AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR HEAVY VEHICLE WEIGHING AT TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTRES: A FREE STATE PROVINCE CASE STUDY
1.1. Matter Dialogue
The analysis research goals to develop a conceptualisation of an built-in data system. On this analysis research an built-in data system refers to a computerised system that shares information from a central database or between a number of databases. Site visitors management centres refers to heavy automobile weighbridges that make use of computerised system to seize and calculate automobile plenty.
There are 9 provinces within the Republic of South Africa and Free State Province is the central province of the 9 provinces and most heavy autos from the opposite eight provinces continuously drive by way of the Free State Province. Anecdotal proof has proven that there are shortcomings in monitoring; management; evaluation; and reporting of the outcomes of actions in relation to the overload management operations at Site visitors Management Centres within the province.
For any group to operate correctly in present aggressive and ever altering markets greatest knowledgeable enterprise choices need to be made and organisations are pressured to search out technique of working successfully and in most value efficient methods. Conventional aggressive strategies are now not reliable and organisations have to remain updated with the applied sciences and this is applicable to authorities initiatives and operations as effectively (Abeysekera 2005).
Organizations use totally different methods and assets to attain enterprise targets, and information is among the essential assets in present enterprise practices. Organizations can't afford to not handle information correctly and due to this fact using Information Administration (KM) programs and applied sciences to assist targets of the group is of paramount significance (Aggestam 2008).
Information administration is outlined as: the practise of selectively making use of information from earlier experiences of resolution making to present and future resolution making actions with the aim of enhancing the group’s effectiveness (Alavi, Leidner 2001). The usage of information administration fashions and knowledge programs has proven success as a software for information creation. The process for amassing, storing, retrieving, and reworking information into knowledge-based media may be designed and documented (Wade, Hulland 2004).
System integration is getting used as an choice for fixing these issues by different organizations. When computer systems turned widespread as a software in strategic planning course of, system integration was confined to technical elements akin to connecting laptop parts. However lately data know-how has grown a lot that information creation is as necessary, and integration is being utilized in software program, information and communication as effectively (Abeysekera 2005).
This analysis will deal with utilizing system integration as a approach for information and information administration; and also will embrace communication processes and information integration strategies. Knowledge integration is the method of mix information residing at totally different sources and offering the consumer with a cohesive view of the info (Lenzerini 2002). The researcher feels it will likely be worthwhile to research the present operations at weighbridges with the intention being to help in addressing the issues being skilled by site visitors management centres and resolution makers.
2. PROBLEM STATEMENT/ RESEARCH QUESTIONS
2.1. Downside Assertion
Free State Province is among the 9 provinces in South Africa and has three site visitors management centres which are used for heavy automobile weighing (see Appendix A) as recorded on the “South African Lengthy Time period Overload management Statistics (1995 to 2009)” (Republic of South Africa. Division of Transport July, 2010).
The primary downside is that thereare shortcomings in monitoring; management; evaluation;and reporting of the outcomes of actions and operations within the overload management processes at Site visitors Management Centres for heavy automobile weighing. Throughout preliminary analysis the researcher discovered that the issues are induced primarily by site visitors management centres working impartial of one another which additional creates issues as listed under:
- When autos are weighed data akin to firm names; automobile registration numbers; drivers licence particulars and many others. must be collected and documented for document holding and for additional evaluation of overloading tendencies within the province. Due to the impartial operations there is no such thing as a consistency when this data is captured and in different circumstances it isn't captured in any respect. This often creates issues between heavy automobile drivers/house owners; site visitors officers and weighbridge operators because it’s time consuming for drivers after they have to attend each time this data is captured.
- Within the Free State Province there are three operational weighbridges which are utilizing computerised programs for heavy automobile weighing, however these weighbridges are working impartial of one another utilizing website based mostly information storage programs. Such a operation causes an issue as legislation enforcement officers at one weighbridge don't know of what's going on on the different weighbridges and makes it troublesome to implement an efficient legislation enforcement technique.
- Authorities develop insurance policies and make strategic and operational choices based mostly on the collective operational studies; that are produced based mostly on the info collected from the site visitors management centres. As information is collected independently and never following a normal process, the produced studies don't give a real image of the overloading tendencies and due to this fact the selections that the authorities will make are often based mostly on incomplete data.
2.2. The Analysis Query
What's the state of the overload management processes at site visitors management centres for heavy automobile weighing within the Free State Province when it comes to monitoring; management and evaluation of the outcomes of weighing actions?
To deal with the three sub-problems the next sub-question should be answered clearly through the analysis course of.
- What are the info assortment processes and applied sciences at the moment getting used at every Site visitors Management Centre?
- What are the relevant integration strategies that can be utilized to combine the collected information from the three site visitors management centres?
- How can these information be made obtainable to authorities for reporting and resolution making processes?
three. LITERATURE REVIEW
three.1. Why overload management?
Overloaded heavy autos are liable for roughly 60% of the injury to the highway community, compared to legally loaded heavy autos that trigger solely about 40% of the injury (CSIR, Roads and Transport Expertise 1997) and which means heavy autos overloaded or not have a big influence on highway injury. Overloaded heavy autos lower the life span of the highway construction with added prices for upkeep and rehabilitation of the highway pavement. The administration and safety of the highway community is important, whereas sustaining the financial base of the freight trade. Whereas heavy automobile operators revenue from weak legislation enforcement, overloaded autos are damaging roads, the annual highway price range in actual phrases is declining, and the situation of roads is deteriorating (Pillay, Bosman 2001).
Roads and streets are crucial transport communication medium in South Africa and are utilized by everybody every day. Roads additionally play an necessary function in selling financial development and the usual of residing for the inhabitants and via roads it's simple for the communities to entry markets, locations of labor, well being amenities and academic establishment (CSIR, Roads and Transport Expertise 1997). The sixth annual state of logistics report 2009, reveals that the interior logistics value as a consequence of insufficient highway situations is skilled by most transportation firms within the nation. This impacts the competitiveness of the nation, as a result of because the logistics prices improve, the price of merchandise within the world market will increase as effectively (CSIR, Imperial Logistics, Stellenbosch College 2009).
South Africa has 118static weighbridges utilised for heavy automobile weighing, out of which solely 78 are operational; 30 should not usable and 10 are usable however at the moment not operational as recorded on the “South African Lengthy Time period Overload management Statistics (1995 to 2009)”. These embrace provincial weighbridges, municipal weighbridges at testing stations which are additionally utilised for overload management, weighbridges which are operated by toll highway concessionaires in cooperation with provincial highway authorities and personal weighbridges which are utilised for overload management (Republic of South Africa. Division of Transport July, 2010). The final heavy automobile weighing processes is proven on (Appendix B)
Within the Free State Province there are three operational weighbridges which are utilizing computerised programs for heavy automobile weighing, however these weighbridges are working impartial of one another utilizing website based mostly information storage programs. Such a operation causes an issue as legislation enforcement officers at one weighbridge don't know of what's going on on the different weighbridges and makes it troublesome to implement an efficient legislation enforcement technique.
three.2. Data programs
On a research carried out by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Analysis (CSIR) for the Republic of Senegal laptop programs the place to be the important thing of all of the weigh bridges concerned in heavy automobile overloading management and laptop programs are for use in any respect weighbridges for information assortment and knowledge administration. An built-in laptop and administration data system was applied, it was really helpful that a pc system must be related to all weighing tools put in on the weighbridge for an automated assortment of knowledge produced by this tools (Nordengen et al. 2006)
Most data programs are made out of assorted parts labeled in three differing kinds: utility applications, data assets like databases and information bases, and consumer interfaces. These parts are built-in in such a approach as to perform a concrete (enterprise) function (Guarino, (Roma) Consiglio nazionale delle ricerc, Istituto 1998) and knowledge assets embrace human assets and historic information with the principle function of supporting the creation, switch, and utility of data in organizations and notably is the truth that programs designed to assist information in varied organisations could not seem fully totally different from different types of data programs, however their important focus is on permitting customers to provide a that means to data and to seize a few of their information in data and information (Alavi, Leidner 2001).
Information is just not a “factor” or a system and due to this fact can't be saved or managed. It's an lively steady means of relating (Snowden 2002). The aim of this paper is to not develop a information administration system much like these utilized by organisations that are centered on maximising earnings by utilizing aggressive intelligence for aggressive benefit out there place. However to develop an idea of an data system that can be utilized to create, retailer, analyse and current data utilizing the suitable information administration fashions for information creation and sharing.
The considering of data administration was utilized by Nonaka and Takeuchi in 1995, making arguments that for organisation to succeed they need to deal with information creation and distribution (Nonaka, Takeuchi 1995). Nonaka additional in 2000 elaborated that information includes a relationship between tacit and specific information, which gave beginning to a mannequin for the dynamic means of organisational information creation, sustaining, and exploitation. The mannequin supported the 4 information course of specifically: 1 – Internalisation; 2 – Externalisation; three – Socialisation; and four – Mixture (Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000).
Organisations use data programs for varied causes and functions however for information administration all programs are based mostly on the Normal Information Mannequin as described by Brian Newman on his paper “A Framework for Characterizing Information Administration Strategies, Practices, and Applied sciences”. The mannequin organizes information flows into 4 main exercise areas: information creation, retention, switch, and utilization (Newman, Conrad 2000) as represented in ( Determine 1 ).
Information Creation – This contains actions related to the entry of latest information into the system, and contains information growth, discovery, and seize.
Information Retention – This contains all actions that protect information and permit it to stay within the system as soon as launched. It additionally contains these actions that keep the viability of data throughout the system.
Information Switch – This refers to actions related to the movement of data from one get together to a different. This contains communication, translation, conversion, filtering and rendering.
Information Utilization – This contains the actions and occasions related with the appliance of data to enterprise processes.
three.three. Qualitative analysis
Qualitative analysis strategies contain the systematic assortment, organisation, and interpretation of textual materials derived from interviews, observations and in paperwork (Malterud 2001). Qualitative analysis strategies are getting used more and more in analysis of research, together with analysis of laptop programs and knowledge know-how and qualitative information gathered primarily from commentary, interviews, and paperwork are analysed by a wide range of systematic strategies.
four. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This analysis research goals to contribute to the analysis space of enterprise informatics, with the principle focus being on the knowledge administration and knowledge programs conceptualisation. and fills a niche in that data programs should not a main concern for transport researchers. Transport researchers focus most of their analysis on transport economics and engineering, whereas neglecting the advantages that data programs can provide to the trade and this research will fill that hole. Basing the research to the information administration theories and fashions, this research will introduce the significance of utilizing data programs to unravel weighbridge operational issues and resolution making processes by authorities.
Information administration theories and fashions present a method to handle information assortment and knowledge sharing, which provides worth to the organisation and trade as an entire (Barclay, Murray 1997). Information switch in organizations is the method by way of which one unit (e.g., a division, division, and a bunch) is affected by the expertise of one other (Argote, Ingram 2000). Within the case of this research the varied transport departments; site visitors authorities; businesses and stakeholders concerned with overload management within the nation.
The research will assist present steerage to the involved events on the relevant methods to design and implement an data system that might be appropriate for information administration functions, which can be utilized for resolution assist. It will profit site visitors authorities doing legislation enforcement for overload management; businesses managing the heavy automobile weighbridges and resolution making authorities such because the division of transport.
5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The relevant analysis paradigm for this analysis research is the interpretivist analysis paradigm utilizing the qualitative analysis technique. The interpretivist paradigm developed as a critique of positivism within the social sciences and shares the next beliefs in regards to the nature of figuring out and actuality (Cohen D. 2006): Relativist ontology; assumes that actuality as we all know it's constructed intersubjectively by way of the meanings developed socially and experientially. Subjectivist epistemology; assumes that we can't separate ourselves from what we all know. The researcher and the researched object are linked such that who we're and the way we perceive the world is a central a part of how we perceive ourselves others and the world.
Interpretive research assume that individuals create and affiliate their very own subjective and intersubjective meanings as they work together with the world round them (Orlikowski, Baroudi 1991). This technique of analysis undertake the place that our information of actuality is a social building by human actors and the researcher makes use of preconceptions in an effort to information the method of researching and moreover interacts with the human topics of the researched discipline (Walsham 1995).
For the aim of this research, two teams shall be concerned, specifically the administration staff from totally different authorities who're liable for strategic planning in terms of overload management processes and the final customers who're operators on the weighbridges akin to site visitors officers and laptop operators. The methodology will contain interviews, commentary and evaluation of the present operational procedures written in present paperwork. That is consistent with the interpretive approaches that rely closely on naturalistic strategies (Cohen D. 2006).
The next actions make up the key duties of the research and the methodology that shall be used to deal with them:
5.1. Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework for the analysis research shall be based mostly on theories from data programs growth and information administration. The primary concept would be the exercise concept, which shall be supported by theories from the information administration fashions.
5.1.1. Exercise Principle
Exercise concept is a social-psychological concept that has its roots within the work carried out by the Russian psychologist Vygotsky through the starting of the 20th century and this concept has been adopted by data programs researchers (Crawford, Hasan 2006). Additional the identical analysis research Dr. Kate Crawford and Helen Hasan reveals that researchers in data programs have recognised the speculation as with the ability to present a wealthy holistic understanding of how individuals do issues along with the help of subtle instruments within the advanced dynamic atmosphere.
The speculation is a philosophical framework for finding out human interactions as a growth course of. The elemental unit of study is the exercise which has tree traits; materials object; which is mediated by artifacts (instruments, language and many others.) and it's inside a tradition (Determine 1) and laptop artifacts mediate human exercise inside a observe (Bardram 1997).
Relevance of the exercise concept to the analysis research
The article of the analysis exercise
This research investigates the actions of teams of people who find themselves concerned within the weighbridge operations for overload management legislation enforcement. The teams are utilizing a mix of head to head and laptop based mostly interactions in finishing up their duties.
The Topics of the exercise being studied
Members of organisations and businesses which are utilizing the weighbridge system or weighbridge website mangers; overload management resolution makers; legislation enforcement officers, and site visitors regulatory physique.
The instruments of the analysis exercise
The researcher will acquire information instantly from the topics, by making an commentary of the actions and interviewing the choice makers personally.
The first secondary and tertiary instruments used
The instruments of curiosity listed here are weighbridge discipline sheets, private computer systems, server databases and different devices used to confirm automobile information.
The aim of the actions and the motives of the topics
The primary intention of the actions shall be to watch the totally different operations, the opportunity of integrating this operations and standing of the obtainable instruments at the moment being utilized by varied authorities and weighbridges.
5.1.2. Information administration fashions
The target of the analysis research contains the development of the choice processes by authorities concerned and information fashions are the popular choice for information creation and for resolution making functions.
The chosen KM mannequin to base the research on would be the Nonaka and Takeuchi Spiral Mannequin. KM Spiral relies on a concept that information creation consists of a social course of between people wherein information transformation is not only a unidirectional course of however it's interactive and spiral, these includes the 4 means of: Socialization (from tacit to tacit information); Externalization (from tacit to specific information); Mixture (from specific to specific information); and Internalization (from specific to tacit information) (Nicosord ).
This mannequin was chosen as a result of for the analysis outcomes to make an influence the next teams should thought-about; (1) the heavy automobile operators and drivers who're the exterior group; (2) the connection between the site visitors management centre employees and the drivers, which kinds a part of the socialisation; the weighing system customers and site visitors officers on the TCC who're (inner group); and the mix will handle points associated to make use of of the info and the way the info shall be shared amongst all stakeholders.
5.1.three. Knowledge Assortment and Evaluation Instruments
The analysis research will use qualitative analysis strategies and due to this fact will embrace unstructured interviews; commentary and doc evaluation. The researcher is the principle instrument for information assortment and evaluation and can make use of discipline notes and audio recording as these utilized by researchers following a grounded concept technique (Savenye, Robinson 1996). Area notes shall be used throughout commentary and interviews and information shall be grouped based on the KM cycles as indicated on (Desk 1).
Qualitative information may be analysed utilizing interpretive strategies; the researcher will make use of the interpretive strategy to current a holistic view of the info. Area notes from observations and interviews shall be interpreted and grouped based on groupings in (Desk 1). Official paperwork will collected from authorities shall be analysed as uncooked information after which analysed the identical approach as discipline notes information.
Desk 1: Area notes grouping construction
Acquisition of knowledge
Refinement of knowledge
Storage and Retrieval of knowledge
Distribution of knowledge
Presentation and Use of knowledge
It will record all of the processes and procedures adopted to amass and seize information on the weighbridge operations degree.
It will record all of the processes and procedures used to wash and refined the info.
This shall be a grouping of all programs used to saved and retrieve information both handbook or computerised.
This will even embrace the submitting system or database varieties used. (e.g. SQL database)
It will group objects which are addressing:
How information is remodeled into data
How data is delivered to varied stakeholders
It will group points addressing the foundations and procedures for the general information constructions and the presentation codecs. In addition to how information shall be shared.
6. DELINEATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
This analysis research is restricted to solely the organisations and authorities departments which are concerned in initiatives that offers with overload management within the Free State province and the analysis will deal with the static operational weighbridges as listed on the South African Lengthy Time period Overload Management Statistics (1995 – 2009) and Provincial authorities on the identical record (Republic of South Africa. Division of Transport July, 2010), and additional limiting it solely to Bothaville; Senekal and Kroonstad weighbridges which are concerned in overload management utilizing computerised programs for heavy automobile mass calculations.
This analysis assumes that:
- The involved authorities have devoted people who find themselves centered on overload management and that they've the satisfactory information to make clear and reply questions referring to the weighbridge operations and procedures used for making resolution in regards to the regulatory points and legislation enforcement utility.
- The businesses working the weighbridges have a devoted one that is educated within the varied Site visitors Rules for overload management
- The technical individuals at weighbridges have a transparent understanding of the processes adopted on the gathering of knowledge, from uncooked information to computerised capturing and the way this information is transferred to the authorities.
eight. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Ethics examines the rational justification of what's morally proper or improper by involving a scientific utility of ethical guidelines, requirements, or ideas to researchers (Davison 2000). Ethics addresses problems with dignity; proper to privateness; knowledgeable consent; honesty with skilled colleagues; and security.
This analysis research is concentrated on finding out the programs used for operations at site visitors management centres and can solely concerned human candidates as they're concerned within the system. As human candidates is not going to be the topics of the research, moral concerns should not required as such. However the researcher will inform the members in regards to the nature of the analysis prematurely and the privateness of members shall be protected as no names shall be talked about on the outcomes of the research.
9. CHAPTER OVERVIEW
The analysis report will include chapters as outlined in ( Desk 2 ) and a quick description of what every chapter incorporates is included
Desk 2: Chapters construction and temporary overview
Abstract overview of all chapters
The strategies used to hold out the research shall be defined right here.
This incorporates a proof of the required concept for the research.
Outcomes from the research will introduced and defined.
Empirical research and theoretical framework shall be related right here to clarify the evaluation of the research.
Presentation of conclusions
Advice and Future Analysis
Analysis research suggestions and space for future analysis shall be proven right here.
Reviewed Literature has indicated the issues skilled on the site visitors management centres in regard to the overload management processes and the relevance of utilizing data programs to deal with the issues. The significance of creating use of built-in data programs in organizations and the way they're getting used as a bonus for simplifying processes and guarantee reliability and integrity of knowledge assortment and evaluation has been indicated as effectively. The Republic of South Africa may also profit from data programs applied sciences on the struggle in opposition to heavy automobile overloading and enchancment of weighbridge processes. The unfavourable influence of overloaded heavy autos has been clearly indicated by earlier analysis carried out by varied researchers within the civil engineering self-discipline.