IMPERIALISM IN AMERICA 1898-1914 essay
One American's Story Imperialism and America In 1893 Queen Liliuokalani (lE-lCQE-I-kE-läPnC) realized that her reign in Hawaii had come to an finish. Greater than 160 U.S. sailors and marines stood prepared to assist the haoles (white foreigners) who deliberate to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy. In an eloquent assertion of protest, the proud monarch surrendered to the superior pressure of the USA. A PERSONAL VOICE QUEEN LILIUOKALANI “ I, Liliuokalani, . . . do hereby solemnly protest towards any and all acts executed towards myself and the constitutional authorities of the Hawaiian Kingdom. . . . Now, to keep away from any collision of armed forces and maybe the lack of life, I do underneath this protest . . . yield my authority till such time because the Authorities of the USA shall . . . undo the motion of its representatives and reinstate me within the authority which I declare because the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands.” —quoted in These Kings and Queens of Previous Hawaii U.S. ambassador to Hawaii John L. Stevens knowledgeable the State Division, “The Hawaiian pear is now totally ripe, and that is the golden hour for the United States to pluck it.” The annexation of Hawaii was solely one of many objectives of America’s empire builders within the late 19th century. American Expansionism People had at all times sought to develop the scale of their nation, and all through the 19th century they prolonged their management towards the Pacific Ocean. Nonetheless, by the 1880s, many American leaders had turn out to be satisfied that the United States ought to be part of the imperialist powers of Europe and set up colonies abroad. Imperialism—the coverage wherein stronger nations prolong their financial, political, or army management over weaker territories—was already a pattern round the world. MAIN IDEA Phrases & Names Phrases & Names •Queen Liliuokalani •imperialism •Alfred T. Mahan •William Seward •Pearl Harbor •Sanford B. Dole Starting in 1867 and persevering with by way of the century, world competitors triggered the USA to develop. Throughout this time interval, the United States acquired Hawaii and Alaska, each of which grew to become states in 1959. WHY IT MATTERS NOW ▼ Hawaii’s “Queen Lil” introduced that if restored to energy, she would behead those that had conspired to depose her. 342 CHAPTER 10 342-345-Chapter 10 10/21/02 5:09 PM Web page 342 GLOBAL COMPETITION European nations had been establishing colonies for hundreds of years. Within the late 19th century Africa had emerged as a major goal of European expansionism. By the early 20th century, solely two international locations in all of Africa—Ethiopia and Liberia—remained impartial. Imperialists additionally competed for territory in Asia, particularly in China. In its late-19th-century reform period, Japan changed its outdated feudal order with a powerful central authorities. Hoping that army power would bolster industrialization, Japan joined European nations in competitors for China within the 1890s. Most People regularly warmed to the concept of growth abroad. With a perception in manifest future, they already had pushed the U.S. border to the Pacific Ocean. Three elements fueled the brand new American imperialism: • need for army power • thirst for brand spanking new markets • perception in cultural superiority DESIRE FOR MILITARY STRENGTH Seeing that different nations have been establishing a worldwide army presence, American leaders suggested that the USA construct up its personal army power. One such chief was Admiral Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy. Mahan urged authorities officers to construct up American naval energy so as to compete with different highly effective nations. Because of the urging of Mahan and others, the USA constructed 9 steel-hulled cruisers between 1883 and 1890. The development of recent battleships such because the Maine and the Oregon remodeled the nation into the world’s third largest naval energy. THIRST FOR NEW MARKETS Within the late 19th century, advances in know-how enabled American farms and factories to provide way over Americans might eat. Now the USA wanted uncooked supplies for its factories and new markets for its agricultural and manufactured items. Imperialists seen international commerce because the answer to American overproduction and the associated issues of unemployment and financial melancholy. Within the early 1900s, the Navy’s Nice White Fleet, so named as a result of its ships have been painted white, was an indication of America’s rising army energy. A KEY PLAYER ADMIRAL ALFRED T. MAHAN 1840–1914 Alfred T. Mahan joined the U.S. Navy within the late 1850s and served for practically forty years. In 1886, he grew to become president of the newly established Naval Conflict School in Newport, Rhode Island. All through his lifetime, Mahan was probably the most outspoken advocates of American army growth. In his e book The Affect of Sea Energy upon Historical past, 1660–1783 (printed in 1890), Mahan referred to as for the United States to develop a contemporary fleet able to defending American enterprise and transport pursuits all over the world. He additionally urged the USA to set up naval bases within the Caribbean, to assemble a canal throughout the Isthmus of Panama, and to accumulate Hawaii and different Pacific islands. ▼ A. Reply Solely two African nations remained impartial; the remainder of the continent was divided up amongst European nations. Background Within the late 1800s, new farm equipment drastically improved grain manufacturing. For instance, plows, harrows, threshing machines, and reapers elevated corn manufacturing by 264 p.c and the wheat harvest by 252 p.c. MAIN IDEA A Analyzing Results How did European imperialism have an effect on Africa? 342-345-Chapter 10 10/21/02 5:09 PM Web page 343 BELIEF IN CULTURAL SUPERIORITY Cultural elements additionally have been used to justify imperialism. Some People mixed the philosophy of Social Darwinism—a perception that free-market competitors would result in the survival of the fittest—with a perception within the racial superiority of Anglo-Saxons. They argued that the United States had a accountability to unfold Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s “inferior peoples.” This viewpoint narrowly outlined “civilization” in response to the requirements of just one tradition. The USA Acquires Alaska An early supporter of American growth was William Seward, Secretary of State underneath presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. In 1867, Seward organized for the U.S. to purchase Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million. Seward had some hassle persuading the Home of Representatives to approve the treaty. Some folks thought it was foolish to purchase what they referred to as “Seward’s Icebox” or “Seward’s folly.” Time confirmed how unsuitable they have been. In 1959, Alaska grew to become a state. For about two cents an acre, the USA had acquired a land wealthy in timber, minerals, and, because it turned out, oil. The USA Takes Hawaii In 1867, the identical 12 months wherein Alaska was bought, the USA took over the Halfway Islands, which lie within the Pacific Ocean about 1300 miles north of Hawaii. Nobody lived on the islands, so the occasion didn't entice a lot consideration. Hawaii was one other query. The Hawaiian Islands had been economically essential to the USA for practically a century. Because the 1790s, American retailers had stopped there on their option to China and East India. Within the 1820s, Yankee missionaries based Christian colleges and church buildings on the islands. Their youngsters and grandchildren grew to become sugar planters who offered most of their crop to the USA. THE CRY FOR ANNEXATION Within the mid-19th century, American-owned sugar plantations accounted for about three-quarters of the islands’ wealth. Plantation house owners imported 1000's of laborers from Japan, Portugal, and China. By 1900, foreigners and immigrant laborers outnumbered native Hawaiians about three to 1. White planters profited from shut ties with the United States. In 1875, the USA agreed to import Hawaiian sugar duty-free. Over the following 15 years, Hawaiian sugar manufacturing elevated 9 occasions. Then the McKinley Tariff of 1890 provoked a disaster by eliminating the duty-free standing of Hawaiian sugar. As a outcome, Hawaiian sugar growers confronted competitors within the American market. American planters in Hawaii referred to as for the USA to annex the islands so that they wouldn’t should pay the obligation. U.S. army and financial leaders already understood the worth of the islands. In 1887, they pressured Hawaii to permit the USA to construct a naval base at Pearl Harbor, the dominion’s greatest port. The bottom grew to become a refueling station for American ships. Vocabulary annex: to incorporate territory into an present nation or state B Hawaii’s Altering Inhabitants 1853–1920 Proportion of Complete Inhabitants Native Hawaiian Caucasian Different (principally Asian) 1853 1878 1900 1920 100 80 60 40 20 zero Supply: Robert C. Schmitt, Demographic Statistics of Hawaii, 1778–1965 SKILLBUILDER Decoding Graphs 1. What have been probably the most dramatic modifications in Hawaiian inhabitants between 1853 and 1920? 2. How may these modifications have affected the political local weather there? B. Reply Alaska is wealthy in timber, minerals, and oil. Skillbuilder Solutions 1. The proportion of native Hawaiians declined from about 98% in 1853 to about 16% in 1920. The share of different populations (principally Asian) elevated from about 1% in 1853 to about 62% in 1920. 2. These modifications could have led to tensions between native Hawaiians and newcomers. 344 CHAPTER 10 MAIN IDEA B Growing Historic Perspective How did time show that the buy of Alaska was not an act of folly? 342-345-Chapter 10 10/21/02 5:09 PM Web page 344 America Claims an Empire 345 THE END OF A MONARCHY Additionally in that 12 months, Hawaii’s King Kalakaua had been strong-armed by white enterprise leaders. They pressured him to amend Hawaii’s structure to grant voting rights solely to rich landowners. However when Kalakaua died in 1891, his sister Queen Liliuokalani got here to energy with a “Hawaii for Hawaiians” agenda. She proposed eradicating the property-owning for voting. To forestall this from occurring, enterprise teams— inspired by Ambassador John L. Stevens—organized a revolution. With the assistance of marines, they overthrew the queen and arrange a authorities headed by Sanford B. Dole. President Cleveland directed that the queen be restored to her throne. When Dole refused to give up energy, Cleveland formally acknowledged the Republic of Hawaii. However he refused to think about annexation except a majority of Hawaiians favored it. In 1897, William McKinley, who favored annexation, succeeded Cleveland as president. On August 12, 1898, Congress proclaimed Hawaii an American territory, though Hawaiians had by no means had the likelihood to vote. In 1959, Hawaii grew to become the 50th state of the USA. •Queen Liliuokalani •imperialism •Alfred T. Mahan •William Seward •Pearl Harbor •Sanford B. Dole 1. TERMS & NAMES For every time period or identify, write a sentence explaining its significance. MAIN IDEA 2. TAKING NOTES Copy this internet in your paper and fill it in with occasions and ideas that illustrate the roots of imperialism. Select one occasion to elucidate additional in a paragraph. CRITICAL THINKING three. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS Manifest future drastically influenced American coverage through the first half of the 19th century. How do you assume manifest future set the stage for American imperialism on the finish of the century? four. EVALUATING In your opinion, did Sanford B. Dole and different American planters have the correct to stage a revolt in Hawaii in 1893? Suppose About: • American enterprise pursuits in Hawaii • the rights of native Hawaiians 5. ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES Within the following passage, how does Indiana Senator Albert J. Beveridge clarify the necessity for the U.S. to purchase new territories? “ Destiny has written our coverage for us; the commerce of the world should and shall be ours. . . . We are going to set up buying and selling posts all through the world as distributing factors for American merchandise. . . Nice colonies governing themselves, flying our flag and buying and selling with us, will develop about our posts of commerce.” —quoted in Beveridge and the Progressive Period PACIFIC OCEAN CANADA RUSSIA UNITED STATES MEXICO Alaska,1867 60°N 40°N 20°N Tropic of Most cancers zero° 180° 160°W 140°W 120°W W N S W E United States and its possessions zero zero 800 1,600 kilometers 800 1,600 miles GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER 1. Location The place do the Hawaiian Islands lie in relation to the USA? 2. Human-Atmosphere Interplay Given their geographic location, why have been Hawaii and Alaska of worth to the USA? Alaska, 1867, and Hawaii, 1898 Financial Political Cultural Roots of U.S. Imperialism C C. Reply In 1891, U.S. minister John L. Stevens organized a revolution that dethroned Hawaii’s queen. American plantation proprietor Sanford B. Dole grew to become head of the brand new authorities. In 1897 William McKinley grew to become president. He favored annexation. Skillbuilder Reply 1. 2400 miles west of United States 2. Hawaii: refueling stations; Alaska: protected U.S. from Russian aggression Pearl Harbor Hawaii Oahu Kauai Molokai Maui Hawaiian Islands, 1898 MAIN IDEA C Analyzing Occasions What elements led to the annexation of Hawaii in 1898? 342-345-Chapter 10 10/21/02 5:09 PM Web page 345-research paper writing service