10.1177/0146167203260716 PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN Cozzolino et al. / GREED, DEATH, AND VALUES ARTICLE
Greed, Dying, and Values:
From Terror Administration to Transcendence
Philip J. Cozzolino
College of Minnesota
Angela Daybreak Staples
Lawrence S. Meyers
California State College, Sacramento
Analysis supporting terror administration principle has proven that
individuals going through their dying (through mortality salience) exhibit
extra greed than do management individuals. The current analysis
makes an attempt to tell apart mortality salience from different types of
mortality consciousness. Particularly, the authors look to studies of
near-death experiences and posttraumatic progress which reveal
that many individuals who almost die come to view searching for wealth and
possessions as empty and meaningless. Guided by these studies,
a manipulation referred to as dying reflection was generated. In
Research 1, extremely extrinsic individuals who skilled dying
reflection exhibited intrinsic habits. In Research 2, the manipulation was validated, and in Research Three, dying reflection and mortality salience manipulations had been in contrast. Outcomes confirmed
that mortality salience led extremely extrinsic individuals to manifest greed, whereas dying reflection once more generated intrinsic,
unselfish habits. The assemble of worth orientation is mentioned together with the distinction between dying reflection manipulation and mortality salience.
Key phrases: greed; dying reflection; mortality salience
Regardless of generations of poets, philosophers, and non secular leaders decrying the “lethal sin” of greed, a lot of
humanity is presently engaged in a consumer-based financial system that's most profitable when residents need
and search to have. Public revelations of greed on the half
of some company executives have just lately left people asking, “What's it that makes some folks try
for extreme features whereas knowingly leaving much less for others?” In makes an attempt to tell apart the psychological elements that drive greed, current analysis has centered on two
ideas: worth orientation and reactions to dying
Early humanistic theorists reminiscent of Maslow (1954) and
Rogers (1963) first addressed the motives that gasoline and
information makes an attempt to meet objectives and wishes. Maslow (1954)
steered that human existence might solely make sense
when people sought to realize objectives tied to their
inherent developmental promise. These objectives embrace
private progress, good well being, a way of autonomy, and
a need to know oneself. Maslow went additional, evaluating “wholesome people” who search internal freedom in
favor of exterior approval to “sick, neurotic individuals who
make the incorrect selections” (p. 278). This humanistic perspective posits that when specializing in objectives stemming
from exterior as an alternative of inner forces (e.g., pursuits of
wealth as an alternative of needs for perception) persons are more likely to
falter alongside the trail to self-actualization. Increasing this
Authors’ Observe: Angela Daybreak Staples is now on the Division of Psychology, Indiana College, Bloomington. The authors thank Marti
Hope Gonzales for her feedback on an early draft of this text and
Christopher M. Federico for statistical session. This text additionally
enormously benefited from useful feedback offered by two nameless
reviewers. A portion of this text was introduced on the 2003 assembly of
the Western Psychological Affiliation in Vancouver, British Columbia,
Canada. Correspondence regarding this text ought to be addressed to Philip J. Cozzolino, Division of Psychology, College of
Minnesota, 75 East River Highway, Minneapolis, MN 55455; e-mail:
PSPB, Vol. 30 No. Three, March 2004 278-292
© 2004 by the Society for Character and Social Psychology, Inc.
thought, self-determination principle (Deci & Ryan, 1985,
1991) proposes that assembly the elemental wants of
competence, autonomy, and relatedness can lead us to
obtain what is called psychological integration.
When people fulfill native wants and method integration, they expertise higher ranges of well-being and
motivation. When, nevertheless, these wants are usually not met,
folks yield to exterior drives for wealth and possessions (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
Kasser and Ryan (1993) discovered assist for selfdetermination principle when individuals searching for selfacceptance and relatedness exhibited higher adjustment
and social productiveness and fewer behavioral problems
than these aspiring for monetary success. From these
outcomes, Kasser and Ryan differentiated between intrinsic
and extrinsic values. People with an intrinsic worth
orientation (IVO) characteristically need self-knowledge,
intimacy, and connections in the neighborhood, whereas
folks with an extrinsic worth orientation (EVO) usually need cash, fame, and wonder (Kasser & Ryan,
1993, 1996). This values mannequin asserts that the steadiness
between EVO and IVO is essential when predicting the
dangerous social and bodily results beforehand talked about. Striving for extrinsic objectives turns into problematic
for folks, the idea states, when their extrinsic values
outweigh their intrinsic values. Sheldon and McGregor
(2000) validated the assumptions underlying intrinsic
versus extrinsic values by displaying that EVO individuals
revealed higher ranges of consumption (i.e., greed) than
did IVO individuals in a forest-management sport.
TERROR MANAGEMENT THEORY
Of all issues that transfer man, one of many principal ones is
his terror of dying. (Becker, 1973, p. 11)
Based mostly on the work of Becker (1973), terror administration principle (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986;
Solomon, Greenberg, & Pyszczynski, 1991) argues that
our innate and all-encompassing worry of dying is buffered by a dual-component course of that consists of
shallowness striving and the creation of cultural worldviews. It's by religion and funding in these
worldviews that individuals discover which means in life and turn into
productive members of society. Becker and terror administration principle additional posit that the almost insoluble
human actuality of mortality consciousness mixed with an
instinctive need for survival compels makes an attempt at
immortality by culturally standardized techniques
(e.g., capitalism) and symbols (e.g., cash). Within the face
of mortality, people search eternal life by creating and
embracing that which can not die. Such immortality is
gained by cultural ideologies and their extrinsic
rewards as a result of these ideologies “search the perpetuation
and the redemption of the person life” (Becker, 1975,
p. 64). For people residing in capital-based cultures, one
potential type of immortality searching for is extreme striving for wealth. Terror administration analysis has proven
that when individuals are reminded of their mortality they turn into more likely to defend their
Terror administration analysis prompts dying consciousness in individuals by a manipulation referred to as mortality salience. In operationally defining mortality
salience, researchers have uncovered individuals to gory
video scenes, funeral properties, and worry of dying inventories (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, Solomon, Simon, & Breus,
1994; Nelson, Moore, Olivetti, & Scott, 1997). A standard methodology of operationalizing mortality salience,
nevertheless, takes the type of open-ended questions asking people to precise the emotions and ideas
they expertise when fascinated by their very own dying
(e.g., Goldenberg, McCoy, Pyszczynski, Greenberg, &
Solomon, 2000; Kasser & Sheldon, 2000; Rosenblatt,
Greenberg, Solomon, Pyszczynski, & Lyon, 1989). When
uncovered to mortality salience manipulations, people
have punished those that don't agree with their worldviews (Greenberg et al., 1990) and have elevated their
chance of stereotyping (Schimel et al., 1999).
Some current proof factors to the potential prosocial results of mortality salience in what researchers
referred to as the “Scrooge impact” (Jonas, Schimel, Greenberg,
& Pyszczynski, 2002). In that examine, individuals who
skilled mortality salience gave more cash to
charity than did different individuals; nevertheless, this generosity solely occurred when individuals thought-about the
charities as a part of their worldview. It may be inferred that
mortality salience results in prosocial habits provided that the
needy individual or group is a member (or supporter) of the helper’s worldview. From this attitude,
the “Scrooge impact” doesn't differ from terror administration outcomes that display that mortality salience
generates worldview protection.
The potential hyperlink between dying consciousness and
extrinsic values has just lately obtained consideration from
researchers attempting to broaden the record of things, past
worth orientation, that play a task in grasping habits.
Utilizing mortality salience, Kasser and Sheldon (2000)
confirmed that in comparison with management individuals, these
requested to face their dying anticipated to be value extra
cash sooner or later and to spend more cash for pleasure. Contributors going through their dying additionally confirmed a
higher propensity for avarice, though there was no proof that mortality salience interacted with worth orientation. A current examine by Dechesne et al. (2003) replicated Kasser and Sheldon’s (2000) findings (Research 2),
however solely in males going through their dying in a situation with
alleged scientific findings debunking the chance of
Cozzolino et al. / GREED, DEATH, AND VALUES 279
Terror administration principle isn't alone in inserting the
profound implications of dying consciousness on the middle
of striving for intrinsic or extrinsic values. Work completed by
researchers learning private progress in people who
report near-death experiences (e.g., Greyson, 1992;
Ring & Elsaesser Valarino, 1998) and different types of traumatic occasions, generally known as posttraumatic progress (PTG;
Tedeschi, Park, & Calhoun, 1998), gives a historical past of
inspecting mortality consciousness unequaled by any lab
Researchers actively concerned within the examine of PTG have
centered on all kinds of life crises, together with divorce
(Wallerstein, 1986), HIV an infection (Schwartzberg,
1994), sexual assault (Frazier, Conlon, & Glaser, 2001),
most cancers (O’Connor, Wicker, & Germino, 1990; WelchMcCaffrey, Hoffman, Leigh, Loescher, & Meyskens,
1989), and bone marrow transplant (Curbow, Legro,
Baker, Wingard, & Somerfield, 1993). Tedeschi et al.
(1998) categorize into life outcomes the forms of progress
seen in folks coping with these (in lots of instances) lifethreatening crises: notion of the self (e.g., elevated
self-reliance or autonomy and self-efficacy), interpersonal relationships (e.g., nearer connections and
elevated compassion and giving to others), and philosophy of life (e.g., reorganized priorities, appreciation of
life, sense of which means, and non secular growth).
Researchers conceive of life-altering trauma as affecting folks in the identical approach that an earthquake impacts a
metropolis. When the trauma, confusion, and mourning have
handed, there is a chance to rebuild and create new
buildings which might be higher than the originals. Within the face
of non-public loss, it's thought, people undergo this
similar rebuilding of their shattered worlds, usually creating
new, superior life buildings and assumptions (JanoffBulman, 1992; Tedeschi et al., 1998). Help for this
“rebuilding mannequin” might be discovered amongst most cancers sufferers, for instance, whose progress outcomes embrace
optimistic coping, elevated hopefulness, and a way of
transcendence (Ersek, 1992; Steeves & Kahn, 1987;
Lots of the similar dramatic optimistic life modifications witnessed in PTG research are ubiquitous within the examine of the
near-death expertise. Many near-death experiencers
(NDErs) come very near dying, whereas others are
really declared clinically useless. Likening the expertise to a “non secular catalyst,” Ring (1984) outlined the
worth shifts most frequently seen in folks on account of neardeath experiences: appreciation of life, concern for others, lack of concern for impressing others, lack of materialism, and better quest for which means. As seen within the PTG
literature, Ring (1984) studies that NDErs reveal a
heightened sense of spirituality. This, nevertheless, usually
comes with a de-emphasis on the individual’s earlier allegiance to a proper faith. In response to Ring (1984),
many NDErs come to see organized faith as a human
creation and discover a new curiosity in a “worldview-free”
A standard thread additionally discovered amongst NDErs is a newfound acceptance of dying and a sense of transcendence in that they not worry dying and as an alternative absolutely
settle for their mortality (Greyson, 1992; Moody, 1975;
Noyes, 1980; Ring, 1980). In a juxtaposition to the
“dying is simply too terrorizing to face” theorizing of Becker
(1973), Noyes (1980) discovered that a lot of his respondents reported their near-death expertise not solely
introduced dying nearer to them however built-in mortality as
an idea extra absolutely into their lives. This inclusion of
dying into on a regular basis consciousness led these NDErs to say
that life had extra which means and an added sense of zest
(Noyes, 1980). Additionally frequent in studies of near-death
expertise analysis is the notion addressed by Ring
(1984) that NDErs reveal an absence of materialism. Supported by research of anecdotal studies within the United
States (Atwater, 1988; Greyson, 1983; Morse, 1992; Ring,
1980, 1984, 1991; Ring & Elsaesser Valarino, 1998),
England (Gray, 1985), Australia (Sutherland, 1993,
1995), and Italy (Tiberi, 1993), many NDErs do appear to
endure a shift in values on the subject of their earlier, extrinsically oriented worldviews. Experiences continuously present that NDErs come to view extrinsic values
reminiscent of searching for wealth and possessions as empty and
Terror administration principle, near-death expertise
studies, and PTG analysis deal with the connection
between mortality and worth orientation in very totally different
methods. Outcomes supporting terror administration principle counsel that for individuals who endorse extrinsic values,
reminders of their very own mortality will result in an extra
embracing of their worldview (i.e., greed). Conversely,
near-death expertise research and PTG investigations
counsel that coming nose to nose with mortality leaves
people striving for intrinsic rewards. Inspecting the
key options of the near-death expertise alongside terror administration’s mortality salience manipulation can
assist clarify these divergent responses.
Essentially the most noticeable distinction between a near-death
expertise and a typical mortality salience manipulation is the extent of abstractness related to mortality.
Usually, the primary facet shared by NDErs is the style in
which they imagine they died. Whereas mortality salience
usually introduces the idea of dying as an summary concern that's unspecified in its connection to the participant, the near-death expertise locations an individual’s
dying in a concrete setting. In easier phrases, mortality salience appears to be asking, “What do you consider
280 PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
dying?” whereas the near-death expertise appears to be
asking “That is the way you died, what do you suppose?”
One other aspect that persistently seems in neardeath experiences but stays largely absent from mortality salience is the “life assessment” (Ring & Elsaesser
Valarino, 1998). The life assessment course of is usually described as one of the vital highly effective moments of the
near-death expertise and goes far past the frequent
notion that life “passes earlier than your eyes.” Respondents
say the life assessment includes a whole reliving of each
life second, together with ideas and emotions, in addition to
the highly effective “perspective-taking” means of experiencing ideas and emotions of different people with
whom they interacted (Ring & Elsaesser Valarino, 1998).
This anecdotal proof means that after a neardeath expertise, folks reply in a way fairly totally different from people uncovered to mortality salience.
Whereas mortality salience results in worldview protection
and immortality striving, near-death experiences appear
to compel worldview capitulation and psychological
integration. It's this proof of a price shift from extrinsic to intrinsic amongst NDErs that opens the door for
a brand new type of experimentally induced mortality
A assessment of Ring and Elsaesser Valarino’s (1998) work
reveals three core components of the near-death expertise: (a) an precise dying, (b) a life assessment, and (c) the
alternative for NDErs to take the attitude of others.
We stored these three points in thoughts when creating eventualities for our mortality manipulation, referred to as dying reflection. To handle going through dying, half of our individuals
learn a situation by which they died, whereas the opposite
half learn a management situation. To seize the life assessment
and perspective-taking components, we included openended questions after the situation. Together with dying
reflection, we assessed every participant’s worth
Provided that extrinsically oriented people need
wealth, we examined the consequences of dying reflection on
greed. In assessing greed, we counted raffle tickets taken
by individuals in a limited-resource behavioral activity. We
predicted that when not going through dying, individuals with a
excessive extrinsic orientation would proof higher ranges
of greed than individuals with a low extrinsic orientation, whereas experiencing our dying reflection manipulation would result in decrease ranges of greed amongst extremely
Contributors. Forty-eight introductory psychology college students from California State College, Sacramento (38
girls, 10 males), ranging in age from 17 to 47 (M =
21.75, SD = 5.97), participated within the examine to meet a
course requirement.2 A lot of the pattern was Caucasian
(56%), adopted by Asian (19%), African American
(10%), and Latino (6%), with the remaining individuals’ ethnicity unknown.
Supplies. The 30-item Aspirations Index (primarily based on
Kasser & Ryan, 1996) assessed the individuals’ worth orientation. Fifteen of the index’s gadgets characterize three
domains of an extrinsic orientation, particularly, cash
(“I can be financially profitable”), fame (“I can be acknowledged by plenty of totally different folks”), and wonder (“My
picture can be one others discover interesting”). The remaining 15 gadgets deal with three domains of an intrinsic orientation, particularly, self-acceptance (“I'll know and
settle for who I actually am”), affiliation (“I'll have good
buddies that I can depend on”), and group feeling (“I
will work for the betterment of society”). Contributors
reply to every assertion utilizing a scale starting from 1
(under no circumstances necessary) to 9 (essential). The Aspirations
Index has achieved a beforehand reported reliability coefficient of .82 (Sheldon & McGregor, 2000). Our pattern
generated a coefficient alpha of .81 for the intrinsic
subscale and .92 for the extrinsic subscale.
For our dying reflection manipulation, individuals
had been requested to learn and picture themselves experiencing the occasions described in a situation after which to reply
open-ended questions as if the occasions really occurred.
Within the dying situation, individuals imagined waking up
in the course of the night time in a pal’s condominium on the
“20th flooring of an outdated, downtown constructing” to the “sounds
of screams and the choking odor of smoke.” The situation (see Appendix A) particulars the participant’s futile
makes an attempt to flee the room and burning constructing
earlier than lastly giving in to the fireplace and finally dying.
After studying the dying situation, individuals answered
the next questions:
1. Please describe intimately the ideas and feelings you
felt whereas imagining the situation.
2. Should you did expertise this occasion, how do you suppose you
would deal with the ultimate moments?
Three. Once more imagining it did occur to you, describe the life
you led as much as that time.
four. How do you're feeling your loved ones would react if it did occur
We generated these inquiries to activate a few of the
frequent components present in near-death experiences.
The primary two questions reinforce the notion of going through an
precise dying, versus the summary idea of mortality. The third and fourth questions mirror the neardeath expertise of life assessment in that Query Three allowed the individuals to mirror on their very own life and
Query four allowed them to take the attitude of
Cozzolino et al. / GREED, DEATH, AND VALUES 281
Contributors within the “no dying” management situation learn
an identical situation in that they imagined waking up within the
similar condominium to “the sound of a clock radio and the
nice odor of espresso.” On this situation, individuals
imagined spending the day sightseeing and procuring
with a member of the family, earlier than heading again to the condominium for dinner and mattress. After studying the no dying situation, individuals answered the next questions:
1. Please describe intimately the ideas and feelings you
felt whereas imagining the situation.
2. Have you ever ever skilled an occasion just like the one described within the situation?
Three. Imagining an occasion just like the one described did occur to
you, describe the life you led as much as that time.
four. Once more imagining this occasion did occur to you, describe
the ideas and feelings of the member of the family with
whom you spent the day.
These questions had been designed to reflect the dying reflection questions, offering management individuals a chance to mirror on their life and to take the attitude of others.
After finishing the questions, individuals
responded to a demographic sheet that included a query assessing the individuals’ degree of spirituality.
Lastly, we assessed greed by counting the variety of raffle tickets taken by individuals in a limited-resource
Process. Contributors had been positioned in particular person
rooms and randomly supplied with examine packets. After
finishing the Aspirations Index, college students encountered a request to learn their situation slowly, imagining
they had been really experiencing the occasion. After answering the questions and finishing the demographics
sheet, the scholars obtained one other web page designed to
look totally different from the examine supplies (totally different typeface and coloured paper). This flyer contained the quilt
story relating to the raffle tickets (good for a $100 present certificates) that had been contained in an envelope connected to
the flyer (see Appendix B). Our intent was to ascertain
that individuals had been coming into the examine in waves and
that as extra college students participated, the extra the quantity
of tickets within the envelope would diminish. We additionally
wished to make it clear that finally the envelope
could be empty, thus the instruction, “you might want to inform a
analysis assistant that the envelope is empty. You'll
obtain one ticket to take care of an opportunity of profitable the
prize.” The flyer’s textual content made it specific that every ticket in
the envelope was a possible winner, so individuals
knew the extra tickets they took, the higher their probabilities
(creating poorer probabilities for future individuals). The
flyer knowledgeable all individuals that they had been within the
fourth wave to undergo the examine. We set this fixed
of “fourth wave” to forestall college students from attempting to determine
out what number of tickets had been within the envelope on the
starting of the examine. We wished individuals to
imagine that three different individuals had gone by
the envelope earlier than them, making it unattainable to know
what number of tickets had been there and what number of tickets
the others had taken. The directions directed individuals to depend what number of tickets had been left within the envelope
by the presumed earlier three college students. Every envelope
really contained 20 tickets regardless of the flyer story that it
might include extra (assuming the folks earlier than them
took tickets) or fewer (the envelope might have been
empty). Contributors had been debriefed after they took their
tickets. This course of took roughly 30 min. After
finishing the examine, we randomly chosen a raffle
ticket from these taken and awarded the present certificates.
Content material evaluation. We created our dying reflection
manipulation in an try to supply a laboratory analog to the near-death expertise. Based mostly on the openended responses offered by individuals within the dying
situation, it appears the manipulation did have an emotional affect. Nearly the entire individuals going through their
dying expressed reactions in sturdy emotional phrases.
Examples are as follows: “I felt panic, worry, and unhappiness
which led to an understanding of dying, contentment;”
“I considered how I centered on the unimportant
issues like cash and appearances as an alternative of what issues most, those I really like;” and “I assumed deeply about
my household and girlfriend. Additionally about life and the way I
mustn't take it as a right.” Many individuals imagining their dying additionally reported bodily responses to the
situation, reminiscent of, “I obtained goose bumps;” “My coronary heart fee
elevated;” and “I needed to combat again tears.” Thus, it
seems our manipulation did enable individuals to turn into intensely concerned with their dying situation.
To additional look at the effectiveness and conceptual
validity of our dying reflection manipulation we performed a content material evaluation of the open-ended solutions.
Though the inherent variations between the dying
and no dying eventualities hinder us from making too many
inferences a few direct comparability, we did code responses from each eventualities to make clear the individuals’ ideas and feelings. Throughout each eventualities,
our coders discovered 15 classes that appeared to seize
the essence of the responses. These classes are optimistic have an effect on, unfavourable have an effect on, references to dying ache,
bodily sensations, ideas of previous life, ideas of others, egocentric ideas of others, spiritual references, objectives
in life, regrets, unfavourable life feedback, and optimistic life
feedback. After counting the variety of occurrences of
every content material class for all individuals, these class
counts had been reworked into proportions of complete occurrences to standardize response charges throughout respondents.
282 PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
We did this to account for the variation we witnessed in
the size of responses, which ranged from just a few sentences in some instances to requiring the backs of the examine
packet pages in different instances. A MANOVA utilizing the Wilks
criterion revealed important variations on the content material
classes as a operate of the eventualities, F(12, 35) =
26.06, p < .01. Univariate checks confirmed that individuals in
the dying situation responded with a considerably
larger proportion of unfavourable have an effect on (worry, unhappiness, and so forth.),
bodily sensations, life reflection, spiritual references,
and objectives in life. Conversely, individuals within the management
situation responded with considerably extra accounts of
optimistic have an effect on, egocentric ideas of others (“They need to
make me comfortable,” “They wished to point out how a lot I
impacted them. They wished to spend as a lot time as
they might with me.”), and unfavourable life feedback
(“Extraordinarily pressured with the hustles and bustles of life,”
“I want I had extra buddies. I typically really feel remoted.”).
Though we discovered important variations on some content material classes that appeared suggestive, the eventualities
had been so totally different in design that it appears greatest to carry again
any deeper evaluation of the variations at the moment. A
extra informative content material evaluation is introduced in
conjunction with Research Three, which permits for a comparability
of two mortality manipulations.
Regression analyses. To research the consequences of dying
reflection (dying or no dying) and worth orientation on
our dependent measure of greed, we first generated a
relative rating of extrinsic as in comparison with intrinsic values
for every participant. Following the advice of
Kasser and Ryan (1993, 1996) and Sheldon and
McGregor (2000), we computed a single EVO rating by
subtracting the intrinsic gadgets from the extrinsic gadgets,
creating a brand new variable starting from low extrinsic values
on one finish to excessive extrinsic values on the opposite finish. We
used a a number of regression process to research the
predominant and interactive results of worth orientation and
dying reflection, centering the values variable (Aiken &
The evaluation revealed a big, optimistic relationship between worth orientation and greed in that individuals with a excessive EVO took extra tickets than did low
EVO individuals, β = .33 (b = .04), p < .05. This predominant
impact of worth orientation, nevertheless, was certified by the
important interplay between worth orientation and
dying reflection, β = –.48 (b = .09), p < .05. The easy
slopes of this interplay (plotted at ±1 SD of worth orientation) might be seen in Determine 1. Wanting on the impact of
dying or no dying, there was a big relationship
between worth orientation and greed, as predicted, in
that prime EVO individuals took extra tickets than did
low EVOs when studying the management situation, β = .67 (b =
.09), p < .01. This relationship disappeared, nevertheless,
when individuals learn the dying situation (β = –.01, b =
–.zero02, p > .90), indicating that within the dying situation,
worth orientation was not predictive of grasping
habits. Analyzing the slopes from the attitude of
worth orientation, the drop in tickets taken amongst excessive
EVOs was important (β = –.46, b = –2.59, p < .05), whereas
the rise in low EVOs was not important (β = .23, b =
1.30, p > .20).
With this lower in greed amongst excessive EVOs as a
operate of dying reflection, we examined the spirituality query from the demographics sheet, which learn,
“on a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 being very non secular), fee
your degree of spirituality.” Based mostly on the proof of
elevated spirituality in near-death expertise and PTG
analysis, we thought this merchandise might assist make clear
the processes driving the change in grasping habits.
Outcomes of this evaluation revealed that there was a big, unfavourable relationship between worth orientation
and spirituality in that individuals with a low EVO
reported larger ranges of spirituality than did excessive EVO
individuals, β = –.35 (b = –.04), p < .05. There was additionally a
important relationship between dying reflection and
spirituality in that individuals who confronted their dying
reported larger ranges of spirituality than did individuals who didn't face their dying, β = .45 (b = 2.24), p <
.01. The interplay between worth orientation and
dying reflection approached significance, β = .30 (b =
.05), p = .10. Inspecting the easy slopes of this creating interplay (Determine 2) revealed that when not dying,
low EVOs had been extra more likely to report larger ranges of spirituality than had been excessive EVOs, β = –.57 (b = –.07), p < .01,
though this disappeared when individuals learn the
dying situation (β = –.13, b = –.02, p > .40), indicating that
excessive EVOs had been now reporting comparable spirituality levCozzolino et al. / GREED, DEATH, AND VALUES 283
No Dying Dying
Imply # of Tickets
Determine 1 Imply variety of tickets taken as a operate of dying reflection and worth orientation (excessive EVO = +1 SD, low EVO =
els as low EVOs. Analyzing the slopes reveals that the
improve in spirituality seen amongst excessive EVOs was important, β = .67 (b = Three.34), p < .05, whereas the rise
amongst low EVOs was not, β = .23 (b = 1.14), p = .23.
We predicted that individuals with a excessive extrinsic
worth orientation would display higher ranges of
greed when not experiencing our dying reflection
manipulation. We additionally predicted that extrinsically oriented individuals who confronted our dying reflection
manipulation would turn into much less grasping. The outcomes
appear to assist each of those predictions. Based mostly on the
greed findings, the considerably larger reported ranges
of spirituality amongst these individuals going through their
dying, and the suggestive content material evaluation variations, we
inferred that our manipulation did have the near-death
expertise, positive-growth affect that we predicted.
Regardless of our inference concerning the impact of dying reflection, there was some query as as to if the variations we noticed had extra to do with merely the consequences
of optimistic (management situation) and unfavourable (dying situation) have an effect on on greed. On this vein, we additionally felt it was
necessary to check if the open-ended questions, which we
modeled after the optimistic progress inducing elements of
the near-death expertise, had been mandatory to realize
the outcomes we noticed.
Contributors. Fifty-six introductory psychology college students from California State College, Sacramento (49
girls, 7 males), ranging in age from 17 to 40 (M = 21.09,
SD = four.88), participated to meet a course requirement.four
A lot of the pattern was Caucasian (41%), adopted by
Asian (18%), multiracial (13%), Latino (9%), and African American (7%), with the remaining individuals’
Supplies. We used the identical 30-item Aspirations Index
(primarily based on Kasser & Ryan, 1996) from Research 1 to evaluate
the individuals’ worth orientation. This pattern generated a coefficient alpha of .87 for the intrinsic subscale
and .92 for the extrinsic subscale.
To keep away from evaluating optimistic versus unfavourable have an effect on
eventualities, all individuals obtained the dying reflection
situation utilized in Research 1; nevertheless, a few of the individuals obtained our customary open-ended questions
(from Research 1), whereas the opposite college students obtained
questions not impressed by near-death experiences or
PTG (e.g., “How might we enhance the typographical
look of the situation?”). After studying the situation, finishing the questions, and filling out the
demographic sheet utilized in Research 1, individuals got here
throughout the identical flyer from the primary examine telling individuals concerning the raffle tickets, which we used to evaluate
Process. We employed the identical procedures utilized in
the primary examine; nevertheless, every envelope really contained 22 tickets (as an alternative of 20 as within the first examine). We
made this modification to keep away from any chance that individuals would make their ticket selections primarily based on the actual fact
that four (wave quantity) was a a number of of 20 (eliminating
the notion that 5 could be an applicable variety of
tickets to take). After individuals took their tickets, they
had been debriefed. Following information assortment, we randomly
chosen a single raffle ticket so we might award a pupil
the present certificates.
Repeating the steps utilized in Research 1, we first generated
a relative rating of extrinsic as in comparison with intrinsic values for every participant. Regressing the variety of tickets taken on worth orientation (centered) and query
sort (actual vs. unrelated) revealed a big interplay between our variables, β = –.38 (b = –.11), p < .05.
The easy slope analyses of this interplay (Determine Three)
revealed no relationship between worth orientation and
greed after the unrelated questions, β = .11 (b = .02), p >
.50. This relationship was important, nevertheless, amongst
individuals answering actual questions, in that prime EVOs
took considerably fewer tickets than did low EVOs, β =
–.56 (b = –.09), p < .05. Inspecting the slopes confirmed that
the drop in tickets taken by excessive EVOs was almost important, β = –.41 (b = –2.99), p < .06, whereas the in284 PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
No Dying Dying
Imply Spirituality Degree
Determine 2 Imply degree of spirituality as a operate of dying reflection
and worth orientation (excessive EVO = +1 SD, low EVO = –1 SD).
crease in tickets taken by low EVOs was not, β = .26 (b =
1.86), p > .20.
With this replication of habits in excessive EVOs after
going through dying reflection, we examined the demographics
spirituality query. This evaluation revealed a creating
interplay, β = .28 (b = .05), p = .10. The easy slopes
(Determine four) confirmed that reported spirituality elevated
for top EVOs after answering the actual questions, β = .44
(b = 2.15), p < .05. There was no impact for low EVOs, β =
–.04 (b = –.19), p > .80.
Based mostly on these outcomes, we made two inferences
relating to our dying reflection manipulation: (a) The
drop in grasping habits seen in each research amongst
excessive EVOs was not a response to studying a disturbing situation versus a nice one and (b) the 4 questions we patterned after elements of the near-death
expertise do appear to be important to the manipulation as a
entire. A difficulty we'll wait to handle is the slight improve in greed amongst low EVOs after experiencing
our dying reflection manipulation. Though not important, the replication of the rise was actually not
Nonetheless lacking from our exploration into the validity
and effectiveness of dying reflection was a mortality
salience manipulation to look at whether or not our manipulation was triggering habits totally different from what we
would possibly observe utilizing terror administration methods. We
made this direct mortality consciousness comparability in our
Contributors. Ninety introductory psychology college students
from California State College, Sacramento (77
girls, 13 males), ranging in age from 17 to 52 (M =
21.45, SD = 5.95), participated to meet a course requirement.5 A lot of the pattern was Caucasian (69%), adopted by Asian (11%), Latino (6%), multiracial (four%),
and African American (Three%), with the remaining individuals’ ethnicity unknown.
Supplies. We used the identical 30-item Aspirations Index
(primarily based on Kasser & Ryan, 1996) from Research 1 and a pair of to
assess the individuals’ worth orientation, with this pattern producing a coefficient alpha of .85 for the intrinsic
subscale and .92 for the extrinsic subscale.
To evaluate the consequences of dying reflection in distinction to
mortality salience, we gave some individuals the dying
reflection manipulation from the primary two research. To
manipulate mortality salience, different individuals obtained the next query impressed by earlier analysis (e.g., Goldenberg et al., 2000; Kasser & Sheldon,
2000; Rosenblatt et al., 1989): “In as many phrases and in
as a lot element as potential, please describe the ideas,
emotions, and feelings you expertise when pondering
about your individual dying.” To check these two mortality manipulations to a management group, we assigned the
remaining individuals to reply the next query:
“In as many phrases and in as a lot element as potential,
please describe the ideas, emotions, and feelings
you expertise when fascinated by your favourite
music.” After answering the questions, individuals obtained the identical flyer utilized in Research 2 and we once more relied
on the variety of raffle tickets taken as our measure of
Cozzolino et al. / GREED, DEATH, AND VALUES 285
Imply # of Tickets
Determine Three Imply variety of tickets taken on account of query sort
and worth orientation (excessive EVO = +1 SD, low EVO = –1 SD).
Imply Spirituality Degree
Determine four Imply degree of spirituality as a operate of query sort and
worth orientation (excessive EVO = +1 SD, low EVO = –1 SD).
Process. Contributors had been positioned in particular person
rooms and randomly supplied with examine packets. College students first accomplished the Aspirations Index. Contributors
going through dying reflection then learn a request asking them
to learn their situation slowly, imagining it really occurred. College students within the mortality salience or management situations merely confronted their respective query. Following
the questions, all individuals responded to the identical
demographics sheet from Research 1 and a pair of. All college students
then obtained the raffle flyer, which knowledgeable them that
they had been within the fourth wave to undergo the examine. The
envelope once more contained 22 tickets, replicating the process in Research 2. After taking their tickets, individuals
had been debriefed. A present certificates was once more awarded to
one participant when information assortment ended.
Content material evaluation. The pairing of dying reflection with
mortality salience allowed for direct comparability of the
narrative responses offered by individuals within the
hopes of higher understanding the processes generated
in each situations. We coded 12 classes of responses:
optimistic and unfavourable have an effect on; bodily actuality of dying
(e.g., ache); bodily reactions to fascinated by dying
(e.g., elevated coronary heart beat, shortness of breath); basic
life reflections; life objectives; life regrets; spiritual references; self-oriented mortality consciousness (e.g., “after I
die”); common, conceptual mortality consciousness (e.g.,
“all residing issues die”); ideas of others; and egocentric
ideas of others. Regardless of the variations within the manipulations throughout research, the content material classes that
emerged on this examine are fairly much like these in Research
1. Replicating the process from Research 1, all occurrences of a content material match had been reworked into
proportions for every participant to account for
particular person variations within the size of responses.
A MANOVA evaluating dying reflection and mortality salience revealed important variations in responses
among the many 12 content material classes, F(12, 46) = 6.84, p <
.01. Desk 1 presents the imply proportions and customary
deviations throughout all 12 classes as a operate of mortality manipulation, in addition to the univariate outcomes and
instance responses from every class. The solutions
from individuals going through dying reflection contained a
larger proportion of basic life reflection, life regrets,
and ideas of others, whereas responses from mortality salience individuals had a higher proportion of references to dying ache, egocentric ideas of others, faith, and dying as a common idea.
We created the dying reflection manipulation to reflect three elements of the near-death expertise: (a) seeing dying as actual not simply conceptually, (b) a life assessment,
and (c) perspective taking of others. It seems from the
content material of the individuals’ responses that we had been profitable. Contributors uncovered to the dying reflection situation centered 45% of their narrative responses on basic life reflection, life regrets, and ideas of others;
these uncovered to the mortality salience situation
addressed these points in solely 19% of their responses.
Conversely, individuals uncovered to mortality salience
centered 44% of their narrative responses on dying ache,
egocentric ideas, faith, and dying as an idea; these
uncovered to dying reflection addressed these points in
15% of their responses. In step with terror administration
principle, it appears as if mortality salience did generate a
means of concern (ache), which led to worldview consolation searching for (faith, selfishness), all whereas protecting
dying in a conceptual setting. According to close to286 PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
TABLE 1: Imply Proportions and Customary Deviations for Content material Classes Evaluating Dying Reflection and Mortality Salience
Dying Reflection Mortality Salience
Class M SD M SD Instance Merchandise
Constructive have an effect on .08 .07 .11 .10 “Peace, calm”
Destructive have an effect on .19 .14 .17 .15 “Scared, nervous”
Concern of ache**** .02 .04 .09 .13 “I hope dying’s not painful”
Bodily sensations .02 .04 .03 .10 “Coronary heart raced, abdomen dropped”
Life reflection**** .12 .09 .03 .07 “Did greatest with time I had”
Life objectives .05 .07 .06 .09 “Graduate, marriage, profession”
Life regrets*** .07 .08 .03 .06 “I want I'd have . . . ”
Ideas of others**** .26 .11 .13 .15 “Need them to know I liked them”
Egocentric different ideas** .03 .07 .08 .12 “I'm the sunshine of their lives”
Non secular beliefs*** .06 .09 .13 .15 “Prayer, God, heaven”
Self-centered mortality .06 .09 .05 .06 “After I die, my funeral”
Common mortality*** .04 .05 .09 .15 “All the things dies, inevitable”
NOTE: Dying reflection, n = 31; mortality salience, n = 28.
**p = .07. ***p < .05. ****p < .01.
dying expertise and PTG theorizing, it seems our
dying reflection manipulation generated a means of
life reflection and perspective taking.
Regression analyses. To research the consequences of dying
manipulation (dying reflection, mortality salience, or
management) and worth orientation on our measure of greed,
we once more created a relative rating of extrinsic in contrast
to intrinsic values for every participant by subtracting
the Aspirations Index intrinsic gadgets from the extrinsic
gadgets. As outlined by Aiken and West (1991), we created
two dummy variables for our three-level dying manipulation variable and centered all applicable variables
earlier than the regression analyses.
To research the connection between worth orientation
and greed on every degree of our dying manipulation variable, we created three units of dummy variables, permitting
us to exclude one dying situation in every evaluation
(Aiken & West, 1991). For every dummy variable set, we
regressed the variety of tickets taken on the centered
values variable together with the 2 dummy variables in
Step 1, adopted by the interplay phrases in Step 2. Desk
2 presents the easy slopes for every dying manipulation situation (in β and b) in addition to the t checks for the 2
interplay phrases and the change in R2 after the interplay phrases entered the equation. Because the desk exhibits,
there was a optimistic relationship between values and
greed within the management situation in that larger ranges of
extrinsic values had been related to extra tickets taken,
though this relationship was not important, p = .14.
This optimistic relationship between values and greed,
nevertheless, turned important within the mortality salience
situation, the place larger ranges of extrinsic values had been
related to larger ranges of greed. Lastly, Desk 2
reveals how this relationship between values and greed
disappeared within the dying reflection situation. The
outcomes introduced in Desk 2 additionally enable us to find out if
the slopes for values differ as a operate of mortality
salience and dying reflection. The primary interplay time period
within the mortality salience column of Desk 2 represents
the interplay between dying reflection and values. The
t take a look at on this interplay is a take a look at of the distinction between the easy slopes for the dying reflection and
mortality salience situations, which is, on this case, important. Determine 5 depicts the easy slopes of the evaluation
evaluating mortality salience and dying reflection,
utilizing ±1 SD on the values measure to indicate excessive and
low EVOs. Amongst excessive EVO individuals, the drop in
tickets taken as a operate of experiencing dying reflection as an alternative of mortality salience was important (β =
–.49, b = –Three.54, p < .05), whereas the rise noticed in
low EVO individuals was not important, β = .23 (b =
1.69), p = .19. The interplay between values and the
variable evaluating mortality salience to the management
group (Desk 2, second interplay time period beneath the mortality salience column) was not important, p > .20.
Though the interplay between values and the variable evaluating dying reflection to the management group
additionally was not important (Desk 2, second interplay time period
beneath the dying reflection column), there was a creating pattern (p = .10) in that prime EVOs took fewer tickets
in dying reflection than they did within the management group,
β = .28 (b = 1.82).
The interplay between values and dying manipulation on the spirituality query from the demographics
sheet was not important. Based mostly on the outcomes of the primary
two research and the content material analyses, nevertheless, a deliberate
comparability of the interplay’s easy slopes appeared
justified. Determine 6 exhibits once more an inclination amongst
excessive EVOs to report larger ranges of spirituality after
dying reflection, this time compared to mortality
Cozzolino et al. / GREED, DEATH, AND VALUES 287
TABLE 2: Foremost and Interactive Results of Worth Orientation and
Dying Manipulation on Greed
Management a Mortality Salienceb Dying Reflectionc
Values b zero.03 zero.09*** –zero.02
β zero.24 zero.62*** –zero.13
Interplay 1 t = –1.62* t = –2.40*** t = 2.40***
Interplay 2 t = 1.21 t = –1.21 t = 1.62*
Change in R2 zero.07*** zero.07*** zero.07***
a. Coding: Management = zero, zero; dying reflection = 1, zero; mortality salience = zero, 1.
b. Coding: Mortality salience = zero, zero; dying reflection = 1, zero; management = zero, 1.
c. Coding: Dying reflection = zero, zero; mortality salience = 1, zero; management = zero, 1.
*p = .10. ***p < .05.
Mortality Salience Dying Reflection
Imply # of Tickets
Determine 5 Imply variety of tickets taken as a operate of worth orientation and the variable evaluating dying reflection to mortality salience (excessive EVO = +1 SD, low EVO = –1 SD).
salience, β = .37 (b = 2.09), p = .09. Though this impact
was not important on the omnibus degree (p = .16), the replication of a rise as a operate of dying reflection
Following Research 1 and a pair of, we got down to evaluate
dying reflection with methods employed by terror
administration researchers. We predicted that mortality
salience would drive extremely extrinsic individuals to take
extra tickets than management individuals, a speculation confirmed in Research Three. We additionally anticipated extrinsically oriented individuals who confronted dying reflection, impressed
by near-death experiences and posttraumatic progress, to
behave extra like intrinsically oriented college students, which is
what occurred. We additionally noticed some proof of what
could possibly be driving this habits within the type of content material
analyses (Research 1 and three) and responses to the spirituality query. Based mostly on these outcomes, it seems that our
dying reflection manipulation can reliably induce
intrinsic habits and values in individuals who would
in any other case reveal grasping habits and endorse extrinsic
values. For the third time, nevertheless, we noticed a slight
improve in tickets taken by low EVOs after dying reflection. Though none of those will increase was important,
the replication of the pattern implies the potential for an
impact hidden by lack of energy. Hypothesis about this
nonsignificant pattern is offered beneath.
Earlier analysis has solidified the hyperlinks between
consumption habits, worth orientation, and issues
of dying. Amongst our objectives within the present research was to
illustrate how these established constructs proceed to
predict a person’s willingness to take greater than his
or her justifiable share. In Research 1, excessive EVOs did take considerably extra raffle tickets than did low EVOs. Research Three
provides to the phobia administration literature by refining the
results of mortality salience on greed (e.g., Kasser &
Sheldon, 2000). In our pattern, solely excessive EVOs had been
affected by mortality salience, a end result that, though
novel, flows straight from terror administration principle’s
proof of worldview protection.
Other than testing established constructs, nevertheless,
we set out largely to look at whether or not people might
face their mortality within the laboratory and be moved in
a optimistic quite than unfavourable or defensive path.
Guided by studies from near-death expertise and posttraumatic progress researchers, we created a manipulation that encompassed key options of those experiences:
an precise dying, an opportunity to mirror on life, and a chance to take the attitude of others. In Research 1, we
discovered that prime EVOs had been affected by dying reflection
and, in response, behaved in a extra intrinsic method.
We additionally noticed a rise in reported spirituality as a operate of our manipulation in addition to some suggestive content material within the solutions to our open-ended questions. In
Research 2, we once more noticed that extremely extrinsic individuals’
habits was considerably contingent on context, not less than
because it pertains to mortality consciousness. After dying reflection, excessive EVOs took considerably fewer tickets than they
did after studying the situation and answering unrelated
questions, not impressed by mortality consciousness. Research 2
additionally replicated the rise in reported spirituality
amongst excessive EVOs after going through dying reflection. Lastly,
Research Three offered proof that prime EVOs responded
fairly otherwise when experiencing dying reflection
in comparison with mortality salience, mirroring the habits
of low EVOs.
The revealing content material evaluation of the ideas and
feelings of individuals in our manipulation in contrast
to mortality salience seen in Research Three additionally appears to counsel
a hyperlink between dying reflection, near-death experiences,
and PTG. Our remaining examine additionally offered additional proof
of the potential position of spirituality in mitigating greed.
Though not important in Research Three, the rise in
reported spirituality witnessed in excessive EVOs after dying
reflection corresponds with the numerous will increase
noticed in our earlier research. In sum, it seems that
whereas mortality salience results in worldview protection
(excessive EVOs taking extra), dying reflection results in
worldview capitulation (excessive EVOs behaving like low
EVOs). As with NDErs and posttrauma people, it
appears that going through and reflecting on life and dying through
288 PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
Mortality Salience Dying Reflection
Imply Spirituality Degree
Determine 6 Imply degree of spirituality as a operate of worth orientation
and the variable evaluating dying reflection to mortality salience (excessive EVO = +1 SD, low EVO = –1 SD).
dying reflection generates (not less than momentarily) intrinsic ideas, emotions, and habits.
From a pure significance-testing standpoint, low
EVOs exhibited constant habits on our measure of
greed, regardless of our manipulations. Though the statistical proof factors to no modifications in low EVOs, the slight
improve in greed witnessed throughout all three research after
dying reflection does deserve point out. One potential
clarification for the slight improve stems from our earlier inference that dying reflection results in worldview
capitulation amongst excessive EVOs. Maybe the processes
activated in dying reflection work each methods: Excessive EVOs
will resign their worldview turning into extra intrinsic,
whereas low EVOs will not defend their worldview
and, in flip, will behave extra extrinsically. This suggestion that intrinsic worldviews are as doubtlessly open to
change as extrinsic worldviews actually appears worthy
of additional examine; nevertheless, little work that we might discover
exists within the worth orientation literature to assist this
speculation. Sometimes, theorists (e.g., Maslow, 1954;
Rogers, 1963) conceive of intrinsic values as extra ingrained in human nature and fewer more likely to fluctuate.
You will need to acknowledge that our measure of greed
within the type of raffle tickets prevents us from generalizing
to all types of avarice. Nevertheless, in advancing from earlier research which have relied on imaginary or paper-andpencil sort measures to evaluate consumption (e.g., Kasser
& Sheldon, 2000), we imagine our raffle ticket activity represented a concrete, behavioral appraisal of greed.
One other limitation of this examine concerned our situation
manipulation. By using just one state of affairs (a constructing fireplace), we lose the flexibility to generalize the consequences of
dying reflection throughout different dying eventualities.
I understand now that our time right here is comparatively brief and it
makes me need to reside my life to the fullest. It looks as if
such a waste of treasured time to turn into caught up in
materialistic modes of pondering.
I suppose crucial issues it has taught me are to
recognize what life can maintain for you and to be grateful
for the loving relationships in your life. It’s taken me a
very long time to comprehend this.
I questioned if I had completed all that I might to make my life
significant. I considered expressing to my household that I
liked them. I questioned if there have been folks whose emotions I’ve harm and I used to be sorry for that.
The quotations introduced above are responses from
people who at one time in life got here nose to nose with
their very own mortality. Past that connection, there are
some themes in what these folks say that additionally appear to
join every of them: most notably, a way of realization or studying of some necessary fact, in addition to a
meta-awareness of the life they'd been residing.
There may be explanatory priority within the literature to
assist us additional perceive these constant, optimistic
progress themes seen in folks after mortality consciousness,
extra particularly, the existential perspective superior
by Yalom (1980) that makes an attempt to distill ideas initially put forth by Heidegger (1962). From this attitude, people take considered one of two routes to present within the
world: one by which they're forgetful of being and one
by which they're aware of being. According to
Becker (1973), individuals who take the primary route “reside in a
world of issues” and give up “to the on a regular basis world”
(Yalom, 1980, pp. 30-31). Conversely, people who find themselves
aware of being are extra apt to turn into intimately
conscious of their very own existence and really feel liable for—
and able to—altering their lives. It's these individuals
who embrace their potential and turn into conscious of their
capacity to transcend their limits (Yalom, 1980). Consciousness and acceptance of dying, Yalom states, is the important thing to
present on this transcendent state. Wanting again on the
quotations above, we see that individuals can method this
optimistic state in a wide range of methods, from the extraordinary
to the mundane. In actual fact, the primary citation comes from a
man who had a near-death expertise on account of a
rafting accident (Ring & Elsaesser Valarino, 1998), the
second assertion comes from a lady residing with a
painful persistent illness (Tennen & Affleck, 1998), and
the third quote comes from a analysis participant in
Research Three in response to our dying reflection manipulation. What the near-death expertise, PTG, and dying
reflection maybe present is a sampling of the instruments
required for folks to handle their transcendence over
existential terror, permitting them to embrace their existence (and inevitable nonexistence) and enabling
intrinsic wants and values to floor.
Ernest Becker (1973) as soon as posited that “there's merely no strategy to transcend the bounds of the human situation” (p. 277). There may be little doubt that fears, issues,
and denials of dying are largely liable for the deleterious behaviors witnessed in laboratories using
terror administration methods. Becker and terror administration theorists (e.g., Greenberg et al., 1986) have
soundly addressed how issues of dying and their related defensive responses are a part of the human situation. Clearly, it could be too sturdy an inference to
counsel that the recurring themes evident within the above
quotations alone characterize an precise transcendence of
“the human situation,” as said by Becker. It's our
assertion, nevertheless, that beneath sure situations, mortality consciousness has the potential to generate reactions
(each affective and behavioral) that start to problem
Cozzolino et al. / GREED, DEATH, AND VALUES 289
Think about that you're visiting a pal who lives on the 20th
flooring of an outdated, downtown condominium constructing. It’s the center
of the night time when you find yourself all of the sudden woke up from a deep
sleep by the sound of screams and the choking odor of smoke.
You attain over to the nightstand and activate the sunshine. You might be
shocked to seek out the room filling quick with thick clouds of smoke.
You run to the door and attain for the deal with. You pull again in
ache as the extraordinary warmth of the knob scalds you violently. Grabbing a blanket up and about and utilizing it as safety, you handle to show the deal with and open the door. Nearly instantly,
an enormous wave of flame and smoke roars into the room, knocking
you again and actually off your toes. There is no such thing as a strategy to depart the
room. It's getting very onerous to breathe and the warmth from the
flames is nearly insufferable. Panicked, you scramble to the
solely window within the room and attempt to open it. As you battle, you
understand the outdated window is nearly painted shut round all of the
edges. It doesn’t budge. Your eyes are barely open now, stuffed
with tears from the smoke. You strive calling out for assist however the
air to type the phrases isn't there. You drop to the ground hoping
to flee the rising smoke, however it's too late. The room is stuffed
high to backside with thick fumes and almost completely in flames.
Together with your coronary heart pounding, it all of the sudden hits you, as time appears
to face nonetheless, that you're actually moments away from dying.
The inevitable unknown that was all the time ready for you has lastly arrived. Out of breath and weak, you shut your eyes and
anticipate the tip.
Consideration analysis individuals! To thanks for collaborating on this considerably private analysis undertaking, we've got determined to enter every of you in a raffle! The profitable participant
will obtain the $100 present certificates to the varsity bookstore pictured beneath. It may be used towards any buy on the retailer
(books, pc software program and hardware, clothes, and so forth.). To
keep away from moral issues of probably bribing individuals, nevertheless, we the researchers (or our assistants) can not play ANY
position within the distribution of the raffle tickets, particularly since we
can be choosing the winner. Based mostly on previous raffles like this, nevertheless, we've got determined to allow you to—the individuals—distribute
the tickets amongst yourselves over time. Within the high right-hand
nook of this web page is a “group quantity.” Beneath are the directions that pertain to every group.
In case you are in GROUP 1, you might be clearly within the first group!
Connected to the again of this web page is an envelope full of raffle tickets. Take what you contemplate to be a good quantity of tickets
for your self and depart the rest within the envelope for future
teams. Every ticket is a possible winner! Be sure you reattach the envelope to the packet!
In case you are in GROUPS 2 or larger, open the envelope
connected to this web page and depend the variety of raffle tickets
that stay.* Just like the teams earlier than you, you might be free to take
as many tickets as you’d like, leaving people who you don’t take
for future teams. Keep in mind, every ticket is a possible winner! Please reattach the envelope to the packet when you find yourself
Better of luck! Remember to preserve your ticket(s) since we can be
choosing the winner from these tickets that had been distributed
over the course of the semester. Any considered one of them could possibly be the
*If there are not any tickets within the envelope: Since we're not monitoring the distribution of tickets, you might want to inform a analysis assistant that the envelope is empty. You'll obtain one ticket to
keep an opportunity of profitable the prize.
1. Dechesne et al. (2003) steered that greed could also be extra
“chronically accessible” to males than to girls, accounting for the gender variations of their examine. We used gender as a predominant impact and
interplay variable in all analyses reported on this article. Throughout all
research and dependent measures, gender was not important as a predominant
impact or as an interplay variable. Nevertheless, in some instances, the analyses
had been contemplating as few as one or two in a selected cell (pondering in an
ANOVA framework). To additional take a look at the potential results of gender, we
eliminated the info for males and analyzed solely the info offered by
girls. In each case, we achieved the identical outcomes as when the boys
had been included. It seems there have been no gender results in our information units;
nevertheless, attributable to our lack of energy and the Dechesne et al. discovering, it
does appear gender variations in greed as a operate of mortality
consciousness ought to be studied additional.
2. Knowledge had been collected from 62 individuals; nevertheless, 14 of these
college students didn't take any raffle tickets. The quilt story was designed to
set one raffle ticket as a restrict for every pupil. There was some concern
amongst our analysis assistants that individuals who didn't perceive the quilt story had been among the many college students who didn't take tickets.
With this uncertainty, we determined it could be greatest to drop the topics
from the analyses. As a statistical precaution, we performed a binary
logistic regression to verify that the zero ticket end result was not systematically associated to our unbiased variables. We discovered no proof
that worth orientation, dying reflection, or their interplay might
account for taking both zero tickets or not less than one ticket, all ps > .50.
With this info and the uncertainty of the quilt story’s effectiveness, we centered our analyses on the 48 individuals who took not less than
one ticket. We achieved the identical outcomes once we included the 14
“zero ticket” individuals within the analyses; nevertheless, we felt most assured addressing the info with individuals who took not less than one
Three. In a examine of egoism and altruism, Batson et al. (1999) efficiently included raffle tickets as their dependent measure in a examine
of scarce useful resource allocation. Raffle tickets had been additionally in a examine trying to evaluate ranges of ethical hypocrisy (Batson, Thompson, Seuferling,
Whitney, & Strongman, 1999).
four. Knowledge had been collected from 71 individuals; nevertheless, 15 of these
college students didn't take any raffle tickets. As in Research 1, we performed a
binary logistic regression to verify that the zero ticket end result was not
systematically associated to our unbiased variables. We discovered no proof that worth orientation, query sort, or their interplay might
account for taking both zero tickets or not less than one ticket, all ps > .25,
so we centered our analyses on the 56 individuals who did take not less than one
ticket. We achieved the identical outcomes as once we included the 15 “zero
ticket” individuals within the analyses; nevertheless, as in Research 1, we felt most
assured addressing the info from individuals who took not less than one
5. Knowledge had been collected from 108 individuals; nevertheless, 18 of these
college students didn't take any raffle tickets. As within the first two research, a
290 PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
binary logistic regression confirmed the zero ticket end result was not systematically associated to our unbiased variables, all ps > .40. With this
info and the identical issues concerning the cowl story’s effectiveness, we centered our analyses on the 90 individuals who took not less than one
ticket. As within the first two research, we achieved the identical outcomes once we
included the 18 “zero ticket” individuals within the analyses.
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Obtained Could 15, 2003
Revision accepted October 6, 2003
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