las transformaciones concurrentes en la normativa constitucional, surge otro cuadro de condiciones para el ejercicio del Poder Legislativo. Nuevos componentes y problemas en la fabricación de la política y de la legislación, un atado de relaciones institucionales de stability dificultoso y relativamente asimétrico. Habrá exigencias renovadas en la gestión parlamentaria, particularmente en lo que toca a los procesos de trabajo y a la organización, a los flujos de información y a la disposición de saberes, a la capacidad colectiva de sus cuerpos y al desempeño explicit de los representantes y las bancadas, a las relaciones con la ciudadanía y la opinión pública.

Estos elementos trazan un escenario de transición: en el que el Congreso es un actor con responsabilidades primarias en los procesos de cambio y debe tramitar a la vez su propia reconversión política e institucional. Siendo de hecho, sujeto y objeto de la reforma política y del estado. Un centro que compite por participar con efectividad en los procesos de decisión y un organismo mutante, que ha de ajustarse a las innovaciones en curso, mejorar sus capacidades y la calidad de su producción, corrigiendo sus déficits de “modernización” y afrontando constantemente nuevos desafíos.

2.2. El Congreso: Funciones y Desafíos

A través de distintas épocas históricas, desde la antigua Grecia, las ciudades-estados, hasta nuestros días, y con modalidades por cierto muy diversas, la existencia de una asamblea deliberante y representativa, que albergue las expresiones del pluralismo y sea una instancia de participación, constituye una pieza elementary en la configuración de un Régimen Político Legítimo.

En los sistemas democráticos modernos, los Congresos son precisamente asambleas de naturaleza colectiva, composición plural y carácter permanente (Cotta, 1988), cuya centralidad deriva de las competencias que en esa condición tiene asignadas, como poder del estado y órgano de gobierno: representación política y debate, cuerpo de management e instancia de decisión, titular primario de la función legislativa y responsable de otras funciones públicas (constituyentes, jurisdiccionales, de administración, actos habilitantes o de autorización).

La fortaleza y la debilidad de los partidos y del sistema de partidos, su consistencia y su grado de institucionalización, influyen obviamente en el peso político y la capacidad de acción del Congreso. Por otra parte, el stability entre el Poder Legislativo y el Poder Ejecutivo, el ascendiente del Jefe de Gobierno, las formas de articular su liderazgo y de ejercer la conducción política, así como sus potestades para determinar la agenda parlamentaria, que dependen de las recursos institucionales de que éste dispone por derecho, pueden igualmente variar en función de los poderes de fuente partidaria y asimismo, con la formación de coaliciones políticas.

La forma de las coaliciones y en explicit, los vínculos de cooperación y de competencia entre los partidos asociados, así como las relaciones con otros partidos y con las escuadras de oposición, dibujan el margen de discrecionalidad política del Presidente, modelan los trámites concretos de formación de mayorías y determinan (o “sobre-determinan”) las modalidades de construcción de la agenda congresional y los procesos legislativos. Según ello, las Cámaras y los sectores partidarios representados – los que están en la oposición y los que revistan en la coalición que apoya al gobierno- pueden tener frente a éste, alternativas diversas de autonomía y de disciplina, con diferentes posibilidades de iniciativa y de respuesta.

No obstante, en casi todas las democracias modernas, las grandes decisiones pasan necesariamente por el Parlamento, mediante actos de habilitación o autorización y afirmando las prácticas del “gobierno por legislación” (Sartori, 1994).

El Parlamento se ubica en una posición estratégica, como poder del estado y órgano de gobierno, en articulación con los otros poderes y con la crimson compleja de entidades que componen la estructura pública. Por su naturaleza y su calidad intrínseca es depositario mayor de la soberanía y tiene a su cargo el cumplimiento de cometidos que resultan esenciales para el desenvolvimiento del régimen democrático, en términos de legitimidad y de equilibrio institucional, de garantías ciudadanas y de calidad de los procesos de decisión política.

2.three. Las Críticas al Congreso.

Los eventos de la época han afectado la imagen pública del Parlamento y lo enfrentan a críticas y autocríticas, que apuntan doblemente a su lógica de funcionamiento y a su debilidad institucional, con razonamientos que hacen pie en la realidad parlamentaria y tienen causa cierta, pero no dejan de ser a la vez paradójicos y con puntos discutibles.

Ante las críticas recordadas cabe reafirmar que el cumplimiento estricto y adecuado de las responsabilidades Constitucionales del Parlamento es un componente elementary de la calidad de la democracia y de la legitimidad del Sistema Político. Esta premisa vale para el conjunto de las competencias del Parlamento, tanto para la función legislativa, como para las funciones de representación y de management, en su calidad de instancia deliberativa y de órgano de gobierno.

En lo que toca específicamente al Proceso de Producción Legislativa hay que tener en cuenta el equilibrio complejo y de hecho la tensión, entre los distintos “factores” y “valores” que intervienen: las necesidades del gobierno y los requerimientos de la participación parlamentaria, la calidad de la ley junto con la celeridad y la eficiencia en su tramitación, los intereses de la jefatura ejecutiva y las alternativas de respuesta que surgen en el recinto legislativo, el propósito de construcción de mayorías, las disidencias en los bloques oficialistas y el derecho de oposición.

La relación existente entre los Poderes Legislativo y Ejecutivo, debe ser analizada como una relación de equilibrio, de coordinación y de competencia. Este dispositivo common, se presenta de manera característica en el tipo de gobierno presidencial, que ha sido definido como “un sistema de instituciones separadas que comparten el poder” (Neustadt, 1960). Tenemos así un esquema de separación, con dos instituciones legitimadas por una elección directa, que por naturaleza y por diseño, comparten el poder y compiten por él en rigor, son orgánicamente “alentadas a competir” (Charles Jones, 1994), a fin de hacer valer su propia representación y para concretar su participación en los procesos de gobierno (Sartori, 1994 y Mark Jones, 1995).

En términos generales, en estos principios debería basarse el análisis adecuado de las funciones del Parlamento, así como los debates técnicos y políticos sobre su efficiency, tanto en una perspectiva histórica, como en lo que toca a las alternativas del tiempo precise. Y es con tales fundamentos – en una reivindicación explícita de los postulados indicados – que entendemos necesario encarar este estudio sobre la Producción Legislativa, dentro de las coordenadas específicas del sistema dominicano.

2.four. El Proceso Legislativo Dominicano

Las características del proceso legislativo en República Dominicana son conocidas y resultan familiares para los agentes políticos y en explicit para los parlamentarios. Sin detenernos pues en los detalles de su descripción, creemos no obstante conveniente repasar algunos de los rasgos principales que encuadran dicho proceso desde el punto de vista político institucional. En este sentido, debemos subrayar que se trata de un proceso regulado minuciosamente por la propia Constitución de la República – en forma más detallada que en otros órdenes jurídicos.

Historia: El Poder Legislativo dominicano tiene su origen en el informe de la comisión encargada de redactar la Constitución de 1844 que debía ser sometido para su discusión al Soberano Congreso Constituyente. La primera Constitución Dominicana del 6 de Noviembre de 1844 consagró un Congreso Nacional compuesto por 2 Cámaras: El Tribunado y el Consejo Conservador. El trabajo de esos cuerpos legislativos en ese primer año fue intenso y lleno de dificultades, pues en el país todo estaba por reglamentarse. Entre las disposiciones tomadas, pueden citarse; la Ley de Instrucción Pública, la Ley de Patentes de Navegación, la Ley del Régimen de Aduanas, la Ley de Administración Provincial, la Ley de Subdivisión Política de las Provincias, la Ley de Atribuciones y Responsabilidades de los Secretarios de Estado, la Ley que adaptó los Códigos Franceses y la Reforma a los Bienes Nacionales; entre otras.

Función: El Artículo 16 de la Constitución Dominicana le asigna una definición específica de “Congreso de la República”, institución política colegiada, de carácter pluralista y electivo, que funciona normalmente dentro del contexto de las democracias liberales, cuyas atribuciones principales son hacer las leyes, examinar todos los actos del Poder Ejecutivo y ejercer management sobre el gobierno y la administración en common. El Congreso ejerce el poder constituyente derivado.

Esta conformación de las asambleas parlamentarias supone el establecimiento de un cuerpo estable y especializado, que inviste la representación de la ciudadanía y de los partidos en un ámbito de pluralidad, como:

o Cuerpo Deliberante: Realizan deliberaciones e intercambio de posiciones y luego son discutidos públicamente por una asamblea constituida en autoridad pública.

o Cuerpo Representativo: Permiten canalizar demandas emergentes (en términos de agregación y regulación, de compromiso y de autoridad, articulando los intereses particulares con las producciones de interés common).

o Es un Órgano Político Colegiado: Compuesto por un grupo de personas elegidas democráticamente mediante sufragio in style para representar a los ciudadanos.

o Es una Asamblea de Carácter Permanente: El Congreso origina decisiones continuamente, asegurando la gobernabilidad.

o Expresión de Pluralismo Político: Es la única institución que consiente la presencia conjunta y continua de todos los sujetos políticos y no excluye ningún sector social; llevándole en fin a recoger opinión, formarla y participar en las opciones de gobierno, fundamentalmente mediante la construcción del orden jurídico y del imperio de la ley, dentro de un estatuto constitucional que ofrece garantías de división de poderes, de management y de equilibrio político.

De acuerdo con el mandato Constitucional y las normas reglamentarias de la institución, las funciones Congresionales son tres: Legislar, Fiscalizar y Representar.

o La actividad de Legislar o de hacer leyes es considerada la función básica de un Congreso, ya que los Senadores y Diputados tienen la indelegable misión de transformar en textos claros, precisos y coherentes todo aquello que se pretende instituir como norma para regir conductas o relaciones individuales o colectivas.

o El mandato y el mecanismo de Fiscalización se refiere a la inspección, fiscalización, revisión e interpelación sobre la actividad que realizan el Poder Ejecutivo y sus dependencias; es decir, Secretarías de Estado y Direcciones Generales, así como sobre cualquier otro funcionario electo. Esta trabajo de management ejerce una función de contrapeso frente a las actuaciones del gobierno central,

o El concepto de Representación es moderno. En política, implica actuar en interés de los representados, de una manera smart ante ellos. El compromiso de representación es doble, ya que los legisladores representan a la nación y a la provincia o circunscripción que los ha elegido.

Congreso Bicameral: A través de la separación de poderes -que sigue siendo un principio vigente en las constituciones políticas modernas y en la nuestra- el Parlamento es a su manera un órgano de gobierno (co-gobernante), mediante un desempeño adecuado de sus dos cámaras, donde ambas Cámaras participan en pie de igualdad. La producción legislativa por lo que podemos decir que es un proceso fuertemente reglamentado y complejo, que presenta alternativas complicadas y diversas, desde el punto de vista del desempeño institucional y la negociación política, como pieza estratégica de las acciones de gobierno.

La constitución bicameral del Poder Legislativo ha sido históricamente concebida como un mecanismo que limita las posibilidades de dominio easy de una mayoría parlamentaria (una eventual “tiranía”, según los constitucionalistas clásicos, temerosos de la concentración de la autoridad pública) y es en sí misma una garantía suplementaria de la separación de poderes, actuando como un issue más de equilibrio, al inside del organismo legislativo, en el conjunto de las instituciones públicas y en relación a la ciudadanía. Es este un ingrediente básico de la civilización democrática, que permite una mayor amplitud en la representación política, favorece el pluralismo y brinda la oportunidad de un mejor procesamiento (político y técnico) de los productos legislativos, en un mérito que se extiende a otras competencias parlamentarias[2].

La estructura bicameral conlleva a que los proyectos de ley deban pasar necesariamente por el examen de ambas Cámaras (“doble escrutinio”) y sólo resulten aprobados si se llega a una voluntad coincidente de los dos cuerpos, con sus mayorías respectivas. Si median diferencias, el proyecto es objeto de una segunda revisión.

Los sistemas bicamerales hacen que el proceso de la formación de la ley sea más responsable y cuidadoso, evitando la aprobación precipitada de los proyectos y, además, resulta más acorde con el régimen democrático, por cuanto garantiza mejor una auténtica representación tanto política como regional y social.

Conformación y Elección: Nuestro Poder Legislativo está conformado por un Senado, compuesto por 32 miembros, uno por el Distrito Nacional y un representante de cada Provincia y. una Cámara de Diputados. El Senado está La Cámara de Diputados está compuesto por 178 miembros, a razón de uno por cada cincuenta mil habitantes o fracción de más de veinticinco mil. Por cada provincia debe haber por lo menos dos (Constitución Dominicana, Artwork. 24). Ambos representan al pueblo, a través de distintos partidos políticos, son elegidos por representación proporcional desde las listas partidarias y de forma nominal, por votación directa secreta y common, en todo el país, para un período de cuatro años (Constitución Dominicana, Artwork 21, Artwork. 24)

Las elecciones nacionales para elegir diputados se harán mediante circunscripciones electorales con el objeto de garantizar que los ciudadanos que resulten electos en las elecciones generales, sean una verdadera representación del sector de los habitantes que los eligen.[3]

La Constitución de la República no delega en los partidos políticos la representación del pueblo, más bien los contempla como instrumentos para realizar el procedimiento electivo mediante el cual los ciudadanos eligen cada cuatro años a sus representantes.

Quorum: En cada Cámara se requiere la presencia de más de la mitad de sus miembros, como quórum mínimo para la validez de las deliberaciones. Las decisiones se toman por mayoría absoluta de votos (Artwork. 30). La legislatura ordinaria dura noventa días, pero puede prorrogarse por sesenta días más (Artwork. 33).

Proceso Legislativo: En una investigación sobre la participación de los parlamentos en la producción política, Olson y Mezey (1991) afirman que el proceso legislativo está determinado por tres conjuntos de factores: a) las influencias externas sobre la legislatura; b) la capacidad de actuación de los legisladores; y c) el contenido de las políticas que se procesan.

Las influencias externas están determinadas por el dispositivo constitucional, la estructura estatal, la normativa electoral, el sistema de partidos, los intereses de los grupos de la sociedad y la agenda pública de gobierno. El alcance de actuación de los legisladores está determinado por el formato organizacional del Parlamento, las reglas de funcionamiento de las cámaras y de las comisiones, las estructuras de los partidos, así como la operativa específica de las bancadas y finalmente, las características personales de los integrantes del cuerpo. El contenido de las políticas depende de la naturaleza de los proyectos que se presentan en el Parlamento y del tipo de actores e intereses a que tales proyectos afectan.

Para alcanzar pues un resultado unificado, que manifieste la voluntad formal del Poder Legislativo como órgano mayor del estado, es necesario recorrer un itinerario complejo, de instancias eslabonadas, que respeta la composición bicameral del Parlamento, así como la calidad representativa de los cuerpos que lo componen y de sus integrantes, respondiendo a los requerimientos técnicos y políticos de la gramática legislativa.

Este proceso está integrado por cuatro fases: a) la proposición del proyecto de ley, b) el trámite del proyecto, c) la aprobación de la ley, y d) la promulgación de la ley.

En sentido common, Todo proyecto de ley puede iniciarse en cualquiera de las dos Cámaras y pasan usualmente a las comisiones parlamentarias respectivas, sean éstas especiales o permanentes, actuando más de una vez en forma integrada. Las comisiones son organismos fundamentales del sistema parlamentario y obran con un potencial de buena política legislativa, agregando a esta tarea, una mayor densidad, garantías y posibilidades de calidad[4]. Cuando el trabajo en la comisión ha concluido, el proyecto es presentado en el plenario de la Cámara correspondiente para su discusión y aprobación.

Luego de admitido en una de las Cámaras debe ser sometido a dos discusiones distintas, con un intervalo de un día por lo menos entre una y otra discusión (Artwork. 39), de acuerdo al procedimiento para la aprobación de leyes. Sí, en el caso de que el proyecto fuese declarado de emergencia debe ser discutido en dos sesiones consecutivas (Artwork. 39). Cada Cámara es independientemente en sus funciones de acuerdo al criterio mayoritario de sus miembros. Cualquier proyecto de ley recibido en una Cámara, después de haber sido aprobado en la otra, será fijado en el orden del día; pero el mismo puede ser aprobado, modificado o rechazado por esta (Artwork. 40).

Sanción: El procedimiento de sanción legislativa se inicia con el debate en Sala, a partir de la intervención de los voceros de las comisiones actuantes. Luego, los legisladores discuten el proyecto en common y luego en explicit, artículo por artículo, mediante un procedimiento ordenado por el Reglamento de Funcionamiento de cada Cámara. Todo proyecto de ley aprobado por la Cámara de origen pasará a la otra Cámara para su consideración, desarrollándose un procedimiento de ida y

Abuso Sexual Infantil Y Sus Consecuencias en La Vida Adulta

INTRODUCCIóN

El siguiente trabajo de sistematización tiene como objetivo abordar la problemática del Abuso sexual Infantil y sus consecuencias en la vida adulta, desde la perspectiva de la Psicología del Trauma.

La experiencia que sustenta nuestro trabajo son las Prácticas Profesionales Supervisadas (PPS) del área Clínica de Adultos realizadas en el Hospital Psiquiátrico Dr. E. Mira y López de la ciudad de Santa Fe durante doce días del mes de Abril de 2007.

Las actividades que realizamos fueron entrevistas de admisión principalmente, y un mínimo seguimiento del caso, entrevistas por adopción, entrevistas judiciales y entrevistas a los pacientes de sala. Asistimos además a los talleres de Radio y Teatro e hicimos pase de sala por el Polo Pediátrico; conociendo así gran parte del funcionamiento de este Hospital.

Observamos en varias de las entrevistas de admisión historias de abuso sexual infantil que nos dispararon el interés en pensar cuál sería la relación entre esta problemática y determinados trastornos psicológicos en la vida adulta. Es decir, de que manera se procesaría el abuso sexual infantil en el sujeto y cuáles serían las consecuencias de estas experiencias abusivas y sexuales tempranas.

CONTEXTO DE LA PRáCTICA

Contextualización common Marco socio-político-cultural de la institución..(creo que voy a hacer una entrevista más al psiquiátrico para completar esto…)

El Hospital Psiquiátrico Dr. E. Mira y López se haya ubicado en la zona norte de la cuidad, precisamente en Blas Parera a la altura del 8430 y tiene un área de influencia que abarca los barrios: San Agustín, Yapeyú, Estanislao López, Sarmiento, Cabaña Leiva, Los Troncos, Acería, Cabal, Abasto Loyola Sur y Las Lomas. La gran mayoría de éstos AGRAGAR BARRIOSposee una población de bajos recursos siendo los trabajos ocasionales, “las changas”, la prostitución, “el cirujeo” y la delincuencia su modo de vida y la violencia su lenguaje común.

Contextualización específica aquí sería Como realizó el estudiante su práctica, actividades, interrogantes, expectativas…esto todavía no lo hice, sólo pegué lo del plan…

En su origen, alrededor del año 1947, el Hospital Dr. E. Mira y López fue un establecimiento de salud monovalente, con la especialidad de Psiquiatría de puertas cerradas y con una capacidad para internación del doble de la precise. Además, por el punto estratégico en el que se ubica, se constituyó como la base referencial en toda la zona norte de la provincia de Santa Fe en el área de salud psychological.

Hoy en día, además de continuar siendo la única institución que posibilita el servicio de internación para pacientes psiquiátricos, brinda a la población los siguientes servicios: Psiquiatría de adultos, Psiquiatría infantil, Neurología, Clínica Médica, Ecografía, Cardiología, Gastroenterología, Ginecología y Obstetricia, Pediatría, Neurología infantil, Psicología Clínica, Psicopedagogía, Fonoaudiología, Kinesiología, Terapia Ocupacional, Psicomotricidad y Nutricionista. Así también funcionan los Comités de Admisión en Psicología de niños y adultos, el Comité de Maltrato infantil y un Comité de Admisión para el Hospital de Día.

Dentro del sector de internación, se han implementado dos modalidades: de internación entera y de media jornada. La primera modalidad corresponde al servicio de psiquiatría de adultos, el cual posee dos salas, una para hombres y otra para mujeres con una capacidad para 37 personas cada una; y la Unidad de Internación Pediátrica, con una capacidad de 16 camas que es mixta.

La modalidad de media jornada corresponde al Hospital de Día, el cual recibe a pacientes adultos con trastornos mentales y al Centro de Día para discapacitados mentales moderados y profundos menores de 15 años.

Para acceder a estos servicios, el Hospital posee tres modalidades de atención: Espontánea, por orden de llegada; Programada, mediante turnos; y de Urgencia en las áreas Pediátrica, Clínica y Psiquiátrica.

El Hospital es además un Hospital de Autogestión, es decir, genera parte de sus propios recursos a través de la facturación de las obras sociales. De esta manera se amplía aún más la población que acude a los distintos servicios.

Se puede decir entonces que, si bien la especialidad que prevalece es la Salud Psychological, dicha institución ha ido anexando servicios para responder a las necesidades de la población.

OBJETIVO GENERAL Y ESPECíFICOS

Objetivo Common:

Analizar el Abuso Sexual Infantil desde la perspectiva de la Psicología del Trauma y las posibles consecuencias en la conformación de la personalidad.

Objetivos Específicos:

Realizar una aproximación al concepto de Trauma Psicológico comprendiendo su evolución histórica.

Explorar los distintos tipos de respuesta humana a un hecho traumático y sus posibles consecuencias.

Explorar las características del trauma en la infancia, precisamente el abuso sexual infantil, y sus repercusiones en la vida adulta.

METODOLOGíA DE SISTEMATIZACIóN A UTILIZAR

La modalidad seleccionada para realizar el siguiente trabajo es la sistematización de una temática: el Abuso Sexual Infantil (ASI) y sus consecuencias en la vida adulta entendido desde la Psicología del Trauma. PARTIMOS …. partiendo de la experiencia vivida en las entrevistas de admisión realizadas en el Hospital Psiquiátrico Dr. E. Mira y López en el contexto de las PPS del área Clínica de Adultos.

Entendemos por sistematización la interpretación crítica de una experiencia que, a partir de su ordenamiento y reconstrucción, descubre o explica la lógica del proceso de los factores que han intervenido en él, cómo se han relacionado entre sí y por qué lo han hecho de ese modo (Jara, 1994).

Esta modalidad permite recuperar las experiencias en manos de sus propios actores, para analizarlas e interpretarlas crítica y ordenadamente y extraer conclusiones; identificar aciertos y errores y por lo tanto compartir lecciones que pueden ayudar a mejorar las prácticas de intervención.

El enfoque que contextualiza dicha articulación teórico-práctica es el paradigma sistémico, entendido como modo de pensar la realidad, las cosas e incluso las concepts (Fernández Moya, 2006).

Este paradigma posibilita analizar al individuo no de manera aislada, sino como un complejo sistema inmerso en muchos otros sistemas más amplios que lo determinan y a su vez son determinados por éste: acquainted, cultural, institucional, and so forth.

Ceberio y Watzlawick (1998) consideran la epistemología sistémica como una herramienta que permite construir correlaciones y recursividades entre los diferentes niveles de lo observable, entendiendo que cada uno de éstos es autónomo, pero al mismo tiempo interdependiente y puede requerir de otros instrumentos de indagación.

Bajo esta metodología y enfoque, el hilo conductor que guía el presente trabajo consiste en un primer acercamiento teórico al concepto del Trauma Psicológico y su diferencia con el concepto de Stress. Recorremos luego la historia del estudio del Trauma Psicológico. De esta manera nos aproximamos también a la evolución de las categorías diagnósticas que clasificaron al Trauma Psicológico en las distintas ediciones del DSM.

Por último nos introducimos a la temática del Abuso Sexual Infantil con el objetivo de lograr comprenderla como posible generadora de un Trauma Psicológico que, como afirma Herman (2004), forma y deforma la personalidad.

Con respecto a la articulación teórico-práctica, describimos el proceso de práctica tal como fue vivido en las PPS. De ésta manera nuestro objetivo es lograr articular la teoría expuesta con la experiencia vivida.

Concluimos nuestro trabajo desarrollando los principios generales para el abordaje terapéutico del trauma psicológico (esto lo había puesto en el plan pero me parece que no lo voy a poner ahora, no creo que llegue a hacerlo, sería muy extenso…me parece que con que ponga lo otro ya estaría), como así también una entrevista diagnóstica exhaustiva que tome en cuenta la historia traumática de la persona con el fin de proponer contemplar esta información en una Entrevista de Admisión como la que realizamos en el Hospital Psiquiátrico Dr. E. Mira y López en el contexto de las PPS.

Metodología específica:

  1. Investigación bibliográfica en torno de la temática en cuestión: el abuso sexual infantil entendido desde la Psicología del Trauma.
  2. Entrevistas a los profesionales del Hospital Psiquiátrico Dr. E. Mira y López.
  3. Sistematización de la información recabada durante el proceso de las PPS.

MARCO TEóRICO

Capítulo 1. NOCIONES INTRODUCTORIAS RESPECTO AL TRAUMA PSICOLóGICO (qué te parece este primer capítulo??)

Estrés Traumático

En primer lugar creemos necesaria la siguiente aclaración: no poner bajo forma de pregunta………enunciarlo de otro modo

A qué nos referimos cuando hablamos de Trauma Psicológico?. Herman (2004), citando al Complete Textbook of Psichiatry, expone que “[…] el denominador común del trauma psicológico es un sentimiento de inmenso miedo, de indefensión, de pérdida de management y de amenaza de aniquilación” (p.64).

Cazabat (2001) afirma al respecto: “[…] el hecho traumático es definido por la reacción del individuo” (p. 2) y no por el evento en si. Y continúa en otro de sus artículos: “[…] lo que es una fuente de placer para algunos, puede ser una fuente de displacer para otros” (Cazabat & Costa, 2000, p. 1). Lo que outline entonces el hecho como traumático es que “[…] la situación sea percibida por el individuo como amenazante para la vida o la integridad física propia o ajena y que éste reaccione con inmenso temor, horror o pánico” (Cazabat, 2001, p.2). Estas serían las características esenciales de lo que encontramos como Trastorno por Estrés Put up-Traumático (TPET) en el DSM IV.

Anteriormente, como veremos más adelante, el hecho traumático period definido por la situación en sí. Este cambio de paradigma se puede observar en la clasificación de dicha categoría diagnóstica del DSM IV con respecto a los anteriores Manuales Diagnósticos.

El concepto de Trauma Psicológico, tomado de la medicina, hace referencia a las heridas que “no se ven”, afirma Orengo García (2002), es decir a las lesiones psíquicas y LAS sus múltiples consecuencias negativas de quienes las sufren.

Volviendo a la concept anteriormente planteada sobre las distintas fuentes de placer para unos y de displacer para otros, Cazabat y Costa (2000) exponen que “[…] el stress es una parte insustituible de nuestra vida” (p. 1). Esto es, estamos continuamente expuestos a distintas situaciones que ponen en riesgo nuestra vida. Incluso muchos disfrutamos al exponernos a algunas de esas fuentes de stress. “[…] Así podemos ver que hay quienes disfrutan de subir a una montaña rusa, o practicar deportes riesgosos” (Cazabat & Costa, 2000, p. 1). Por último vemos que “[…] resulta necesaria una cierta cantidad de stress para tener un buen rendimiento en cualquier tarea, dado que de otro modo, el individuo no encontraría motivación para su realización” (Cazabat & Costa, 2000, p. 1).

Pero se hace necesaria entonces la distinción de este concepto, al parecer necesario para la supervivencia y el de Trauma Psicológico.

El primero, fue definido por Hans Selye en 1934 como “[…] la respuesta common de adaptación del organismo frente a un estímulo amenazante” (Cazabat & Costa, 2000, p. 1). Frecuentemente estamos expuestos a situaciones que percibimos como amenazantes. Esto provoca en nosotros una ansiedad necesaria para la acción o para la respuesta. Selye (citado en Cazabat, 2001) sitúa dos tipos de respuesta: de afrontamiento a la situación o de huida. “[…] El organismo reacciona preparándose para la lucha o para la huida. Luego de terminada la pelea o concretada la huida, el individuo recupera su metabolismo unique, y la respuesta al estrés desaparece, reponiéndose del enorme gasto de energías físicas y emocionales” (Cazabat, 2001, p. 1).

Te parece que ponga el Concepto moderno de stress???

Sin embrago, cuando los tipos de respuesta anteriores no son suficientes, la situación amenazante deja huellas en el organismo a las que llamamos Trauma Psicológico.

Los efectos del trauma psicológico se expresan, entonces, como cambios en la respuesta biológica al stress, produciendo alteraciones profundas en los mecanismos hormonales relacionados con éste, y en el procesamiento de la memoria. De esta manera el hecho traumático interrumpe la línea histórica regular de la vida de la víctima, produciendo profundas alteraciones a nivel biológico, emocional, cognitivo y relacional (Cazabat, 2001, p. 1).

En este sentido Herman (2004) concluye que “[…]las reacciones traumáticas tienen lugar cuando la acción no sirve para nada. Cuando no es posible ni resistirse ni escapar, el sistema de autodefensa humano se siente sobrepasado y desorganizado”(p.65). Es así que el DSM IV (1994) plantea que la víctima sufre tres clases de síntomas: de reexperimentación del hecho traumático (flashbacks, pesadillas, and so forth.); de evitación de los estímulos asociados al trauma y de embotamiento psíquico y emocional (sentimientos de desapego, anhedonia, amnesia whole o parcial del hecho traumático, and so forth.); y de hiperactivación (hipervigilancia, dificultades para dormir, respuesta de sobresalto, irritabilidad, and so forth.)

Cazabat (2001) agrega que “[…]éstos síntomas muchas veces son de aparición tardía (hasta años después de ocurrido el hecho traumático) y suelen ser mal interpretados, y diagnosticados como depresión, trastornos psicóticos, simulación, and so forth.”(p. 2). Es allí donde radica la importancia de realizar una historia de traumas del paciente en una entrevista de admisión. Esto facilita el diagnóstico diferencial, ahorra tiempo y padecimiento para el sujeto. “[…]A menudo, otro de los obstáculos que encuentra el clínico, es que frecuentemente el paciente evita hacer referencia al hecho traumático para evitar el sufrimiento”(Cazabat, 2001, p. four). Es entonces el profesional quien debe estar preparado para abordar tempranamente dichas cuestiones. “[…]Si la intervención se demora mucho tiempo, el paciente estructura su vida en torno de los síntomas, dañando las actividades sociales, interpersonales, laborales and so forth. por lo que la recuperación es más dificultosa”( Cazabat, 2001, p. 5).

Criterios Diagnósticos

Describimos entonces en profundidad los síntomas asociados al Trastorno por Estrés Put up Traumático tal como lo realiza Cazabat (2001):

Síntomas de Reexperimentación: éstos pueden producirse de variadas maneras:

  • por la irrupción recurrente de pensamientos, sentimientos o imágenes relacionados con el hecho traumático.
  • sueños y pesadillas recurrentes que producen malestar.
  • la sensación de estar viviendo nuevamente el hecho traumático, que puede darse bajo la forma de flashbacks, episodios disociativos, ilusiones o alucinaciones.
  • reacciones fisiológicas o psicológicas intensas de malestar al exponerse a estímulos que recuerdan o simbolizan el hecho traumático.

Aquí el autor destaca lo siguiente:

Cada nueva reexperimentación del hecho traumático provoca en el individuo una réplica de la reacción de estrés unique frente al trauma, provocando así una retraumatización. De esta manera, el trauma se autoperpetúa. El individuo queda fijado en el tiempo y es continuamente reexpuesto al hecho traumático (Cazabat, 2001, p. three).

Síntomas de Evitación: bajo esta categorización se han agrupado dos tipos de síntomas:

  • los de evitación en sentido estricto, que incluyen el esfuerzo por evitar pensamientos, sensaciones, personas, lugares, actividades, hechos and so forth. que recuerden el hecho traumático
  • los de carácter disociativo o de embotamiento psíquico, tales como
  1. incapacidad para recordar aspectos significativos del hecho traumático.
  2. reducción del interés o de la participación en actividades que le resultaban significativas.
  3. sensación de desapego o enajenación o extrañamiento.
  4. reducción significativa de la vida afectiva, con incapacidad de experimentar sentimientos positivos.
  5. sensación de futuro desolador y desesperanza.

Al respecto Cazabat (2001) explica:

El individuo desarrolla esta serie de síntomas en un aparente intento de resguardarse de las emociones intolerables, o bien evitando directamente los recordatorios del trauma, o bien anestesiándose emocionalmente, ya sea por medio de mecanismos disociativos o síntomas de amnesia, ya sea por medio de consumo de sustancias, trastornos alimenticios, adicción al trabajo, and so forth.(p. four).

Síntomas de Hiperactivación: también denominados de Hiperarousal.

  • trastornos del sueño
  • trastornos en la concentración
  • irritación
  • hipervigilancia
  • respuesta de sobresalto exagerada

Por último el autor señala:

El paciente está siempre en guardia en otro intento de permanecer a salvo de la reexposición al hecho traumático. El paciente traumatizado nunca se siente a salvo, por lo que es imprescindible la construcción de una buena alianza terapéutica como para que el paciente llegue a confiar en el clínico (p. four).

Este último grupo de síntomas son los que muchas veces se confunden en la clínica con otros trastornos, como el trastorno depresivo, de somatización, simulación, déficit de atención, personalidad borderline, delinquent, e incluso hasta con algún tipo de trastorno psicótico.

Predictores

Cazabat (2001) desarrolla luego los factores que predicen la posibilidad de que alguien expuesto a un hecho traumático desarrolle TPET.

Se han hallado que dos son los predoctores más precisos:

  1. la historia previa de traumas del individuo: es así que quien ha sufrido otros traumas a lo largo de su vida está más expuesto a desarrollar un TPET.
  2. las reacciones disociativas durante e inmediatamente después del hecho traumático. Son aquellos individuos que reaccionan predominantemente con embotamiento emocional, o experimentando el hecho traumático como si le estuviera ocurriendo a otro, no sintiendo dolor, o percibiéndose a sí mismo como desde fuera de su cuerpo.

El DSM IV contempla, con respecto a éstos últimos síntomas, una categoría diagnóstica explicit. El Trastorno por Estrés Agudo pone el acento en los síntomas disociativos. Está reacción, veremos más adelante, parece ser la más asociada al ASI.

Características del hecho traumático

Queremos agregar finalmente un dato que consideramos sumamente interesante para nuestro presente trabajo. Dado que nos disponemos a analizar las consecuencias del ASI, debemos saber cuáles son las características del hecho traumático que se asocian a un mejor pronóstico. no sé si entendés la concept que quiero poner aquí, pero no sé como redactarlo de otra forma “[…]Con respecto a las características del hecho traumático tienen más posibilidades de desarrollar un TPET quienes estén expuestos a hechos traumáticos” (Cazabat, 2001, p. 5):

  • Infringidos por la mano del ser humano
  • Por familiares directos o personas en las que se debía confiar
  • Los que son repetidos y reiterados
  • Sufridos más tempranamente
  • Por los que se ha recibido presión al silencio

Tales son las características esenciales del ASI y más precisamente del Incesto.

Por el contrario, las características de los hechos traumáticos que “[…] tienden a resolverse más benignamente” (Cazabat, 2001, p. 5) son las siguientes:

  • De carácter pure
  • No intencionales
  • Hechos únicos
  • Sufridos a edad más avanzada
  • De los que se ha podido hablar más libremente

Al respecto Herman (2004) analiza también cuál es la postura de “los demás” y afirma lo siguiente:

Estudiar el trauma psicológico significa ser testigo de acontecimientos terribles. Cuando estos son desastres naturales o “hechos de Dios”, los que los han presenciado simpatizan con facilidad con las víctimas. Sin embargo, cuando han sido diseñados por la mano humana, los que los presencian se ven atrapados en una conflicto entre víctima y perpetrados. Es moralmente imposible mantenerse impartial en este conflicto. Al testigo se le exige tomar posiciones (p. 26).

EVOLUCIóN HISTóRICA DE LA PSICOTRAUMATOLOGíA MODERNA

Introducción

Si debiéramos situar históricamente los orígenes del Trauma Psicológico nos tendríamos que remontar a los orígenes mismos de la historia. Cazabat (2003) afirma al respecto que el Trauma Psicológico ha acompañado la historia de la humanidad de una manera omnipresente. Es así como éste autor cita textos tan antiguos como la Biblia o el Talmud, los escritos chinos o los clásicos griegos como La Ilíada para hacer referencia a las primeras manifestaciones de hechos traumáticos y sus efectos psicológicos.

La pregunta es entonces, si encontramos los orígenes del trauma en los orígenes de la historia misma de la humanidad, ¿por qué no ha habido un desarrollo científico continuado de ésta temática? Quizá sea porque “[…] la respuesta recurring a las atrocidades es borrarlas de la conciencia” (Herman, 2004, p. 17). Otro de los motivos que encontramos en Cazabat (2002) es que “[…] el estudio del trauma psicológico ha estado indisolublemente ligado al desarrollo y ocaso de movimientos políticos y sociales que le dieron sustento”(p.38). Lo cierto es que este hecho no es informal.

El estudio científico del trauma psicológico tiene sus orígenes recién a fines del siglo XIX y se caracteriza por ser una historia de abruptos períodos de amnesia episódica, alternada con períodos investigación activa.

Herman (2004) afirma que “[…] estudiar el trauma es enfrentarse tanto con la vulnerabilidad humana en el mundo pure como a la capacidad de hacer mal que hay en la naturaleza humana” (p.25). Por esto es que la autora cube que muchas veces se convierte en un anatema, dado que lleva a incursionar en terrenos tan “íntimos y privados” como el mismo ceno acquainted o tan públicos como el poder político y las ideologías que recorren la sociedad.

Desde los casos de torturas, secuestros, toma de rehenes, veteranos de guerra, hasta las más íntimas situaciones de abuso sexual y la violencia doméstica. Las manifestaciones del trauma recorren horizontal y verticalmente la sociedad (Cazabat, 2002, p.92)

Cazabat (2002) continúa poniendo de manifiesto la creciente relación que se observa entre situaciones de violencia y abuso y patologías tales como las drogodependencias, los trastornos de la alimentación, depresiones, and so forth. A lo que agregaríamos lo propuesto por Baita (2004) acerca de la alta correlación que hoy se evidencia en la práctica entre el ASI y el Trastorno de Personalidad Múltiple –hoy llamado Trastorno Disociativo de la Identidad (TDI)-.

Volviendo a la historia del estudio del trauma, Cazabat (2002) sitúa las primeras manifestaciones del trauma psicológico en el estudio científico a fines del siglo XIX, cuando el médico británico Herbert Web page acuñó el término “shock nervioso”. El mismo hacía referencia a la sintomatología postraumática, y atribuyó su etiología al terror experimentado, en lugar del daño orgánico, como period la creencia de su época. Herman Oppenheimer, neurólogo alemán, continuando con ésta tendencia, acuñó el término “neurosis traumática” y atribuyó su sintomatología a sutiles cambios moleculares en el sistema nervioso.

Para la misma época Charcot y sus seguidores se encontraban estudiando en París el fenómeno de la histeria. Esta formaría parte de la primera etapa de la clasificación propuesta por Herman (2004) para dividir la historia moderna del estudio del Trauma Psicológico.

Otro acontecimiento relevante para el estudio científico del Trauma Psicológico que describe Cazabat (2002) es el primer caso de abuso sexual que concitó la atención pública. Este hecho registrado en 1874 en Estados Unidos llevó a la formación de la primera Sociedad para la Prevención de la Crueldad contra los Niños en Nueva York. Un dato llamativo que denota Cazabat (2002) es que “[…]ésta sociedad se organizó sobre la base de una preexistente Sociedad para la Prevención contra los Animales” (p. 39). En ese mismo año A. Tardieu, médico forense, documentó con sus investigaciones la incidencia del abuso sexual infantil.

A continuación seguiremos el recorrido propuesto por Herman (2004) quien sitúa cada una de las tres etapas que propone para dividir la historia moderna del estudio del Trauma Psicológico en los distintos momentos sociopolíticos que le dieron sustento al estudio científico. La primera correspondería, como dijimos anteriormente, al estudio de la histeria, sustentado en el movimiento republicano anticlerical de fines del siglo XIX en Francia. La segunda al estudio de las consecuencias de la guerra y el combate, sustentado en movimientos antibelicistas y pacifistas durante las grandes guerras de este siglo –Primera y Segunda Guerras Mundiales, Corea y finalmente Vietnam-. Por último encontramos el estudio de las consecuencias de la violencia doméstica y sexual, apoyado en el movimiento feminista.

El estudio de la histeria (me falta completarla con un libro de Volnovich “abuso sexual en la infancia”)

Esta primera etapa del estudio del trauma psicológico, la situaremos también como los orígenes del estudio científico del Abuso Sexual Infantil.

El término “histeria” denominaba una enfermedad propia de las mujeres que se originaba en el útero. El patriarca del estudio de la histeria fue el neurólogo francés Jean-Martin Charcot y la Salpêtrière su reino; el mayor y antiguo complejo hospitalario de toda Europa. Esa enorme “ciudad de locos” llevaba tiempo siendo el centro de beneficencia de los más desdichados del proletariado parisino: mendigos, prostitutas y locos. Por entonces albergaba una multitud de mujeres devoradas por “pasiones morbosas”. Charcot transformó la descuidada institución en un templo de la ciencia moderna, y los nombres más prestigiosos y ambiciosos de las nuevas disciplinas de la neurología y la psiquiatría viajaron a París apara estudiar con el maestro. Entre ellos se encontraban Pierre Janet, William James y Sigmund Freud.

En 1885, cuando Freud llega a París acosado por una epidemia de histeria se fascinó por el enfrentamiento entre dos poderes: las mujeres insubordinadas y el gran Charcot conquistándolas a través de la hipnosis.

El prestigio de Charcot dio credibilidad a un campo que había sido considerado muy inferior a la investigación científica seria. Anteriormente, las mujeres histéricas habían sido consideradas unas manipuladoras y su tratamiento había quedado relegado al dominio de los hipnotizadores y curanderos populares. Cuando murió Charcot, Freud lo elogió como el patrón liberador de los afligidos:

A la histérica no se le daba ningún crédito por nada. Lo primero que hizo el trabajo de Charcot fue devolverle la dignidad al tema. Poco a poco empezó a desaparecer esa sonrisa despectiva que la paciente podía esperar de la gente. Ya no se la consideraba necesariamente una farsante, porque Charcot había defendido con todo el peso de su autoridad la autenticidad y objetividad del fenómeno de la histeria (Freud citado en Herman, 2004, p.30)

El estudio de las consecuencias de la guerra y el combate (este creo que así ya estaría)

En el año 1914 “[…] la realidad del trauma psicológico se impuso una vez más sobre la conciencia pública con la catástrofe de la Primera Guerra Mundial” (Herman, 2004, p. 44). Durante los cuatro años que duró la guerra, millones de hombres murieron y otros miles comenzaron a experimentar una sintomatología related a la de las mujeres histéricas.”[…]Gritaban y lloraban descontroladamente. Se quedaban mudos y no respondían a estímulos. Perdían la memoria y su capacidad parasensorial” (Herman, 2004, p. 44). Inicialmente se creyó que la sintomatología period de origen traumático y se atribuyó al efecto de la explosión de las granadas “shell shock” o “trauma de bomba”.

Charles Myers fue el psicólogo británico que examinó algunos de los primeros casos y utilizó el término “trauma de bomba” para explicar la sintomatología de los soldados. No obstante rápidamente observó que el mismo síndrome lo padecían sujetos que no habían estado expuestos a ningún trauma físico. El número de bajas psiquiátricas crecía y las autoridades militares intentaban ocultar los informes porque, según ellos, tenían un efecto desmoralizador sobre la población. El origen de la sintomatología se hacía cada vez más evidente: “[…]el estrés emocional de estar expuesto de manera prolongada a la muerte violenta period suficiente para crear un síndrome neurótico que se parecía a la histeria en los hombres” (Herman, 2004, p. 45). A pesar de esta evidencia que mostraban los soldados y que obligó a los psiquiatras militares a reconocer el origen psicológico de los síntomas del “trauma de guerra”, la creencia más común period que los síntomas post-traumáticos se debían a la cobardía y debilidad del soldado. Los tradicionalistas opinaban que un soldado regular debería sentirse glorificado en batalla y no debería mostrar ningún signo de emoción. Es más, el soldado que desarrollaba una neurosis traumática period, en el mejor de los casos, un ser humano constitucionalmente inferior, y en el peor, un vago y un cobarde. Tal es así que se los denominó “inválidos morales” y había quienes consideraban que no merecían tratamiento médico.

Siguiendo éstas concepts, Herman (2004) cita a Lewis Yealland, psiquiatra británico, quien fue el defensor más destacado de la postura tradicionalista. El tratamiento que proponía se basaba en el uso de amenazas, castigos, avergonzamientos e incluso choques eléctricos para quienes sufrían de mutismo o parálisis motora.

Afortunadamente encontramos en éste recorrido histórico una postura totalmente opuesta a éstas atrocidades. Luego de que se cuestionara la ethical de los soldados en la búsqueda de una explicación para su sintomatología, las autoridades médicas progresistas argumentaban que la neurosis de guerra period una condición psiquiátrica genuina que podían manifestarse en soldados con una personalidad ethical muy alta. Por lo tanto el tratamiento que proponían period más humanitario y basado en los principios del psicoanálisis. Rivers period el principal médico defensor de ésta postura.

A pesar de que el tratamiento se mostraba como más humanitario, el objetivo continuaba siendo el mismo: devolver al paciente al combate. El motivo period que seguía la línea de toda la medicina militar. De todas maneras Rivers defendía la eficacia de algún modo de la cura del habla. Animaba a sus pacientes a que escribiera y hablara de las atrocidades vividas durante el combate. S. Sasoo, un jóven oficial y más famoso paciente le respondió con gratitud t su psicoterapia fue considerada un éxito.

Siguiendo una línea de tratamiento humanitario, Rivers había establecido dos principios que serían utilizados por los psiquiatras militares americanos en la siguiente guerra. En primer lugar, había demostrado que hombres de indudable valentía habían sucumbido ante un abrumador miedo y, en segundo, que la motivación más efectiva para superar ese miedo period algo más fuerte que el patriotismo, los principios abstractos o el odio hacía el enemigo: period el amor que sentían los soldados los unos a los otros (Herman, 2004, p. 48).

Abraham Kardiner, psiquiatra americano, preocupado por la gravedad del sufrimiento de los soldados y su incapacidad para curarlos, describió en 1941 los síntomas asociados al estrés post-traumático, incluida la amnesia. Posteriormente, junto a Herbert Spiegel, desarrollaron tratamientos para integrar las experiencias traumáticas.

Aquí nos e

Inter-lingual Interference in the Usage of Prepositions

Inter-lingual Interference within the Utilization of Prepositions within the English of Syrian College students

Summary

In recent times, research of international language acquisition have tended to give attention to learners’ errors since they permit for prediction of the difficulties concerned in buying a international language. On this manner, academics could be made conscious of the troublesome areas to be encountered by their college students and dedicate particular care and emphasis to them. Prepositions, on which this dissertation focuses, are one among these troublesome areas. Thus, the primary goal is to analyze whether or not the English preposition errors of the Syrian college college students come extra from inter-lingual interference or from different sources and whether or not classical or colloquial Arabic has the dominant affect on this interference. It additionally investigates which class of error in inter-lingual interference is probably the most frequent within the college students’ utilizing the prepositions in, on, at, of and to. The info is samples consisting of the solutions of a diagnostic check by 38 Syrian first-year college students of regulation. The diagnostic check was designed as a a number of alternative check and took by the scholars on-line. This investigation confirmed that preposition errors come primarily from inter-lingual interference, which is attributed extra to straightforward Arabic right here. It additionally confirmed that the scholars appear to have a major problem in first language interference errors, particularly substitution errors. This has implications for curriculum change and instructor’s technique of instructing.

1. Introduction
1.1. Background of the examine

Language issue is usually decided by how far or shut the goal and mom languages are. “Contrastive evaluation is likely one of the areas of linguistics which elude a transparent, unequivocal, and easy definition” (Vizmuller-Zocco, 1990:466). Errors in a sure space of grammar within the second language are sometimes in contrast with an space of grammar within the first language.

One of the vital difficult issues in studying English as a second language is utilizing prepositions, “Amongst those that educate or be taught the English language, prepositions have earned a popularity for issue if not downright unpredictability.” (Pittman, 1966) “As any English instructor properly is aware of, our prepositions are a very troublesome lot to the non-native speaker of English” (McCarthy, 1972).

Once we, non-native audio system of English, converse English, we often hesitate over selecting the right preposition or whether or not a sure verb wants a preposition or not. This matter has all the time me, as many Arabic-speaking learners of English complain about it. Thahir (1987) signifies that prepositions may cause an issue for Arabic learners of English. As an illustration, an Arabic speaker would say this sentence *Quick trains can journey at a pace of 300m in hour. It's because per hour is expressed as in hour in Arabic. This switch from Arabic into English is what makes Arabic learners’ English appear damaged. Furthermore, some linguists say that the mastery of prepositions in English is a late stage in native-language studying as properly (Scott and Tucker, 1974).

Subsequently, this dissertation intends to look into the variations of preposition facets between Arabic and English: are their distributions the identical? Do all of the Arabic phrases that want prepositions additionally want prepositions in English? If the phrases that want prepositions in Arabic additionally want prepositions in English, are these prepositions the identical or totally different? From these basic questions extra particular questions will probably be formulated within the ‘Methodology’ chapter.

1.2. Grammar of English and Arabic prepositions

“Arabic has a wealth of prepositions…with each verbs and adjectives. Many of those don't coincide with their direct English translations” (Swan and Smith, 1987:152). However, Arabic prepositions are extra restricted in quantity than these of English. Abbas says that there are solely twenty prepositions in Arabic (1961:320), whereas in English, there are fifty seven (Hayden, 1965:171-176). This, as a matter of reality, makes it tougher for Arabic learners of English to have a command of English preposition utilization. Grubic says:

Non-native audio system of English are likely to have three varieties of issues with prepositions:

1. Utilizing the flawed preposition, e.g.:

*My grandfather picked the title on me. (for)

2. Omitting a required preposition, e.g.:

*I served the Military till 1964. (in)

three. Utilizing a superfluous prepositions, e.g.:

*I studied in Biology for 3 years. (2004:22)

Regardless of all of the efforts made by grammar ebook writers and academics, learners of English nonetheless make errors within the utilization of prepositions. So, what makes EFL learners make these errors? There is no such thing as a doubt that Arabic learners of English translate grammar from Arabic into English, ignoring the rigorous grammatical buildings of the English language. Nonetheless, are all preposition-usage errors associated to L1?

Prepositions are phrases or teams of phrases that sometimes come earlier than a noun phrase and point out syntactic relations (Matthews, 1997).

v My father’s airplane arrives after midnight.

v We've obtained a tree in entrance of the home.

v There are not any snakes in Eire.

One vital characteristic of prepositions is that they can not stand alone, no matter what number of phrases they're mixed with (Downing and Locke, 1992). Since prepositions will not be impartial, they type which means when mixed with nouns or noun phrases, for instance: after midnight, in entrance of the home, in Eire. “Prepositions could be divided into three classes, i.e. fundamental prepositions, systematic prepositions and idiomatic prepositions:

v standing on the desk.

v come on Friday.

v touch upon speech.” (Karlsson, 2002)

In expressing time, on is used with days, corresponding to on Friday, on Saturday and on January 30th. At, however, signifies a particular half or time of the day, corresponding to at 12 o’clock, at midday and at midnight. Whereas in is used with years, months and seasons or important components of the day, for instance in 2001, in summer season, in April. For explains a time period, and by and inside point out limitation of a time period, corresponding to for six years, by subsequent 12 months and inside two hours (Hewings, 2005).

The Arabic preposition charge (»“»²), which is equal to the English in, is utilized in virtually all the above circumstances, however for inside Arabic makes use of khilal (º»¼»). By and for haven't any equivalents in Arabic and they're expressed in phrases.

As for prepositions of motion and place, in is used when indicating a sure place and on when speaking in regards to the floor, as in:

v The keys are within the drawer.

v The keys are on the desk.

At is used when pointing at a sure place which is near the article, for instance:

v I’m ready for you on the bus cease.

Inside is used to point the interior place of a sure object, whereas outdoors is the other.

v There's a scorpion inside my room.

v Exterior the Palace, there have been crowds of individuals ready for the Queen to indicate up.

Additionally, from and to are reverse prepositions. From signifies the origin of the motion, however to signifies the goal of the motion (ibid), as in:

v My airplane ticket is from London Heathrow to Damascus Worldwide Airport.

All the prepositions of motion and place have their equivalents in Arabic:

§ in → charge (»“»²)

§ on → ala (»‹» »°)

§ at → inda (»‹»ºª)

§ inside → dakhel (ºªºº»ž)

§ outdoors → kharej (ººº®º)

§ from → min (»£»¥)

§ to → ila (º‡» »°)

1.three. Examine goals

The prepositions in, on, at and to are probably the most generally used prepositions in English. Subsequently, my analysis examine goes to focus carefully on these 4 prepositions within the English of Syrian college college students. I'll see whether or not the primary language interference form of error is more practical than the opposite varieties. I'll determine the errors that must do with L1 interference and see if the interference comes from classical or colloquial Arabic. I can even take a look at the classes of L1 interference errors and see which one is probably the most frequent: substitution, addition or omission. This can, hopefully, assist Syrian college college students enhance their written and spoken English.

2. Literature overview
2.1. Error evaluation

A method for figuring out errors in preposition utilization is error evaluation. To start with, you will need to outline the phrase ‘error’. An error is “an occasion of language that's unintentionally deviant and isn't self-corrigible by its creator” (James, 1998:78). Brown considers the errors as both ‘overt’ or ‘covert’ (1994:208).

In keeping with Ellis (1987) Error evaluation was thought of as a substitute for contrastive evaluation, and it's thought of of worth within the classroom analysis (Brown, 1994: 214). It additionally predicts the difficulties of buying a second language (Richards, 1974: 172). Error evaluation reveals “the importance of errors in learners’ inter-language system” (Brown, 1994:204). Ellis and Richards et al say that error evaluation could be performed for pedagogical functions (1994:51; 1993:127).

On the degree of pragmatic classroom expertise, error evaluation will proceed to offer one means by which the instructor can assess studying and instructing and decide priorities for future effort (Richards, 1974:15).

Once we analyse errors, we should always give an in depth clarification for every sort of error that corresponds to the totally different processes that Selinker (1992) reported as central to second language studying:

language switch, switch of coaching, methods of second language studying, methods of second language communication, and overgeneralization of TL [Target Language] linguistic materials.

Error evaluation helps academics overcome the difficulties learners of English face in studying the language by determining the sources of errors and, consequently, taking some precautions in the direction of them. It may be stated that error evaluation can be utilized to find out the learner’s want in studying.

2.2. Language switch

The “examine of switch relies upon enormously on the systematic comparisons of languages supplied by contrastive analyses” (Odlin, 1989: 28). Odlin goes on to say that though many contrastive analyses present helpful and typically extremely perceptive details about languages they examine, none comes near assembly in full the factors of descriptive and theoretical adequacy.

There is no such thing as a doubt that interference constitutes a significant drawback and impediment in language utilization amongst learners of a second language. They can't assist letting their mom tongue intrude within the goal language. Subsequently, some errors are tolerable to native audio system of English. Even native audio system of English have issues with sure preposition buildings.

Over-generalisation or intra-lingual switch is claimed to have a significantly adverse impact on learner English. Learners of a second language typically switch some options of grammar to use it on different inappropriate options. This definitely ends in errors within the goal language. Nearly all of the analysis that has been performed to this point signifies that preposition misuse is principally brought on by linguistic interference, inappropriate studying and flawed utility of guidelines. Some views contradict this saying that errors of prepositions are as a result of complexity of the English language itself. Others go as far as to say that the misuse or errors of a language could possibly be associated to unhealthy instructing and assets, ignorance, lack of apply and carelessness.

In truth, attitudes fluctuate significantly. The primary perspective represents the sensation that errors are undesirable and, due to this fact, needs to be averted, however the second says that errors are inevitable in an imperfect world (Corder, 1981). In behaviourism, errors are depicted as sins that needs to be averted and unhealthy habits that shouldn't be tolerated, whereas in cognitivism, errors are perceived as a part of the educational course of. The principle focus of behaviourism followers’ strategies is on stopping errors, whereas the main target of the strategies of cognitivists is on mental analyses of the causes of errors and methods of coping with them. This helps French’s argument (1989) that “errors are oddities that aren't proof of carelessness or of unwillingness however of rising pains and a need to be taught, not punishable offences as a result of they're accidents” (French, 1989). Really they're a part of the language studying course of. People can not be taught with out making errors – to err is human.

Krashen and Terrell (1983) argue that the errors made by learners are a pure course of in studying, and learners will recover from this stage of inter-language interference and develop naturally. L1 interference is one among a number of varieties of errors learners of a second language make (ibid, 1988: 64-69). When learners of a second language use this language, they haven't any manner however to undergo the grammar of their first language.

Within the case of English prepositions, when Arabic learners of English will not be positive which preposition to make use of, they actually translate from Arabic into English. As Arabic and English prepositions seldom have one-to-one correspondence, this ends in inter-language interference errors. An Arabic preposition could also be translated by a number of English prepositions, whereas an English utilization could have a number of Arabic translations (Scott and Tucker, 1974: 85).

2.three. Research on language switch

The processes of language switch and over-generalisation obtain appreciable consideration. Jain (in Richards, 1974) and Taylor (1975) reported that over-generalisation errors are an utility of the generalisation methods of the learner’s second language to provide this identical second language. Brown states that inter-lingual switch is the adverse affect of the mom tongue, and that intra-lingual switch is the adverse switch inside the goal language (1980:173-181).

Swan and Smith give an in depth account of errors made by audio system of 19 totally different first language backgrounds (1995:ix). Additionally, Diab (1996) performed a analysis on error evaluation displaying the interference of the mom language, Arabic, within the English writings of EFL college students on the American College of Beirut (1996). The switch of Arabic buildings within the Lebanese college students’ writings resulted in numerous errors. Nonetheless, they made extra errors the place they felt English and Arabic have been related (articles, prepositions and selection of diction). James signifies that “the clearest proof of L1 interference is the place L1 nonstandard dialect will get transferred to L2” (1998:179). Dulay et al (1982) defines language interference as the automated switch from the floor construction of the primary language to the floor construction to the second language, whereas Lott (1983) defines it as errors in learners’ international language that may be attributed to the mom tongue. Ellis additionally feedback on interference saying that it's “the affect that the learner’s L1 exerts over the acquisition of an L2” (1997:51).

‘An Evaluation of Interference Errors within the Written English of Sudanese College students’ is a examine made by Tadros (1966) in an effort to analyse the errors of language interference within the writings of Sudanese college students. He regarded into 472 scripts written by 236 college students of their seventh 12 months of English studying. The scholars have been first given totally different workouts about relative clauses and needed to observe specific directions. Then they have been requested to put in writing a paragraph about their college, utilizing relative clauses. This analysis made the author give you the conclusion that that is an efficient approach to apply what they've already learnt. I believe the situations have been useful for the scholars, so their writings weren't a sign of their true proficiency degree in English. The scholars have been requested to put in writing paragraphs instantly after they'd been taught.

Scott et al (1974) additionally made a examine in Beirut referred to as “Error Evaluation and English Language Methods of Arab College students”. This examine examined samples of Arab college students’ speech and writing each initially and the tip of the semester in an intensive English course; in contrast the varieties of error in speech and writing, the frequency of those errors and the relative frequency of the errors made initially and the tip of the semester; recognized the sources of errors; thought of each inter-language interference and intra-language interference within the English studying methods of Arab college students and recognized some guidelines that signify early and late acquisition of a second language. This researcher made this examine on 22 Arab college students within the first semester of a decrease intermediate intensive English course on the College of Beirut. These college students had already accomplished their college schooling, the place the medium of instruction was Arabic. That they had additionally studied some English as a international language.

This examine revealed that verbs, prepositions and articles are the areas the place the scholars usually made errors. It additionally confirmed that the error frequency within the utilization of prepositions was related in writing and speech and that the preposition errors initially and the tip of the semester ranked after the variety of verb errors.

Verb errors

Preposition errors

Starting of the semester

80

61

Finish of the semester

60

51

Half of the errors in writing and speech initially of the semester have been resulting from inter-language interference and the opposite half resulting from intra-language interference. About two thirds of the errors on the finish of the semester have been resulting from inter-language interference and one third resulting from intra-language interference. Because the bigger variety of errors was made resulting from inter-language interference on the finish quite than initially of the semester, because of this the scholars have been making extra progress in overcoming intra-language interference confusion than in fixing the issue of the primary language switch.

The interference of Arabic was most blatant within the frequent omission of auxiliaries and copulas, in preposition and article errors and within the repetition of topics and objects. Nonetheless, on the finish of the semester, the scholars made an important progress in virtually all areas besides in prepositions and articles; the interference of the mom language continued to be a dominant characteristic within the utilization of prepositions and articles. The preposition errors fell into three teams:

1. Interference from Arabic.

2. Interference from English.

three. Errors with out identifiable supply.

The preposition errors have been diminished by one third in the course of the semester. Though the bigger proportion of those errors was attributed to the interference of the primary language, it was thought that the scholars would make progress within the utilization of prepositions since it's a late acquisition in native language studying (Scott et al, 1974:95).

The researcher urged that different research ought to examine the errors made by Arab college students at each decrease and better ranges of English proficiency and if inter-language interference comes from formal or colloquial Arabic. She means that “interference in writing comes from classical Arabic however interference in speech from colloquial Arabic.” (ibid: 96).

Mukattash made a pilot venture in widespread grammatical errors in Jordanian English (1981: 250-291). The broad goal of his analysis “Frequent Grammatical Errors in Jordanian English” is to get a basic thought of the areas in English syntax that are problematic to Jordanian college students at college. The particular goal of his analysis was to calculate and analyse the various kinds of errors within the written English of Jordanian college college students. The topic college students have been 200 first-year college students on the College of Jordan. They have been graduates of public secondary faculties, the place they'd obtained eight years of English language instructing. They have been additionally from totally different components of Jordan and a few of them have been from the West Financial institution in Palestine.

The scholars got a complete check in comprehension, construction and vocabulary. All of the 200 essays contained errors, however the detailed evaluation was made on solely fifty essays, which have been chosen randomly. The errors within the utilization of prepositions ranked fourth within the order of the whole prevalence of errors. This examine disagrees with Scott’s examine, which ranks preposition utilization errors second after verb errors. Right here the rating order is as follows: verbals, articles, nominals and prepositions. The proportion of the preposition errors was 15% of the general variety of errors within the fifty essays.

Though we can not examine the outcomes of the 2 research resulting from the truth that Scott didn't state exactly what proportion the preposition utilization errors constituted within the writings of her topic college students, we will say that preposition errors are nonetheless a major problem for Arabic learners of English. In Scott’s examine, the share of interference from Arabic was 67%, whereas on this Examine, it's 78%. Nonetheless, the interference of Arabic within the utilization of prepositions continues to be important within the outcomes of each research.

Additionally, Kerr (1970) made a examine on the widespread errors within the English writings of a bunch of Greek learners of English as a international language. The analysis examine objective was to indicate the academics of English in Greece the intense issues their college students have in writing.

Academics discover sure varieties of errors which they've beforehand ignored, and so discover indications of the sorts of preventive and remedial instructing that might forestall the expansion of unhealthy language habits by utilizing clearer explanations and more practical apply on the extra elementary levels of studying. The errors additionally point out the areas of language on which checks and examinations can be based mostly. (Kerr, 1970: ix).

Kerr based mostly his examine on over a thousand compositions written by grownup college students at a complicated degree of English proficiency. The causes of the errors discovered have been ignorance of phrases and constructions to specific an thought, carelessness of the scholars, the interference of the mom language and making false analogies inside the goal language. Between 20% and 30% of the grammatical errors made by the Greek college students concerned errors within the utilization of prepositions of every type (ibid, 1970: 22).

Handrickson (1979) made one other analysis examine on error evaluation and error correction at Ohio State College referred to as ‘Error Evaluation and Error Correction on ESL Learners at Ohio State College’. The topic learners have been adults of intermediate degree learning English as a second language. His examine aimed toward figuring out probably the most frequent communicative and linguistic errors within the compositions of intermediate ESL learners. It additionally aimed toward figuring out the impact of the instructor’s direct correction on the English writing proficiency of scholars.

He discovered that many of the communicative errors have been because of insufficient lexical data, incorrect use of prepositions and pronouns or misspelling of lexical gadgets. Then again, the linguistic errors have been brought on by inappropriate lexical alternative, lack of subject-verb settlement, the omission and misuse of prepositions, incorrect phrase order or misspelling of phrases. The impact of the instructor’s direct error correction on the scholars’ English proficiency in writing got here out to be statistically insignificant.

One other examine was made in the USA on EFL learners, however this time on Iranian college students. The analysis was performed by Henning (1978) on the College of California and is named ‘A Developmental Evaluation of English Errors Made by Iranian College students’. He analysed the developmental error patterns of the Iranian learners of English as a second language. The topics of this examine have been 22 Iranian ladies within the second semester of their first 12 months at Damayand School in Tehran, Iran. The scholars had already had a median of six years of English studying and have been, on the time of the analysis, enrolled in an intensive course the place 20 hours of English language instructing was being given to them. The medium of instruction was additionally English.

“The conclusion reached was that…mastery within the utilization of English prepositions in accordance with their meanings is likely one of the most delicate indicators of the diploma of English proficiency” (Henning, 1978:396-397). Zarei (2002) additionally discovered that, for Iranian EFL learners, the collocations of prepositions are among the many most problematic collocations in English.

Khampang (1974) additionally made a analysis examine on the College of California. This Analysis examine is named ‘The Difficulties in Utilizing English Prepositions’, and it centered on the difficulties going through Thai learners of English in utilizing English prepositions. The analysis was performed to analyze what the prepositions that Thai learners of English discovered troublesome to be taught have been and whether or not there was an enormous distinction between the prepositions that Thai learners of English selected and people chosen by learners of English from different L1 backgrounds. It additionally investigated whether or not the issue of utilizing English prepositions was common, shared with non-Thai learners of English, or Thai learners had particular issues. He needed to know if this drawback was resulting from first language interference and, consequently, predictable from contrastive evaluation.

The examine was solely on eight easy prepositions of time and place: in, on, at, for, to, from, by and the empty type ∅. ‘The topic college students on this analysis have been 169 college students from totally different L1 backgrounds: 40 from Thailand, 48 from Japan, 38 from Spain and 43 from nations of various language backgrounds (Persian, Italian, Chinese language, Korean, Portuguese and Arabic). The degrees of the scholars have been each intermediate and superior, and so they have been in grownup faculties within the space of Los Angeles. The scholars have been examined on the eight prepositions of time and place by a diagnostic check. This check was in three components: a number of alternative, error correction and shut check. Every half consisted of 15 gadgets. The 45 questions included the repetition of every preposition four instances in random order. The outcomes got here up with the truth that:

there was no proof of serious distinction between the language teams based mostly on complete check scores. Neither was there any proof discovered for interplay results between the language teams and the components chosen. There was just one issue, earlier instructional degree, which confirmed important distinction between highschool and faculty topics. (Khampang, 1974: 218).

Completely different language teams didn't have an effect on the topic college students’ efficiency within the utilization of English prepositions. Once more, age, intercourse or the variety of years or hours per week allotted for studying English weren't vital components in mastering the utilization of English prepositions. As for the query about whether or not sure prepositions have been harder or simpler for sure language teams, the author had to make use of the criterion of issue in an effort to reply it. If a bunch had lower than 50% of the responses appropriate, then the check merchandise was thought of troublesome. 16 out of the 45 gadgets have been thought of troublesome, and the information confirmed that not all of the 4 teams had the identical responses for the check gadgets.

Khampang gave some statements that, as he stated, are relevant to ESL instructing. He stated that of the three check components, the shut check appeared to be more practical than the opposite components in testing the utilization of English prepositions. He additionally argues that to show them English, there isn't a must separate college students of English by age, intercourse, or variety of years or hours allotted for studying English. Diagnostic and placement checks got here out to be more practical than contemplating the scholars’ L1 backgrounds. Furthermore, for a heterogeneous language group, the way in which of instructing English prepositions of time and place needs to be the identical for all college students, together with emphasising the areas of issue in English language studying for a specific language group. This final assertion is the actual goal behind error evaluation. I’m researching Syrian college college students’ preposition errors in an effort to see if the errors are because of the interference of their first language, Arabic. This can assist us develop methods to show these college students.

An investigation on the grammatical errors made by Swedish 16-year-old learners of English was made by Kohlmyr (2003). She analysed errors in round 400 compositions from two nationwide evaluation programmes, and she or he discovered that preposition errors accounted for 12% of all of the grammatical errors. The preposition errors that have been primarily discovered with to, in, at, of and for included substitution, omission and addition. Essentially the most frequent sort of error was truly substitution. In keeping with this analysis, the preposition errors have been brought on by first language switch, over-generalisation and simplification. About 50% of the errors have been brought on by over-generalisation, 40% by first language switch and 10% by simplification. Gabrys-Biskup argues that interference is the prime reason behind the learner’s second language (in Arnauld & Benjoint, 1992).

All the above analysis articles centered on learner English. A few of them additionally centered on the utilization of English prepositions by EFL learners; for example, the analysis performed by Scott and Khampang. Scott, in her analysis, discovered that the utilization of English prepositions was a major problem for Arabic learners of English (1973). Whereas Khampang stated that totally different language teams didn't have impact on the scholars’ efficiency in utilizing English prepositions (1974). That implies that the utilization of English prepositions are a major problem for learners of English as a international language. In Scott’s analysis, preposition errors ranked second after verb errors, and in Mukattash’s, they ranked fourth. In each circumstances, preposition errors are problematic for Arabic learners of English. Additionally, in Kerr’s analysis examine, the preposition errors constituted between 20% and 30% of the general grammatical errors.

A number of the above researchers gave some suggestions and solutions for coping with errors. Kerr (1970) stated that preventive and remedial instructing had a very good and constructive impact. This may be performed by utilizing clearer explanations and more practical apply on the elementary stage. Nonetheless, Tadros (1979) urged intensive drilling.

Then again, Scott urged that additional investigations needs to be made on the errors which are dedicated by Arabic learners of English at their decrease ranges of English proficiency (1973). She additionally urged that researches ought to look into the affect of classical and colloquial Arabic on Arabic college students’ written English.

These solutions, along with my curiosity, have urged me to conduct a analysis examine into this problematic space for Syrian learners of English, particularly since there haven't been many research on this subject, so far as I do know. Even at extra superior ranges of English proficiency, Syrian learners of English nonetheless make errors within the utilization of prepositions. The form of error they make is as a result of mom tongue, and since Arabic has two varieties (formal and colloquial), it's price investigating which one the learners take their English grammar buildings from. Scott (1974) says that the English manufacturing of Arabic learners is affected by each formal and colloquial Arabic. However, we have no idea which selection is dominant and to what extent.

three. Methodology and analysis procedures
three.1. Analysis questions

On this analysis examine, I'll look into the preposition utilization errors made by Syrian college college students and attempt to reply the next questions:

1. Which form of error is more practical in utilizing the English prepositions in, on, at, of and to: inter-language interference or other forms of error?

2. Which number of Arabic has the affect on the utilization of English prepositions of Syrian college college students and w

Linguistic Politeness Study

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

During the last three a long time, politeness has grow to be one of many central discussions in pragmatic and sociolinguistic researches. A lot of theoretical, empirical books and articles about linguistic politeness which have been printed, exhibits that politeness has grow to be probably the most energetic areas of analysis in language use.

Though the curiosity of politeness in each social and linguistic phenomenon considerably elevated, many current research select to drawn on conversational knowledge, it was stunned that's solely small numbers of students targeted to check politeness in written textual content corresponding to scientific written textual content moderately than on conversational knowledge lately.

Despite the fact that the primary stream of linguistic politeness is usually related to social behaviour as strategic battle avoidance, and the foremost idea of politeness idea is an association of politeness methods alongside a continuum from least well mannered to most well mannered, additionally permits them to have interaction in conflict-free communication, and it normally discovered within the research of conversational utilizing speaker-hearer mannequin of interactions. Many students don't notice that this politeness mannequin additionally will be prolonged to different medium not solely by way of verbal communication but additionally in a written materials by way of the interactions of the or authors and audiences in scientific texts.

Moreover, the advances of politeness fashions to some genres of scientific written texts is one way or the other attention-grabbing and within the different hand advanced area to check. Greg Myers[1] (1989) in his research discovered that the mannequin proposed by Brown and Levinson was very helpful to elucidate how he interpret some development of the norm of scientific tradition present in writing, significantly tutorial writing.

Brown and Levinson (1978/1987) current their research as a part of the linguistic mission of displaying universals in language utilization; the hanging parallels in politeness gadgets between three unrelated languages exhibits that whereas the expressions of politeness could fluctuate enormously from one tradition to a different, and the essential hierarchy of politeness methods just isn't a tradition particular.

Brown and Levinsons (1987: 58) constructed a system during which a mannequin particular person is endowed with destructive and optimistic face; roughly the need to be unimpeded and the need to be authorised of in sure respects. The mannequin particular person additionally has a rational college for selecting the plan of action that can give the very best pay-off with the least lack of face, evaluating three variables; the social distances (D); the relative distinction in energy between the speaker and hearer (P); the rank of imposition (R). These three fundamental variables appear nonetheless affective to assist understanding the interactions of politeness between writers and readers in written textual content. Brown and Levinsons (BL) idea has been extensively used and in addition criticised. Though many of the students that studied politeness are agree that particular components like energy, social distance or standing, affect the adoption of methods, it's nonetheless troublesome to offer particular conclusions.

Furthermore, by utilizing Myers “room of considering” above that linked to what Brown and Levinson had proposed of their research, this analysis tries to concentrate on the politeness methods employed by the economists’ authors in tutorial journals, by regarding that at the moment tutorial journals had reached a wonderful numbers each digital and printing materials and in addition grow to be a significant references by students everywhere in the world. Then again, the students that deeply targeted to check the tutorial journals within the pragmatics or discourse evaluation space says; politeness it’s nonetheless uncommon.

By viewing that possibilities the researcher hopes that this research is ready to contribute to the present pool of data on politeness methods utilized in tutorial writing, significantly which within the writing of financial journal articles of two recognized financial journals.

1.1 Statements of the Drawback

Began within the early 1950’s, Schuler studied in regards to the politeness in Germany and Goffman studied on “face work” in 1955. These days, the research about politeness has grow to be one of many main areas of pragmatics or sociolinguistics. Classical theories of linguistic politeness clarifies corresponding to Lakoff (1973, 1977), Brown and Levinson (1987), Leech (1983) agree that linguistic politeness can be utilized as a strategic battle avoidance.

Linguistic politeness not solely was utilized by many individuals through verbal communication but additionally by way of the medium of written materials each in tutorial or non tutorial fields, politeness persuasion in journal writing as a style in tutorial writing one way or the other according to the calls for of the tutorial group that expects scientific language to be goal and formal. Additional, using politeness persuasion or methods in journal points by specific folks from totally different tradition background, age and financial fundamental training is attention-grabbing area to debate.

Based mostly on that assertion above the primary functions of this research past the boundaries of this paper, to present an exhaustive overview of politeness-related analysis are to establish type of politeness methods employed by economist authors and analyze the politeness sorts of methods in financial journal articles each native and worldwide financial journal.

1.2 Goal of the Research

In recent times there was a gentle improve in curiosity and analysis into economics discourse by each economists and linguists which has spawned an increasing physique of labor. The character of this work partly displays not solely the various tutorial backgrounds of the writers, but additionally the evolutionary growth of linguistics generally and its sub-discipline of discourse evaluation specifically. This physique of labor just isn't solely in hope succeeding make clear lots of the ways in which economists use language to specific themselves in well mannered approach, but additionally will be use to assist the general public to grasp the politeness model of writing from the economist within the scientific textual content.

Moreover primarily based on the reason above, this current research tried targeted in establish politeness methods employed by authors of financial journal communities each native and worldwide financial journals, by proposing the aims under;

1. To research how economists use language to current findings in well mannered approach

2. To investigates using politeness methods in economics textual content

three. To match using politeness methods in a neighborhood and worldwide financial journals

1.three Analysis Query

Brown and Levinson (1987) have developed a idea of politeness to elucidate the character of politeness phenomena in language. By means of this exploratory research, the researcher will concentrate on the existence of linguistic politeness in financial articles. For this goal the researcher research the chosen native and worldwide financial journals. The researcher targeted on particular areas in these journals that the researcher feels exemplifies the existence of politeness methods.

Based mostly on the reason above, the current research goals to reply the next query:

1. What sorts of politeness methods are employed by authors in native and worldwide financial journal articles?

2. In what methods are native and worldwide journals comparable or totally different in using politeness methods?

1.four Significance of the research

Politeness has grow to be one of many fields of analysis to which extra consideration has been devoted within the final 20 years. The connections of politeness research with different domains, corresponding to sociolinguistics, socio pragmatics, ethnography of communication, second language instructing/acquisition or conversational evaluation, have positively contributed to this rising curiosity and its exploratory research, the researcher select to concentrate on the existence of politeness methods n financial journals.

For the reason that early 1980s, the dialogue of assorted controversial points within the economics discourse group has led to rising debate amongst involved economists in regards to the ways in which they convey with one another, in addition to with non-economists.

Royce (1995) in his paper[2] mentions that; Though economics is taken into account to be a science and its language is usually near scientific language, inside proof the texts are sometimes complemented by graphs. The affect of literary discourse is predominant.

In 1986, Donald McCloskey printed The Rhetoric of Economics and republished in 1998. McCloskey considers financial discourse as “a language comprised of tropes; a phrase or phrase utilized in a way not correct to it, tales and different rhetorical gadgets which might be literary and rhetorical or persuasive moderately than scientific or pure”.

The precise intention of this analysis additionally to point out that was an rising consciousness of the character of economics discourse by each utilized linguists and economists, For the needs above, the analysis research one domestically and one worldwide financial journal, printed by financial associations from Malaysia and USA. This analysis strive to not deeply concentrate on specific particular space what economist and linguist arguing about, however extra on normal problems with financial that grow to be content material respectively in these journals, that researcher feels exemplifies the existence of politeness methods.

1.5 Scope and Limitation of The Research

This current research will restrict its knowledge from chosen journals launched by financial associations from native and worldwide to search out out politeness methods employed by the economists in two recognized Financial journals, particularly, Malaysia Journal of Financial Research and the Journal of Financial Progress launched by Malaysian Financial affiliation and American financial affiliation respectively.

The corpus from these journal had been chosen from the 5 12 months newest points, begin from 2004 till 2008 whereas this current research begin it work. Right here the research additionally limits its scope solely on the content material of the articles. The areas of Mathematical language, system in addition to footnote within the articles can be not included to investigate on this current research.

1.5 Theoretical Framework

The current part presents the theoretical framework of the current research. Brown and Levinson (1987) have developed a idea of politeness to elucidate the character of politeness phenomena in language. In line with them, it's doable to outline generic sorts of politeness methods to elucidate and predict the adoption of politeness in oral or written discourse.

For the reason that current research tries to focuses on the analyzing a politeness in written materials that's tutorial journal each from native or worldwide well-known financial journals. The author tries to make use of a system that assemble by Greg Myers (1989) in his articles “The Pragmatic Of Politeness In Scientific Articles” according to what Brown and Levinson (1987) proposed of their ebook “Politeness; Some Common in language Utilization’ as underlying theoretical construction.

Chapter.2

Assessment of Associated Literature

2.zero. Introduction

The phenomenon of curiosity in politeness each social and linguistic has been significance improve during the last three a long time as evidenced by the numbers of paper have appeared on the topic in worldwide journal and monographs. The current analysis principally, nonetheless primarily based on Brown and Levinson’s politeness idea (1978, 1987). The current printed literature on Brown and Levinson’s mannequin considerations two important points, that are the idea of politeness itself and the claims for universality on the one hand, and various criticism or modification of one of many parts of the mannequin on the opposite; primarily the ideas of face, face-threatening act, and the components that decide the manufacturing and interpretation of politeness, within the different hand.

The notions of face, face threatening act (FTA) and politeness in addition to the methods during which the phenomenon of politeness is realized in language utilization have been extensively exploited who're involved with linguistic pragmatics; Leech, 19983; Kasper, 1990; Brend 1978; Brown; 1988; Schmidt, 1980; Carrel and Konnoker, 1981; Ferguson, and plenty of different students have discover the notions of face.

For the reason that important focus of this current research is making an attempt to place financial points written by economist in financial journals associated with courtesy methods as a important subject to debate, the researcher on this chapter, will attempt to focus on in regards to the idea of politeness, and explains in regards to the phrases associated to the primary subject, such because the totally different types of face, FT[3]A and the components appears to be interrelated in politeness system that additionally helpful in learning politeness methods in written materials corresponding to tutorial journal.

2.1 The Concept: A Transient Overview

Brown and Levinson’s (1978, 1987) idea of politeness has grow to be the “mannequin towards which most analysis on politeness defines itself”. Central to BL’s idea is the idea of face, as proposed by Goffman (1967) who outlined face as:

“…the optimistic social worth of an individual successfully claims for himself by the road others assume he has taken throughout a selected contact. Face is a picture of self delineated by way of authorised social attributes -albeit a picture that others would possibly share, as when an individual makes a superb displaying for his career or faith by making a superb displaying for himself .(Goffman 1967: 5)

BL outline (1978:66) face as one thing that's emotionally invested and the face will be misplaced, maintained or enhanced and it have to be continually attended to in interplay, BL categorize politeness as both optimistic politeness or destructive politeness and tie each methods to the significance of face in each tradition. They outline ‘face’ as “the general public self-image that each member needs to say for himself”

Moreover The principle focus of BL (Brown and Levinson)[4] research as a part of the linguistic mission of displaying universals in language utilization; They assemble a system during which a mannequin particular person is endowed with destructive and optimistic face; and tie each methods to the significance of face in each tradition. They outline ‘face’ as “the general public self-image that each member needs to say for himself” roughly the need to be unimpeded and the need to be authorised of in sure respects (1987: 58).

In line with Brown and Levinson, “face needs” could include destructive or optimistic face. When audio system enchantment to optimistic face needs (i.e. the will to be appreciated and authorised of), they make use of optimistic politeness language that emphasizes “in-group identification, exhibits concern, and seeks areas of settlement”. Compliments signify typical optimistic politeness methods.

When audio system enchantment to destructive face needs (i.e. the will to be free from imposition and distraction), they use destructive politeness methods that seeks to scale back any imposition, corresponding to apologies that signify the sort destructive politeness methods. Additional, mainly in most conditions, everybody seeks “to take care of every others’ face”. Thus, speaking successfully includes saving face-both for the speaker-identified by Brown and Levinson as (S) and for the addressee (H) or speaker and hearer. Nevertheless, Brown and Levinson level out that S and H are mitigated by three different components: energy, social distance, and imposition. For instance, S will converse extra politely when the goal (H) has extra energy than S, when the social distance between the 2 is nice, and when the imposition is excessive.

Earlier than going additional the next part tries to elucidate the primary 4 politeness methods of Brown and Levinson’s with some examples, primarily based on a number of research achieved previously which might be associated to the current research of politeness.

Brown and Levinson establish 5 “tremendous methods” used to speak. They listing methods from essentially the most direct/rude (bald-on-record) to the least direct/rude (being silent).

2.1.1 Politeness Methods

In line with Brown and Levinson (1978:65), sure acts can injury or threaten one other particular person’s face and these acts are known as face threatening acts (FTAs). An FTA[5] has the potential to break the hearer’s optimistic or destructive face or the act could broken the spaker’s personal optimistic or destructive face. To be able to scale back the opportunity of injury to the hearer’s or the speaker’s face s/he could undertake sure methods ; these methods BL name politeness methods (1978: 65). Politeness methods will be divided into 4 important methods: Bald-on-record, optimistic politeness, destructive politeness and off-record methods.

Being well mannered due to this fact consists of trying to avoid wasting face for an additional, though all cultures have face as Brown and Levinson declare, all cultures don't keep face in the identical approach. Brown and Levinson additionally declare that understanding cultural norms of politeness allows communicators to “make robust predictions” about speaking successfully inside a tradition, additionally politeness methods are developed as a way to save the hearers’ “face.” Face refers back to the respect that a person has for him or herself, and sustaining that “shallowness” in public or in personal conditions. The capabilities are to keep away from embarrassing the opposite particular person, or making them really feel uncomfortable. Politeness methods are developed for the primary goal of coping with FTA.

Subsequent every of the methods of BL’s idea can be offered individually first Bald on file, then optimistic politeness, subsequent destructive politeness and at last off file methods

2.1.1.1 Bald on file

In line with Brown and Levinson(1978: 74), Bald on file technique is a direct approach of claiming issues, with none minimisation to the imposition, in a direct, clear, unambiguous and concise approach, for instance “Do.X!”. Bl declare that the prime cause for bald on file utilization could also be acknowledged merely: generally, at any time when the speaker needs to do FTA with most effectivity greater than s/he needs to fulfill hearer’s face, even to any diploma, s/he'll select the bald on file technique.

There are totally different sorts of bald on file utilization in several circumstances, as a result of the speaker can have totally different motives for her/his need to do the FTA with minimal effectivity. The motives falls into two lessons the place the face menace just isn't minimised, the place face is ignored or is irrelevant and a couple of) the place in doing the FTA baldly on file, the speaker minimises face threats by implication. BL (1978: 100)

Brown and Levinson (ibid,. 1978: 100) give examples of bald on file technique and say that direct imperatives are clear examples of bald on file utilization. Crucial are sometimes softened with hedges or standard politeness markers, eg: “please ship us the presents”. Verb “do” is used with imperatives, like in “Do name us”. What BL name bald on file methods would possibly contain merely following the Gricean maxims, whereas politeness methods would contain violating the maxims in particular approach (Watss, Ide and Ehlich 1992:7)

2.1.1.2 Constructive politeness

Not like destructive politeness, Constructive politeness just isn't essentially redressive of the actual face infringed by the FTA; that's whereas in destructive politeness the sphere of related redress is restricted to the imposition itself, in optimistic politeness the sphere of redress is widened to the appreciation of alter’s need generally or to the expression of similarity ego’s and alter’s need.

The optimistic politeness is normally seen n teams of associates, or the place folks the given social scenario know one another pretty properly, it normally tries to reduce the gap between them, by expressing friendliness and strong curiosity within the hearer’s should be anticipated (decrease FTA)

In line with Brown and Levinson (1978: 106) optimistic politeness is redress directed to the addressee’s optimistic face, his/her perennial want to the his/her needs – or actions acquisitions, values ensuing from them -should be regarded as fascinating. BL describe that the redress consists in partially satisfying that want that one’s personal needs – or a few of them are in some respects just like the addressee’s needs. BL additionally notes that in contrast to destructive politeness, optimistic politeness just isn't essentially redressive of the actual face need infringe by the FTA. In different phrases whereas in destructive politeness the sphere of related redress is restricted to the imposition itself, in optimistic politeness the sphere of redress is widened to the appreciation of alter’s needs generally or to the expression of similarity between ego’s and alter’s needs .

“. . .the linguistic realizations of optimistic politeness are in lots of respects merely consultant of the conventional linguistic behaviour between intimates, the place curiosity and approval of every others character, presuppositions indicating shared needs and shared information, implicit claims to reciprocity of obligations or to reflexivity of needs, and so on. Are routinely exchanged. Maybe the one function that distinguishes optimistic politeness redress from regular on a regular basis intimate language behaviour is a component of exaggeration; this serves as a marker of the face-redress side of optimistic politeness expression by indicating that even S can’t with complete sincerity say “I need your needs” he can no less than sincerely point out “I need your optimistic face to be glad

Brown and Levinson (1978: 106)

BL add the factor of insincerity in exaggerated expressions of approval or curiosity [6] As in : “how completely marvellous and beautiful your roses are ,Mrs.Pete” is compensate for by the implication that the speaker actually sincerely needs Mrs. Pete’s optimistic face to be enhanced. This views of intimacy is attention-grabbing when contemplating articles in financial journal between authors and audiences just isn't normally very intimate and if it had been, intimacy can be disregard whereas doing a scientific declare. On this sense, it might be anticipated that not many methods of optimistic politeness can be used or are used not often in article financial journals BL additionally clarify that the affiliation with intimate language utilization provides the linguistic of optimistic politeness its redressive drive. They declare that optimistic politeness utterances are used as a type of metaphorical extensions of intimacy, to indicate widespread floor or sharing of needs to a restricted extension of intimacy, to indicate widespread floor or sharing of needs to a restricted extent even between strangers who understand themselves for the needs of the interplay as one way or the other comparable. That is true when contemplating financial articles, in actual fact some occasions authors and viewers[7] has comparable information generally or goal in widespread.

BL additionally level out that the optimistic politeness strategies are usable not just for FTA redress however generally as a type of accelerator, the place S, in utilizing them, signifies s/he needs “to return nearer” to H or audiences. BL divide optimistic politeness into three methods; claiming the widespread floor, conveying that sender and receiver are co-operators and fulfilling receiver’s need. .

2.1.1.three Detrimental Politeness

When Brown and Levinson outline destructive politeness, they are saying that it's a redressive motion addressed to the addressee’s destructive face: addressee’s need to have addressee’s freedom of motion unhindered and addressee’s consideration unimpeded. Moreover In line with BL (1978:134) Detrimental politeness is the guts of respective behaviour, simply as optimistic politeness is the kernel of “acquainted” and “joking” behaviour. Detrimental politeness corresponds to the rituals of avoidance. The place optimistic politeness is free-ranging, destructive politeness is particular and targeted; it performs the perform of minimizing the actual imposition that the FTA unavoidable results, BL additionally argue that destructive politeness is the type of politeness used between acquaintances whereas optimistic politeness is used between nearer associates.

Detrimental politeness is essentially the most elaborate and essentially the most conventionalized set of linguistic methods for FTA redress; it fills the etiquette books though optimistic politeness will get some consideration. Additional in line with BL (1987: 135) the linguistic realization of destructive politeness – standard indirectness, hedges on illocutionary drive, well mannered pessimism[8], the emphasis on hearer’s relative energy – are very acquainted and want no introduction.

As well as , BL say that the destructive politeness outputs are all types usefull generally for social “distancing”[9]: they're due to this fact seemingly for use at any time when a speaker or sender needs to place a social brake on the course of interplay. BL, see 5 important classes because the linguistic realization of destructive politeness; speaking sender’s need to not impinge the receiver, not coercing receiver, not presuming/assuming, being (conventionally in) direct and redressing receiver’s needs.

2.1.1.four Off Document

Brown and Levinsons (1978:216) outline off file technique as a communicative act which is finished in such a approach that isn't doable to attribute one clear communicative intention to the act. On this case the actor leaves her/himself an “out” by offering her/himself with plenty of defensible interpretations, s/he can't be held to have a dedicated himself to only one specific interpretation of her/his act. In different phrases, BL declare, the actor leaves it as much as the addressee to determined learn how to interpret act.

Additional, BL proceed that such off file utterances are important oblique makes use of of language. One says one thing that's both extra normal (accommodates much less info within the sense that it guidelines out fewer doable states of affairs) or really totally different from what one means (intend to be understood). BL proceed declare that in each circumstances the hearer should make some inference to get well what was in actual fact meant. For instance, if anyone says: “it's sizzling in right here”, the hidden that means of the utterance will be request to open the window or to change on the fan.

BL, (1978: 230-232), listing inviting conversational implicatures as one important technique of off record-ness and its subcategories are; giving hints, giving affiliation clues, presupposing, understating, overstating, utilizing tautologies, utilizing contradictions, being ironic, utilizing metaphors, and utilizing rhetorical query. The opposite important technique of going off file is being imprecise or ambiguous and its subcategories are being ambiguous, being imprecise, over-generalising, displacing hearer and being incomplete.

2.1.2 Face

Politeness idea states that some speech acts threaten others’ face wants. The idea of ‘face’ has come to play an vital position in politeness idea. Brown and Levinson, for instance, have chosen it because the central notion for his or her research of universals in language utilization and politeness phenomena (1978, 1987). Brown and Levinson says that they've derived the notion of ‘face’ from Ervin Goffman in social interplay.

Our notion of ‘face’ is derived from that of Goffman and from the English people time period, which ties up face notions of being embarrassed or humiliated, or ‘dropping face’. Thus face is one thing that's emotionally invested, and that may be misplaced, maintained or enhanced, and have to be continually attended to in interplay. Usually, folks cooperate (and assume one another’s cooperation) in sustaining face in interplay, such cooperation being primarily based on the mutual vulnerability of face

(1987:63)

In 1963, Erving Goffman printed the article “On Face Work” the place he first created the time period “face.” He discusses face in reference to how folks current themselves in social conditions and that our whole actuality is constructed by way of our social interactions. Face is a masks that adjustments relying on the viewers and the social interplay (Goffman, 1967). Face is maintained by the viewers, not by the speaker. We attempt to take care of the face we now have created in social conditions. Face is damaged down by Goffman into two totally different classes. Constructive face is the will of being seen as a superb human being and destructive face is the will to stay autonomous. Furthermore he argues that there's a restricted quantity of methods to take care of face.

Face in communicative occasions is a common idea, however it's employed in tradition particular methods. It's outlined in psychological, philosophical and symbolic phrases, “the time period face could also be outlined because the optimistic social worth an individual successfully claims for himself by the road others assume s/he has taken throughout a selected contact”. Face usually includes interlocutors’ mutual recognition as social members of a society. Face will be misplaced, maintained, or enhanced and have to be continually attended to in interplay.

Brown and Levinson (1978; 1987), offered politeness as a proper theoretical assemble primarily based on earlier work on ‘face’ by sociologist Goffman, (1963) as already talked about above, BL stated that we're all motivated by two needs: (optimistic face), and (destructive face). The working definition and examples on each destructive and optimistic face offered under.

2.1.2.1 Detrimental Face

The destructive face is the upkeep and defence of 1’s territory and freedom from imposition. The destructive face is an inalienable. Detrimental face is the will to be autonomous and to not infringe on the opposite particular person. Detrimental politeness is designed to guard the opposite particular person when destructive face wants are threatened. Thus there are totally different methods to deal with face threatening acts and these methods are put right into a hierarchy of effectiveness.

2.1.2.2 Constructive Face

The optimistic face, however, is the declare for the popularity and applicable validation of 1’s social self-image or character. The optimistic face is the need of each member that his needs be fascinating to no less than another members of the society. Is also the will to be preferred and appreciated. Constructive politeness is designed to fulfill the face wants by performing an motion like complimenting or displaying concern for an additional particular person (Held 1989 and O’Driscoll 1996)

2.1.2.three. FTA

Holtgraves and Yang (1992) defines politeness as phrasing one’s remarks in order to reduce face menace. Right here, Face Threatening Act (FTA) is acts like guarantees, apologies, expressing thanks, ven non verbal acts corresponding to stumbling, falling down or any utterance that intrinsically threatens one other’s face (optimistic or destructive) and contains disagreement, criticism, orders, supply of dangerous information, and request. For examples; easy request threaten the goal’s destructive face as a result of the goal’s compliance with the request interferers together with his/her want to stay autonomous. Criticism threatens his/her want for approval

Moreover, Brown and Levinson (1987) suggest that when confronted with the necessity to carry out a FTA, the person should select between performing the FTA in essentially the most direct and environment friendly method, or trying to mitigate the impact of the FTA on the hearer’s optimistic/destructive face. The mitigation methods are what BL labelled as politeness methods.

2.1.three Politeness Techniques

Since Goffman’s (1967) work, politeness has grow to be probably the most energetic areas of analysis in language use. The literature on the topic is mammoth-like, the analysis on politeness falls into three classes: (1) work that constructs theories of politeness, corresponding to Lakoff (1973, 1977), Brown and Levinson (1987), Leech (1983), Fraser (1990), and Escandell-Vidal (1996); (2) work that investigates cultural- particular ideas and techniques of politeness, corresponding to Hill et al. (1986), Gu (1992), Lindenfeld (1990), and Sherzer (1983); (three) work that applies present theories to knowledge from varied cultures, corresponding to Chen (1993, 1996), Garcia (1989), Rhodes (1989), and Holmes (1990). Though these researchers differ in vital methods, they share a standard concentrate on politeness system, that particular components affect the adoption of methods. Comparable with Scollon and Scollon (1981) proposed the face relationships into three politeness programs particularly; Distinction, solidarity and hierarchical. An evidence on these politeness programs offered under.

2.1

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