DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BUREAU OF EDUCATION
BULLETIN, 1918, No. 35
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
A REPORT OF THE COMNffSSION ON THE REORGANIZATION OF SECOND- ARY EDUCATION, APPOINTED BY THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION
V/AIHINCTON GOVERNMENT ORIPMNG OFFICE
ADTOTIpNAI. COPIES OF TIM ITIMICATION MAY BE PROCUISED YEDM
TUE SUPERINTENDENT OP DOCUMENT; GOVERNMENT PRINTINU tom:
WASUINOTON, D. C.
6 CENTS PER COPY
Preface I 5 Membership of the reviewing committee of the commission 6
I. The need for reorganization 7 II.. The goal of education in a democracy 1r
Ill. The main objectives of education it IV. The rOle, of secondary education in achieving these okiel.lives .. 11
1. Health It 2. Command of fundamental proesee- 11 3. Wort h y .hom e-m em bersh ip 4. Vocal ion 5. Civic education I 6. Worthy use of leisure iq 7. Ethical character Or
V. Interrelation of the objectives in secondary education 16 VI. Recognition of the objectives in reorganizing high-school subjects__ 16
VII. Education as a process tb 16 VI. Need for explicit vain
i.r 17I. . Subordination of deferred UV 17 X. Division of education into elementary and secondary , 17
XI. Division of secondary education into junior and senior periods… 13 XII. Articulation of secondary education’ with elementary education 11
XIII. Articulation of higher education with secondary education 19 XIV. Recognition of the objectives in planning curriculums 20 XV. The specializing and unifying functions of secondary education 21.
XVI. The comprehensive high school as thestandard secondary.hool… 24 ,- XVII. Recognition of the objectives in -irgan. ing the school ). 27
coXVIII. Secondary education essential for all y th. 29 . XIX. Part-time achOoling as a compulsory mi imuth requirement XX. Conclusion…, – –
REPORTS OF THE COMMISSION ON THE REORGANIZATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
Tho following rillerts of the totem’s:4(m hove been issued buljetins of the riiited Slams of FAInentim and may he procured from the Sunerin- tethhmt of 1y,rununts. (7overnment Ptrinting Office, 11’ashington, 1). C.. at the prIees stnivil. Remittance, shout(‘ Tiei made in coin or money imier, other reports of die commission are In luopuratitm. 1913. No. .11. The. Reorganization of Secondary Education. Contains prellitii.
nary statementsby the chairmen of committees. 10 cents. 11)15. No.23. The Teaching of Community Civics2. 10.cents. 10111, No. 28. The Social Studies in Secondary raltication. 1ft.ctuits. 1017, No. 2…lteorganization orEnglish In Secondary Schools!. :20 conk.. 1017, No. 40. Music in Secontlarj- Schools. 5 cents. 1917, No. no. Physical EducatiOn In Secondary Schools. 5 cents. 1917. No. 51. Idoral Vidoes in Secondary Education. 5 cents, 1918, No.19. l’o(ational Guidance to Secondary Schools. 5 cents. 1918, No. 31. earilliial Principles of Secondary ninon don. 5 emits.
The Commission on the Reorganiution of Secondary Education presents herewith the cardinal prilicii les which, in the judgment of its reviewing committee, shotild guide the reorganization and devel- opment of secondary education in the United States. .
The commission was the direct outgrowth of the work of the com- mittee on the articulation of high school and college, which submit- fed its report to the National Education Association in 1911. That committee set forth briefly its conception of the field and function of secondary education and urged the Modification of college entrance requirements in order that the secondary school might adapt its work to the varying needs of its pupils without dosing to them the possi- bility of continued education in higher institutions. It took the position that the satisfactory completion of any well-planned high- school curriculuM should, be accepted as a preparation for college.. This recommendation accentuated the responsibility of the secondary school for planning its work so that young people may meet the needs of democracy.
Through. 16 of Its committees -the commission’ is issuin epOrts dealing with the organization and. administration of se ndary schools, and with the aims, methods, and content of the various studies. To assist these committees through constructive criticism, a reviewing committee wes organizCa in 1913. Besides conduZting…._ continuous correspondence, that committee has each year held one or two meetings of from one to six days’ duration, at which reports of the various committees were discussed from many points of view; and as a result some of the reports haN’e been revised and’rewritten sev- eral times. In addition to its task of criticizing reports, it seemed desirablethet the reviewing committee itself should outline in a sin- glelvief report those fundamental principles that would be most , helpful in directing secondary education. kits desire todetermine ‘- the principleslhat are most significant and to set them forth ade
1 quately,.the reviewing-committee has been. three years in formulating and.revising thereport which. is presented in fig/bulletin.
The reports already issued by ee’Ven committees and:listed on .the fast page of this bulletin are, for the most Pert, in fundamental agree- ment witl the princiPles’herein set forth. ,
s .of these cardinal principles intodaily Practice will of .necessi call foricontinned study and experinient on the past of
;the administrative officers and hatchets in secondary schoo014. .-,. .. OCAIRENCE D. VIXOSLET; ….
Chairman of ,the Coming:aim,t
THE REVIEWING COMMITTEE OF. THE COMMISSION ON T. REORGANIZATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
(The Ite(lowing Committee comIxta of 26 metiato.N. of whom It; are chairmen of Corn- nlitteo amt 10 are members 11( large.)
Pitairnottt Of flu Comonis!timt um/ (./ fhr L’t tiictt’hig ettamt ill« Clarence D. Kitersley.State soof.rvisor. mas.,.
Metittrcoi at /arty!: tfmt. p, I’. Cluxhio, SI;k4..s Comittissiolltir of Eiltalttioli. Washing-
101), T1. C.- Thomas 11. Briggs, misocittlti prefelsor of odn nliou. eneker, College.
Columbia University, NOV York City. Alexander Inglis, assistant professor of oillicat join. it, cli.o.In. s(woliiiary
oduvnib it, IitVard University, Cambridge. Mass. Ifenry Neumann, Ethical Cult nro School, New .York William Orr, senior educational secretary, totem:atonal V: NI. C. A. ho-
mitten, 104 East ‘Pwenty-eighth Street, New York City. William B. Owen, principal Chicago Normal ‘College. Chicago, Ill. Edward O. Sisson, president Univergity of Montana, Missoula. Mont.. Joseph S. Stewart, professor .of secondary education, University of Georgia,.
Athens, G:t. Milo H. Stuart, principal ‘reelinleal. High School. Intliatnapolk, lint H. L. Terry, State high-school supervisorSlitalison. Wis.
rhoimep of Committees: . Organization and Administration of Secondary Ednention—4’,IntrVt Hughes
4ohnston, professor of. secondary education, University of Illinois. Urbana, f1.1.1
AgricultureA. V. Storm, professor of agricultural education., University of Minnesota. St. Paul, Minn.-
Itt EducationHenry Turner Ifitiley. tienti! Cleveland Schbol of Art, Cleveland. Ohfo.
j .Articultitibn of High School and CollegeC tromp ‘D. Kingsley. State high- school inspector, Boston, SIM:tit.
Hominess Education–Clwesman A. ‘Herrick. pe Atkin, Girard Collego, I’u.
Classical Lttriguages–Walter Eugene loofter. Stityvesatti High School, Nov York City.
English Julies Fleming- liosie, Chi,ago Noatail College, Chicago, Ill. ifonsbitold Arttl–firs: Henrietta Calvin, United States Burma of 14ditcat.
Hon. Washington. I). C. Industrial- ArtsWilson Ii. Ileadersoo, extension division, University of
Visconsin, Milwaukee, Wis. (now Major. Sanitary’ Corps, War Depart- thent, U. S. A.)
NIatbematies–Willittm Hard Kilpatrick, associate pc:ore:saw of education. Teachers College, Columbia: University, New York City.
Mt ern. LangnageS–FAlward Manley. Englewood Hhjli Selwol,. M F,arhart, director of mimic, Pittsburgh, Pa. P ‘steal Education –.–,Tatues H. ‘McCurdy, director of minim’ coursed of
hysleal education, International Y. M. C. A. Collage, Springfield, Mass. now in France, in charge of Y. M. (1,’A. recreation work).
lencesOtigVir. Caldwell, direetor, Lincoln School,- crud profess-or of edu- cation, Teachers College, Columbia University, Nbw York City.’
Social StudiesThomas Jesse Jones, United States Bureau of Bdcation, Washington, D. 0.
Vocntiolial GuidanceFrank M. Leavitt, associate superintendent of sehdols,…. Pittsburgh, Pa. . .
6 ” Deceased, fis-)t. 4, 1917.
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
I. THE NEED FOR REORGANIZATION.
Secondary education should be determined by the needs of the so- ciety to be served, the character of the individuals to be educated, and Ow knowledge of educational theory and practice available. These factors arc by no means static. Society is always in process of development; the character of the secondary school population undergoes modification; and the sciences on which educational theory and practice depend constantly furnish new information. Secondary education, however, like any other egtablished agency of society, is conservative and tends to resist modification. Failure to make ad- justments when the need arises leads to thesm:cessity\ tor extensive. reorganization at irregular ihtervals. The evidence, strong. that such a comprehensive reorganization of secondary .education is im- perative at the present time. . ,
1: Changes in society.Within the past few decades changes haVe taken place in American life profoundly affecting the activities of the individual.. As a citizen, he must to a greater extent and in a more direct way cope with problems of comrhunity life, State and National Governments, and international relationships. As a worker, he must adjust himself to a more complex economic order. Ag W relatively
independent personality, he his more leisure. The problems arising from these tluve.dcaninant phases of life are closely interrelated and call for a degree o? intelligence and efficiency on the part of very’ citizen that can not be secured through elementary educatioi e, or even thrtiiigh,SpcbUdary education unleSs the scope of that edu- -Cation is broadened.
‘The responsibility of the secondary school is still further increased heatuleMany social, ageneies other than the school afford -less stim–; olds. for education than heretofore. In many vocations there. have conic such significant, changes as the substitution of the factory sys. tem for, the domeStie, system of industry; the use of mOchinery in place of ‘manual hibor; the ,high specialization of prpcesses with corresponding .subdivision of Labor; and the bre4kdown of the tip- prentice system. In .connection with home,and family life have ft.e- Onently eoma.lessened irespaMgibility.on the part of the children ;’ the withdrawel of the -father ap4,sometimes the Mother from home oe- evades, to lie foOtory or stire- ineteneed’ urbanization resultr
8 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY’ EDUCATION.
ing in less unified’ family life. Sim fly.– ninny- important changes have taken place in community life. in the 4hurh. in the State, and in other nstitut.inus. changes lr American life cal for ex- teniive modiliations in – 4,rn,l: NIIIC:114/1.
2. Ch10:tc., ir, 111, NJ Imflarg-xellool pqmleili(m.-1N the past 5 years there 11:1\4; iiarkpd ianges in the seconday-school pp- ulation of the.I’Mr-41 Stales. The Animh -4- of pupils has increased. acconling to Vederi plums. groin one. for every 210 of the total ipulat l’“9 90, 01 IOW for every:L2r In 1S99-000. toone for every s49 in 1909.1o. and to one for every 73 of the estimated total npulation in l1-1 f5. The character of the eondary-school pop-
ulation has horn hr t he’ent ranee of Inge nubets of pipits defy varying eaparities, aptitudes. serial heredity. and Ilit;tinie:4
in life. Further. the hroadeniag of the scope of secondary education 1s bronght to the school 111011y 1111111IS %Vila (10 not r011plete the full’
airie hot lea V4′ V:Iriow- stages of ad -The needs of these pnhih eau Jlegivoed. nor 4-an we expect in the near Nome that all fj,npiltiaeill 14.. able to complete tlir seeandnry ‘,boo) as full- limr students.
At present only about one-third of the pupils who enter the first year of the elementary school reach the four-year high school.. and only about one in nine. is graduated. Of those who enter rho seventh
..seltool year, only one-half to ovo-thirds reach the first year of the fon -year big]) school.: Of those Who enter the four-year high school about one – third leave before the beginning of the second vein; ahoul one-half are gone beforestlie -beginning of the third year, ‘and fare,- than mu-41MA are graduated. .These. farts can no longer. ire t4a.f0y ignored.
3. Chermfr.s h cdui ttlional ihtorp.The seieWees (a Which educa- tional theory’ depends have. within revolt yea& made .significant contributions. In part ienlar, educational psyhology NIDIAIOSIYAV Ilcle
. following factors: (a). ha/Seidl/41 (Nit-re-4m, in eapaeitie” am, aptitudefillbutong: “cc-
ondarff-behAl pupils”. Already recognkd to _some trttent, this factor merits fuller attention.. .
(b) The i.ee.wornination and reinterpretution of 8ubjeet -Pattie” ow/ .the ‘cocking .metho4. with reference to-“gcneral disCiplibe.”-Ljarbile the final verdict of modern psychology has not as yet. been rendered, it is clear that former conceptions of !” general. values” must lr thor- oughly revised.
.(c) importance of applying g.noieleilyes–Subjeet values and teaching methods must be tested in terms of the laws Of leAriting and the application of knowledge to the activities of life, ‘rather than primarily in terms of the’demanda of any sabept ganized.scienee. t;j
NCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
(d) Continuity in the .dieelopment of ehihlren.—It has long, been held that psAhologicpt clupiges ;t certain stages pre so pronounced as to overshadow the cokinuity of development. On this “basis, secondary education has been sharply separated f rom’Oementary cdu- Cation: Modern psychology, however, goes to show that the develop- ment of tie; indiVidual is in most’ respects a continuous process and that, therefore, any sudden or abrupt break )leiTTJv n the iTementary anti the secondary school or between any two successive stages of education is undesirable.
The fOregoingi,-. change in society, in theharacter of the secondory- school population, and in educational theory, together Fill( many other considerations, foefextensive Modifications of secondary education. Such modifications have already begun in part. The present need is for the formulation. of a comprehensive program of ‘reorganization, and its adoption, with suitable adjaStments, in all the secondary schools of the Nation. Hence it is. appropriate for a representative body like the National Education Aisociation to out- line such a program. This is the task .entrusted by that association to the. Commission on the Reorganizat ion_ of Secondary Education.
II. THE GOAL OF EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRACY.
. Education in the United States should be guided by a,clear con- ception of the meaning of democracy. It is the. ideal ‘of democracy that the individual and society may find fulfillment each in the other. Democmcy sanctions neither the exploitation of the individ-
. nal by society, nor the disregard. of the interestsof society by “trio individual. Afore explicitly
The purpose of . democracy is so .to organine_society that each member May develop his personality primarily through activities designed for the well-being of his fellow membersodnf soonetyas a whole.
This ideal demands that human activities-he placed, upon a high level of efficiency ; ;that to this efficiency be added an UppretiatiO the significance of these activities- and loyaltyto the best idealsal
ovolved; and that the individual choose that vocation and t fo of social service in which his personality may develop b, most effective. for the achievement of these drills. place chief reliance tipowedncation. .j”.
Consequently,’ educ$tiOi in asdemocracy, school, should develop in each individualthe_ habits, and powers where* he will find shape both himself and society toward ev
. III. THE MAIN OWE
In order to elefcrinine the ma tion in a democracy it is n individual. Normally he is a
out eats, ide
that pla -;,!-
: shoe guide ‘ed 4’117 the ails ‘ties of the
family, of a vocational
10 oARDINAL PunlorPLES OP en00itoss 4 t. group, and of vakions civic’ groups, and by virtue of theo, -relation – ships ke is called upon to engage in activities that enrich the family life, to render important vocational services to his fellows, and to, promote the commotiwelfare. It follows, therefore, that worthy
jhotue- memhership, vocatiot, and citizenship, demand attention as three of the leading objectives.
Aside front the immediate diwItarge of these specific duties, every individual should have .a margin of time for the cultivation of per-
Isonal and social interests.. Thii leisure, if woKthily used. will re- create his powt,rs and enlarge and enrich, life, thereby making idly better able to-meet his responsibilities. The unworthy use of leisure impairs, health, disrupts home life, lessens vocational efficiency, and destroys civic-mindedness. The tendency in industrial_life, aided by legislation, is to decrease the working hourt; of large groups of peo- ple. While shortened hours tend to lessen the harmful- reactions that arise from prolonged strain, they increase, if posible. the importance
of preparation for leisure. In view of these considerations, educe- lion for the worthy use of leisure is of increasing importance as an objective.
To discharge the dittio; of life and to benefit ‘front leisure, one lutist have good-health. The health of individual is essential also to the vitality of the race and to the defense of the.Nation. Health education is,4thercfore, fundamental.
There are various proeesses, such as rending, writing, arithmetical computations, and oriil and written expression, that aro needed as toots ill the :lairs of life. Consequently, command of these funda- mental prorerik.while not an end in itself, is nevertheless an iudis- vensable objective. s- ,–
-And, finally, the realization of the objectives already namedle*- ndeut, upon ethical character, that 6, upon conduct founded upon
t principles, clearly perceived- and loyally adhered to .(149.0 -.hip, vocational excellence, and the worthy two of lei .,go
d wijh ethical character; they are at on r0 the fruits of e and the channels through which such Character is
elo a de manifest. On the onekband, character is mean- Jess the discharge the .duties of life, and; on
otber no guarantee that these duties will be rightly itiey es are substituted for ilnpUlee0, however
1- intention may be. Conaequenty ethical char- iteter is in once he other Objectives and at the sane time reqtfffes spec in any program of national edu: cation.
This commission,Ah the following as the main ob- jectives of edtication: 1. mmand of fundameutkproc-
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 11.
esses. 3. ‘Worth home-memberslip. 4. Vocation. 5. Citizenship. 6. Wocky use eisure. 7. Ethical character.-
The naming of above objectives is not intended to imply that the process’of education -ean be divided into separated fields. This can not be, since the pupil is indivisible. Nor is the analysis all – inejusive. Nevertheless, we believe that distinguishing and naming these objectives will aid in directing efforts; and we hold that they should constitute the principal alias in education.
IV. THE ROLE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ACHIEVING THE4 OBJECTIVES.
The objectives Outlined above apply to education as a wholeele- mentary, secondary, and higher. It is the purpose of this section to .consider specifically the role of secondary education in achieving each of these dbjeetives. .
For reasons stated in Section X, this commission favors such reor- ganization that secondary education may be defined awplying to .1 all pupils of approximately 12 to 18 years of age.
I. Ilcalth.Ilealth needs can not be neglected during the period elf secondary.eductit ion without serious danger to the individual and the race. The secondary school should therefore provide health in- struction, inculcate health habits, organize an effective program of ph,”Sical activities, regard health needs in planning work and play, and cooperate with home and community in safe guarding and pro- moting health interests.
To carry out such a program it is necessary to arouse the p lie to. recognize that. the health needs of young-people are of vita im- et
portance to society, to secure teachers competent ‘to ascertain. and meet the needs of indiyidusiopupils and.able to. inculcate in the entire student body a love for clean, sport, to furnish adequate equipment. for physical activities, and to make the school building, its rooms and surroundings, conform to the best standards of hygiene. and sani- tation .t
. 2. Command of fundamental proceeso.. Much of the energy of the ‘ elementary school is properly devoted to teaching certain fundarnen tal processes, such as reading, writing, arithmetical computations, and the elements of oral and written expresSion. The facility that a
chill of 12 or 14 may acquire in the use of these toolS is not sufficient for. the need of modern life. .This is particularly..trueof the mother,: tongue: Proficiency in many of these processes may be inereasetV. more effectively by their application to new material fir .formal ,reviews commonly employed in trades seven Mid’.formal
i For the outlive! of a 10imaitik 4. i riiiiot of tIdt comilodlia hisolt: Durcau of Education na 101; Zio p. 171spifil MiluesitaS. 0
&VIALi::, ,,’-‘ ,
12 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
Throughout the secondary school, instruction aid practice must go hand in hand, but as indicated in the report of the committee on English.’ only 4o imal theory should he taught at any one time as will show results in prctice.
3. 11- ‘Illy home- Boo mbe AIM p.-11″ milky Rowe- membership as an objective calls for the development of those qualities that nut ke the in-
. dividnal tcworthv ntember of a family. both eontrilmting.to and de- riving I wiles! froth tha mt mebership.
obiertiv a1>plie,2to both boys and girls. The -social studies should steal with the home as a fundamental-;-iciid institution :oar.’ clarify its relation to the Nvider interests-outside. Literattue should . interpret and idealize the human eletilents that go to stake’ the loam% Music and. art should result in more healthful homes and in greater joy therein. The coolucational school. with a fardity of men and women should, in its organization 811(1 its ities, exemplify whole- :40111e VVIii i4)115 bet wren boys and girls and ‘men and %voltam.
Home membership as an objective should not be thought of solely . with reference to future duties. These :ie the better Ignarinitled if
the school helps the pnpils to take ‘lue right attitude toward present home lesponsihilities and interprets to thenolle contribution of the home to their development.
In the education of every nigh-school girl. the hmisehold arts . should have a prominent plane because ortgeir importance to the
girl herself and to others whose welfare will be directly in her keep-. The attention now devoted to this. phase of .14’11(116m iti-
ndequate. and espreially so for girls preparing for occupations not related It, the. household arts %Id for girls planning for higher rind tutions. The majority of girls who enter wage-earning occupations
;directly from the high school remain in them for only a few years. -after which home making, becomes their lifelong occupation. For them the high,Sehool period offers the only assured opportunity to prepare for that lifelong occupation.. and it is,duing this period thnt they are most likely to form their Ideals-of life’s duties and. re- sponsibilities. For girls planning to enter higher institutions— our traditional iambi of preparation for hiaber LustItittions arc purtieularly Ineofigrhous” with the actual needs and fUtare responsibilities. of gltio. It watthrsivin that smell high-school work as is carefully designed to develop capacity Jor, and interest in, the Koper management and coaanct of a borne ‘should be regirde41. as of importance at least equal to that of any other work. We do not andeptund how soelett gun properly continue to snction’ for glens 1111.4160.11 curriculums that disregard this fundatuental need, even though
Runs are planned la response to the demands comic by some of the wastea.3
U.S. “Was, Pit 114.- ilkoillorfkqjr Si Engthin in necandsry
el die efessitice eeR tOs Asiblisdok Si i41gM. jlnet CoIlege, loll.
6nilDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. ti 13
In the education of boys, some opportunity should be found to give them a basis for the intelligent appreciation of the value of the well-appointed home and of the labor and .kill required to maintain such a home, to the end that they may cooperate more effectively. For instance, they should understand the essentials of food values, of sanitation, and of household buts.
4. l’ocation.Vocational education should equip the individual to secure a livelihood for himself and those dependent on him, to serve society well through his vocation, to maintain the right relationships toward his fellow workers and society, and, tal far as possible, to find in that vocation his own best development.
This ideal demands that the pupil explOre his own capacities and aptitudes, and make a survey of the world’s work, to the end that he may select his vocation wisely. Henee, aft_effectiie_nregmai-of vo- cational guidance in the secondary school is essential.}
Vocational education should aim to develop an appreciation of the significance of the vocation to the community. and a clear Con- ception of right relations between the members of the chosen vocation, between different vocational groups, between employer and employee, and between producer and consumer. These aspects of voeational education, heretofore neglected. demand emphatic attention.
a specific vocation deptrids .upon the vocation, the facilities that the school can acquire; and the opportunity that the pupil may have to obtain such training later. To obtain satisfactory results those pro- ficient in that vocatitm should be employed as instructors and the actual conditions of the vocation should be utilized,either within the high school or in cooperation with the home, farm, shop, or office. Much of the pupil’s time will be required to produce such efficiency.
5. Civic- education sbould develop in the individual those qualities whereby he will act well his pahlis a member of neighborhood, town or city, State, and Nation, and give him itl;asis for understanding in– ternational problems, –
For such citizenship the folloWinF. are essential: A many-sided: interest in the welfare of the communipes to which one belong4 loyalty to ideals of civ ic righteousness; practical howledge of social agencies and institutions; good judgment as to means and methods that will promote one social cad without defeating others; and as . putting all .these ipto effect, habits of cordittl cooperation in social undertakings.
. ” The school Should develop *ttetipecpt that the ciVic duties of men
and ‘women) while in part id re.also in part- supplernentary.::::. “For a soraprobenplva
timid On B!. w’ of Zhu* or of ordnance wee a report of this ohs
Ilk a Vocational Gullying In
-, , .
14 . CARDINAL PRINCIPLES ON SECONDARY EDUOITION., .
Differentiation in civie activities is to be encouraged, but not to the extent of loss of interest in the common problems with avhich all should cope.
Among the means for developing attitudes and habits important i Ina t enuieracy are the assignment. of pAts and problems to
A .groups of pupils for c92Lative solution and the socilt/iized_recita- lion whereby the class as a whole develops ft sense of collective. responsibility. Both of these devices give training in collective think- ing. Moreover, the demorratie organization and administration of the school itself. as well as the coops tire relations of pupil and teacher, pupil and pupil, and teacher and teacher. are indispefisable.
While all subjects should contribute to good citizenship, the social studiesgeography, history, civics, and econoicsshould have this as their dominant aim. Too frequently. however, does mere in- formation, conventional in value and remote in its bearing,- make up the content. of the social studies. : llistory.should so treat the growth of institutions tliat their present value may be appreciated. Geography should show the interdependence of men while it shows their common dependence on nature. Civics should concern itself he with constitutional questions and remote governmental functions,
– and should direct attention to sotial agencies close at hand and to the informal activities of daily life that regard and seek the common good. Such agencies as ‘child-welfare organizations and Consuers’. leagues afford specific opportunities for the expression of civic quali- ties by the older pupils. .
The work in .linglish_should kindle social ideals and give insight kito social conditions and into personal e to these conditions. Ilence the emphasis try ‘the. committee on English on the importance of a knowledge of social activities. social movements, and social needs on the part of the teacher of English.
The comprehension of the ideal: of American democracy and loyalty to them shTild be a prominent aiti of civic education. The pupil should feel that he will be msponsible, in cooperation with others. for keeping the Nation trim to the best inherited conceptions of demovracy, and he should also realiz,!: that democracy itself is an ideal to be wrought. out by b s.is own and succeeding generation
J Civic eilimation7.sheuld consider oths_natiens also. AS a Fle0-..i plc we should try to understand their aspirations and’idenls,that wo Nay deal more sympathetically and intelligently With the immi- grant coining to bur shores, and have it, basis for a wiser and more ‘sympathetic approach to inteenationakproblfts. Our pupils should learn that each nation, at least potentially, has.somethitig of worth to contribute to civilization and that humanity would be incom- plete without that contribution. This means a study of specific nations.- their achievements and tIbisibitities, not igitoring their limi-
. tations.. Such a study of .dissintiltir COlitributiops in the light of the
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY TION. 15
ideal of human brotherhood. should help to establish a ternationa .free from sentimentality, founded on fact, and ac-
– tuallyoleTite in the affairs of nations.’ 6. Worthy use of leisure.Education should equip the individual
to ‘secure from his leisure the re-creation of body, mind, and spirit, and the enrichment and enlargement of his personality.
This objective calls for the ability to utilize the common means of enjoyment, such as music, ant, literature, drama, and social jnter-
`Course, together with the fostering in eaell individual of one or more special avocational interests.
Heretofore the high school has given little conscious attention to this objective. It has so exclusively sought intellectual discipline that it has seldom treated literature, art, iind music so as to evoke right emotional response and produce positive enjoyment. hs pre- sentation of science should aim, in part, to arouse a gennine.appre- ciation of nature.
The school has failed also to organize and direct the social activi- ties of young people as it should. One of the suvest ways in which to prepare pupils worthily to utilize leisure in adult life is by guiding and directing their use of leisure in youth. The school should, there- fore, see that adequate recreation is provided both,,pithin the school and by-other proper agencies in the community. The School, how- ever, has a unique opportunity in this field because it includes in its membership representatives from all classes of society and conse- quently is able -through social relationships- to establish bonds of friendship and common understanding that can not be furnished by other agencies. Moreover, the school can so. organize recreational
.aetivities.that they will contribuite sinnultaneouslY to other ends of ednehtion, as in the case of the -srlool meant or festival. -a,
7. Ethical charactcr.In a democratic society ethical character be- comes paramount among the objectives of the secondary school. Among themeans for developing ethical character may .be men – tioned the wise selection of content and methods of instruction in all subjects of study. the Social contacts of pupils with one another and with their teachers, the opportunities afforded by the organization andadministration. of the school for the. development on the part of . pupils of the sense of personal responsibility and initiative, and, above all, the spirit of service andgte principles of true democracy wflich should permute the entire :school principal, tetichers,:and4,”, pnpils. .
SPeciffc consideration is given to the moral values.to be obtained- from the organization Of the school and the subjects of study in the, report of “.this commission entitled ” Moral Values in SeCondary”
, . 1 For a further dloctutaton of elvic edueatiog, fee theAreports of thin eoliimisefoil on “TIM
Teaching of Community Civics” and “Sethi Studies In Secondary grtueation,” loaned as Burets: of EducaUon Bulletins, 19114 110. is. and 1918, No 28. respectively.
16 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDA,RY EDUCATION.
Educaton.”1 That report considers also the conditions under which it ma} be’ advisable to supplement the other activities of the school 1w offering a distinct course in moral instruction.
V. INTERRELATION OF THE OBJECTIVES IN SECONDARY EDLICA- TION.
This commission holds that education is essentially a unitary .and continuous process, and that each of the objectives defined above must be recogniZed throughout the entire extent of secondary edu- cation. Health needs are evidently important at all stages; the vo- cational purpose and content is coining properly to he recognized as a necessary and valuable ingredient even in tlie early stages and even when specific preparation is postponed; citizenship and the worthy use of leisure, obviously important in the earlier stages, in- volve certain phases of education that require Maturity on the part. of the pupil and hence are indispensable alSo in the later stages of secondary education.
. . Furthermore,it.is only as the pupil sees his vocation in relation
to his citizenship and his citizenship in the light of his vocation that he. will he prepared for effective membership in an industrial democracy. Consequently, this conunission enters its protest against any and all plans, however well’ intended, which are in danger of divorcing vocation and social-civic education. It stands squarely for the infusion of vocation with the spirit of service and for the vitalization of culture by genuine contact with the world’s work.
VI. RECOGNITION Of THE OBJECTIVES IN REORGANIZING HIGH- SCHOOL SUSJECTS.
Each subject now. taught in high schools is in need of extensive reorganization in order that it may contribute more effectively to the1objectives (—Zilieil herein, and. thulace of that subject in secondar education should depend upon the value of such contribution. n- .
ports indicate important steps in such modifications. In each
Section III of this report various references.bave been made-to …/
needed. changes. For fuller treatment the reader is referred to re- ports this commission dealing with the several subjects. These
report the commission attempts to, analyze the aims in terms of the objectives; to indicate the adaptation of methods of presentation to,;’ the aims, accepted ; and to suggpa lection of content on the basis. of aims and methods. .
. i VII. EDUCATION ‘AS A PROCESS OF.GROWTH. .
‘Education must be conceived as a process of growth. Only when so conceived and so conducted can it become a preparation for life.
*Bureau of Educataaa *Ueda. tail, No. M.
17CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
In so far as this principle has been ignor0, formalism and sterility have resulted.
For (wimple. civic education too often has begun with topics re- mote froin the pupiFs experience and interest. React in!, against this formalism, Some would have pupils study only °loge_ activities in which they can engage while young. This extreine. however:is neither necessary nor desirable. .Pupil4honld he led to respond to’ present and, at the same time: their interest should 1w aroused in problems of adult life. With’ this interest as a they should he helped to acquire the ‘habits, insight, and idea IR I hal will enable them to meet the duties aryl responsibilities of later life. ,Similarly in home-making education, to neglect present ditties responsi- bilities toward the family.of which the pupil is-now a member, is to court- moral insincerity and jeopardize future right conduct. With present duties as a point of departurt., home-making education shouht arouse an interest in futule home-making .wtivitiesan with that iiiL terest as a basis give the’training-itecessayy.
VIII. NEED FOlt EXPLICIT VALUES.
The number of years that pupils emit him in school beyond the compulsory’school..age depends’in large measure upon the degree to, which they and their parents realize that school Work is worth while, for them and that they are sueceeding in it. Probably. in most com- munities doubt regarding the valuC of the Nvork offered causes more pupils to leave school than economic necessity.: Consequently, it is. important that the work of each pupil should be so-presented as to convince him and his parents of its real value.
IX. SUBORDINATION 9F DEFERRED VALUES.
Many subjects are now ‘s(-) organized as to be of little value ,unleSs the pupil studies them for several years. ‘Since -a large proportion. of pupils leave school .in each of the successive years,- each subject should he stiorganized that the first year of work will be of definite value to those who go no further: and this principle should be op- plied to the work elf each year. (‘.purses planned in accordance with this, principIe.Will deal with the simpler aspects, or those of more direct application, hi the earlier years and will defer the refinements for later years when these can be better appreciated. The as a whole will then -be-better adapted to the needs both of ttose who continue and of those who dropout of school,
. . X. DIVISION OF EDUCATION INFO ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY:
Individual clltretenees in pupils and the varied needs of society- alike -ditiniiid That edifelifirn be so varied us to touch the leading aspects of occupational, civic, and leisure life. To this end comic-
18 CARDINAL Mini ES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
ultims1 must be organized at appropriate stages and the work of pupils progressively differentiated. …
‘1’d accomplish this differentiation most wisely the pupil should be assisted ordinarily af- about 12 or 13 years of age to begin a preliininary suyvey of the aCtivities of adult life and of his of i
in conneelion therewith, so that lie may choose, at leas /tentatively, some field of human endeavor for special consideration. IFolhOg the period of preliminary survey and provisional choice, he should acquire a more intimate knowledge of the field chosen, in- chiding therewith an appreciation of its social significance. Those whose schooling ends here should attain some mastery of the technique involved. The field chosen will be for some as sharply defined as a specific trade; for others, it will be but the preliminary choice of a wider domain within which a narrower choice will later be made.
These considerations, reenforced by. others; imply, in the judgment of this-commission, a redivision of the period devoted to elementary anti secondary,education. The eight- years heretofore given to ele- mentary education lithe not, as a rule, been effectively utilized. The last two of these years in particular have not:been well adapted to the needs of the adolescent. Many pupils lose interestAnd either drop out Qf school altogether or form habits of dawdling., to the serious injury.of subsequent work. We believe that much of the dim-,. culty will be removed by a new type of sesimilary_ education bi.lgin- Bing at ‘about 12 or 13. Furthermore, the period of four years now allOttsg to Tlligh school is too short a time in which to accom- plish the work.above outlined. . .
14, therefore, recommend a reorganization of the ‘squid system whereby the first six, yearg shall be devotedlo elementary educat4m designed to meetlthc needs of .papPe of approximatek 6 .10.12 years of age’. and time second six y to secondary education designed to meet time needs of pupils of oximately 12 to 18 yearsof aye.
XI. DIVISION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION INTO. JUNIOR AND SENIOR PERIODS..
The six_ years to be devoted to secondary education may well be divided into two periods which may be designated as the junior and senior periods:- Iti.the innicnLpsilr d emphasis should be placed upon the attempt to .help the pupil to explore his own aptitudes and to make at leastprovisional choice of the kinds of work to which he’ will devote himself. In the senior period emphasis should be given to training in the fields, thus chosen. This distinction lies at the basis of the organization of junior and senior high sehools.
2 Tile term – curriculum ” Is noel by this commission to designate a systematic arrange ment of subjects, and courses in those subjects, both required and elective, extending through two or more years and designed for a group of pupils Whose common alms and probable careers may properly differentiate a considerable part of their work from that of other groups In the school.
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF = EOONDARY EDIJO TIO
In the junior high school there should be the gradual introduction of departmental instruction, some choice of subjects under guidance, promotion by subjects, prevocational courses, and a social organiza- tion that calls forth initiative and develops the sense of personal re- sponsibility for the welfare of the group:
In the senior high school a definite curriculum organization should he provided by means of which each pupil may take work system- aOcally planned with reference to his needs as an indivithial and as a member of society. The senior high school should be characterized by a rapidly developing social consciousness and by an aptitude of self-rehanee based upon clearly perceived objectives.
Under ordinary circumstances the junior andssenior periods should each be three $-otts in length so as to realize their distinctive intr..: poses. In sparsely settled communiiies where a senior high school can not be maintained effectively, the junior high school may well be four years in length, so that the pupils may flatus), school nearer to their homes for one more year.
The commission is not unmindful of the desirability, when-funds permit, of extenditig secondary education under local auspices so as to include the first Two years of work usually offered in colleges, and constituting what is known as the ” junior college,” but it has seemed miwise for the commission to attempt to outline the work of this new unit.
XII. ARTICULATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION WITH ELE. MENTARY EDUCATION.
Admission to high school is now, us a rule, based upon the com- pletion of a prescribed annamt.of academic work. Asa result many over-age pupils either leave.sehool,altogether or are retained in the elementary schimi when they are no longer deriving much benefit froneits instruction. Should a similar conception of the articulation. of the two schools continue after the elementary program has been shortened to Nix years, similar bad .results will persist. Experience in certain school systems, however, shows that the secondary school can proVide specAul instrtictitar for ‘ovdr-age pupils more successfully. than the elementary school can. Consequently wr rveom,,u’ndAhat secondarysehoobi’admit,,and prprikeuitable instruction for, all pu- pils who are e’n any respect so ma ture.that they would derive more ‘benefit from the’seeondarffschool thou from the elementary school..
XIII. ARTICULATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION WITH SECONDARY EDUCATION.
In view of the-hitportant rtile=of secondary’ education in achieving the objectiveS.’essential in American life, it follows that higher insti- tutions of learning a not justified in maintaining entrance require-
20 ceunniAt. PRINCIPLES OF SECONDART,IDIICATION.
ments and examinations of a eharacter that handicap the secondary school in discharging its proper functions in a democracy.
As stated in Section 111 of this reOrt,, the secondary school should admit all pupils who would derive greater benefit from the secondary than from the elementary school. With the demand of democratic society for extended liberal and vocational education for an ever-increasing !mintier of persons, the higher institutions of learning. taken as a whole. are untie/ a similar obligation with refer- ence to those whose needs are .no longer met by the secondary-school
1/ and are disposed to continue their education. The conception that higher education should be limited to the few is destined to. disap- pear in the interests of demoiracy.
The tradition that a partillar tyipe of education, and that excht- sively nonvocational in character, is the only acceptable preparation for advanced education, either.libern1 or vocational, must therefort give- way to a scientific evaluation of all typeg of secondary edu- cation as preparation for continued study. This broader concep- tion need not involve any curtailment of opportunities for those who early manifest academic interest to pursue the work adapted to their needs. It does,- however, mean that ,pupils who, during the secondary period, devote a considerable time .to. courses having void – tional content-should be permitted tOpursue whatewr formlbf higher education, either liberal or Vocational, they are able to undertake- with profit to themselves and to society.
XIV. RECOGNITION OF THE OBJECTIVES IN PLANNING CURRICU.
No curriculum in the secondary school can be regarded as satis- , factory unless it ‘giveS due attention to each of the objectives of education outlined herein. -;A
Health Its an objective, makes imperative an adequate time assign- ment for physical training and requires science courses p*operly focused upon personal and community hygiene, the princiPlestof sanitation, and their applications, *Command of hipdamettal proc- eases ‘necessitates thorough courses in the English language as a . means of taking in and giving forth ideas. ”%Yortity home-member,’
thipcalls for theyedirection of malt. Of the work’ in literature,.art, and the social studies. Por girls it necessitates adequate courses in household arts. ITitizenshi demands that the social studies be given a prominent plac7.-k °cation as an objective. requires that many pupils devote much of their time to specific preparation fora definite trade or occupation, and that some pursue studies that serve as a basis Plk advanced work in higher institutions. The worthy. use of leisure Calls fortoursei in- literature, art, music, ancratriFik taught
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OP SECONDARY EDUCATION. 21.
as to develop appreciation. It necessitates also a margin -of7free electives to he chosen on the basis of personal avocational interests.’
Dile recognition of these objectives provide the elements of distribution and concentration %%nch arc recogni7t as essenaal for
,wel-ha la need and effective e(liteat
xv. SPECIALIZING AND UNIFIVING FUNCTIONS 01′ SECOND- ° ARV EDUCATION.
1. Th, ;, ..;!pii/icim«.The ideal of a democracy. as set fortli in Sect ion II of this report involves. on r.lw one hand. 2p:evializaticm wlareby individuals and grout;, of individuals may become effective in the various -vocations and other fields of hutnau endeavor. and. till t Ilf’:1)ther hand. iindiCal 11,11 WilvITIty I he members of t hat doom-. racy may obtain those common ideas, V0111111011 ideals. and coninnin iliode. of 111ought, feeling and .action I hat make for cooperation, -sociiil cohesion. and social solidarity. ‘ .
NIcithout effective -specializatiOn on On, part of grimps of individ- uals dawn, can Inc no- progress. Without itni6eation in a democracy there can he 110 Worthy community lift- and no concerted action for necessar sIwial ends. Increasing specialization emphasizes the need for unification, without \\inch a democracy is a prey to ell ties at home and abroad. .
2. ‘The 8eciali.thiy I unetioit.SeconOivry education in the past has tires the needs of only a few groups. The growing ree’ognition that progress in our American democracy 4ependsin no small measure.. neon adequate provision for specialization in many fields is the chief cause leading to the present reerganization of secondary. education. Only 4E1111114;h attention to the needs of various groups of individuals as shoWn by aptitudes, abilities, and asPirations yan the secondary-. sehool secure from each pupil his best. efforts. ‘Fite-school must capi- ‘Mize thq dominant. interest. that each boy and girl has at the time and ditit that ‘interest. as ‘wisely as Possible. This is the stiresti. la..thott Ty whieliliard and effective work ‘limy be obtained front each( p tpil
. . .
Specialization demands the following provisions in seeontiary edticat ion: . . i .1 …
(a) it Ode range of kabfeetig.L-In order to-test and develop the many important capacities and interests. found-in. pupils ofreondary- sehool1 age? the school should .provide at..wide a -range of subjects as
cat-offer effettively.. -i (I)) Exploration and guidance.–Especially in the junior high
school the pupil -should have a Variety of experience and contacts in order that he may explore his own .ctipacities and aptitudes.
-Thronet a.system.of educational supervision or guidance he should
. 22 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION:
be helped to determine his education and his vocation. These de- cisions should not be imposed upon him by. others.
(e) Adaptation of content awl met bod8.The content and tenth= ing methods of every study should he adapted to the capaiities; in- terests, and needs of the pupils concerned. In certain studies these
.factors may differ widely for various groups of pupils, e. g.; chemis- try should emphasize different. phases in agricn\(oral, commercial, industrial. and bouschold-arts- curriculums.. -(d) Flexibility of wilanhation and administration.Flexibility
should be secured by ” election “‘ of studies or curriculum, promotion by subjects from the beginning of the junior high school, possible transfer from curriculum to curriculain, provision for maximuhi and minimum assignments for pupils of greater and less abilit, and, under certain% conditions, for .the rapid or) slow prcgress.a such pupils.
‘ (e) ilifferen ‘atill enrricidunr .Tlie. wand( ofthe senior high school should- be organized into differentiated curricidnflis. The range of such curriculums should be as wide as the schoolican offer effect-
, ively. The basis of -differentiation should be, in the. broad sense of the term, vocatiohathus justifying the names commonly given,
. such as agricultural. business, clerical, industrial, nine -arts, and household-arts curriculums. Provision should b6 made nisi). for- those . having distinctively twadetnic interemss and needs. The conclusion . that the work of the senior high school slionlil be organized on the basis of urriemilums does not imply that every study should be di ffer- -entin the various curriculums. Nor -does it Unit:. that every study should be .determined hy the dominant elememIt of that Curriculum…. indeed an’ such practice wmaild ignore othegaubjectives Cif education just as important as that of vocational efliMtney, ,
3. The unifying fetnetii;n.L-11)ome countries a common heredity, it strongly centralized goVernment,and an established religion con- -tribute-to social solidarityA. -411 America, racial stocks, art. widely di-
…Versified, varions forms of social heredity come into cOnflictisliffering religious beliefs do not always-m:1140ot. unification, and the niembem Of-different .vocations often fail. to recognize the interests that they lame in common -wit it others. The school is the one ageneY that may controlled definitely and -consciously by our democracy for the purpose of unifying its people. Xn:this.process the secondary school
,must play-an important part becattse the elementary school with its imnuitureampils ean not alone develop the.common.knowledge, coin– mon ideals, and.commen interests essential to American democracy. Furthermore,- ‘hildreit of immigrant parents attend the -secondary -, ‘school in lar and inereasing titunters; secondary, education comes r. at a stage in 0 deVelopment of boys and girls when social interests
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 23,
develop rapidly; and from the secondary school the majority of pupils pass directly into participation in the activities of oursociety.
The unifying function calls for the following provisions in second- -wy ‘ed ‘
(a) Studies of direct value for this purpose, especially the social studies And the mother tongue. with its literatne.
.(6) -The social mingling of pupils through the organizatii and administration of the school.
(e) The participation of pupils in common activities in which they should have a large measure of responsibility, such as athletic ‘games. social activities. and the government of the school.
t. pecialization and unification 08 xupplementacffoefonetialm With increasing specialization in any society comes a corresponding necessity forincreased attention to unification. So in the secondary school,. increased attention to speeirdilation calls for more purp-ose- ful plans for unification. When there was but little differentiation in the work witliin the secondary ,+school. and the pupils in attendance were less diversified as to their heredity and interests, social unifies- tiom in the full sensulitif the term could.not take place..
The supplementary character of these functions hits direct hearing opoii the subjects to, he taken by secondary-school pupils. To this end th,.. :..econclary ‘school should provide following groups of.. studies;
(0.) flonstaias, to be taken by. all or nearly all pupils. These’ -1101ild he &tenni-lied mainly bp the object i v4k)f health. command of ‘fundamental processes, won hp home-menibership, citizenship, andyiethical barmier.
(1, Cyrrirrthi »? i’dhIbles. p6Ailiar to a enrriculum 4»- to : geoup of related curriculums. These should be ‘determined for the most, par( by vocational neMe.-incluiling, as they frequently. do. prepays- tion for advanced study in special fields. ..- -:. .-
(c) Free clectircR, to be taken by pupils in accordance with in- f. dividnal aptitudes or special interests, generally of a nonvovational. maitre. These are significant. especially in peeparat ion for ‘ the worthy use of leisure.
The constants should Contribute.definitely to tinification, the cur- riculum variables to specialization, and the free electives to either or bilth of ‘their functions.
In the seventh year, that is the first year of the junior high school, . the plipil should not be required to choose nt the outtet the field to “.
which he will devote himself. For those who do not at this time hive a definite parpose, epportunity should be giva’n to gain seine experience with several significant types of work, such its some form of induStrial arts, gardening or other agricultural activity, typg-SE eariting or problemi Ornwil from business, hot*eholil arts for girl and for at least a part of the pupils some work in a foreign language.
24 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
It’ruay be found feasible to organize several such subjects or projects into short units and to arrange the schedule so that every pupil may take several of-them. The work thus offered may and should be of real educational value, in addition to its exploratory value.
In_the two following years of the junior high school, some pupils should continue this trying-out process, while others may well devote one-fourth to one -half of their time to curriculum variables. Pupils who will probably enter industry at the end of the ninth grade may well give as much as tkvo-thirds of their time to vocational prepara- tion, but they must not be permitted to neglect preparation for citi- zenship and the worthy use of leisure.
In. the senior high school the relative Proportion of these three groups of subject’s will vary with the curriculum. – Pupils who are to enter a gainful occupation before the completion of the senior high School may well devote a large proportion of their-time to the cur- riculum variables, especially during their lasPyearj0 school.
In brief, the greater the time allowed for cnrriculinn variables, the more purposeful should be the time devoted to the constants in order that the school may be effective as an agency-of unification. Above all, the greater the differptiation in studies, the more important be- comes the social mingling of pupils pursuing different curri
The supplementary character of the specializing an unifying funeti6ns has a direct bearing also upon the type of h school best suited to the needs of democratic society, as discussed in the next sec- tion.
XVI. THE.COMPREHENSIVE HIG SCHOOL AS THB STANDARD SECONDARYSCHOOL.
The.cernprehensive (sometimes called composite, or cosmopolitan) high school, esbncing all curriculums in one unified organization, should retwin the standard type of secondary school in cue united States.
Junior high schools must be of the comprehensife type, whatever policy be adopted. for the Senior high. schools, since `olieria’ t.ie pri- mary purposes of the junior high school is to assist the pupil through a wide variety of contacts and experiences to -obtain a basis for in- telligent choice of his educational’ and vocational career. In the judgment of the commission senior high schools and four-year high’ schools of the older organizations should, as a rule, be of the compre- . hensive type for the following reasons:
1. For effecifteness of v. ocationat.edu’eativ.When effectively or- itemized and administered -(See -pp. 27 to IZo)r’the temprOlftsive
high school can make differentiated education of greeter *mg: to ok individual and to society, for such value depends largely upon
the extentio”which the indWidearputsues the’carrieul* -*tett
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
to his needs. Thi’s factor is of prime importance, although fre- quently ignored in discussions regarding the effectiveness of rocs tional and other types of differentiated education.
In a system of special-type schools Many infinences interfere with .. the wise choice of curriculum. Thus many pupils choose the high school nearest to their homes. or the school to which their friends have vegone or are going, or the school that provides the most attractive social life or has the best athletic teams. Still others are unwisely. influenced by the notions of neighbors and friends of the family. After entering a special-type school. many pupils drop out because the work is not adapted to their needs, while comparatively kw transfer to another school.
In a comprehensive school the influences interfering with a wi.. choiceof curriculum may he -reduced to a mininuun. When an un- wise choice has been made the pupil may be greatly aided in discover- ing a curriculum better adapted to his needs.because he cab sea other work in the school, talk with school companions. and ,confer with teachers who arc able to give him expert advice regarding such cur- riculmns. When such Ivpupil has found a entriculm better adapted . to his needs, he can be transferredto it without severance of school
MIPIrelationships an. Int seems to hini, the sacrifice of school loyalty. Moreover, ptipt s in comprehensive sehools have contacts valuable.
to them vocationally, since people in every vocation must -be able to deal intelligently with those in other vocation.s.and employers and’ employer8 must be able to understanf one another and recognize common interests. Sifitilatly, teachers in comprehensive schools have abetter okortunity- to observe other curriculums and are thereby
-bottmable to advise pupils intelligently. -, Sumntitviaing under this head, the well-organized comprehensive
sc. lhoot-can make differentiated education of greater value than cent the special-type school, because it aids in a wise choiceof curriculum, assist’s in- readjUstments when such are desirable, and provides for aiiditi”itiketVessential to true success. in wry. yheation. …
2. rir uni/ThatioN.—When administered by a- principal who hint- self ,cognizes the social value of all types of secondary edncatimi and itspires a broad spirit of democracy among teachers and pupils. the’comprehensiye high school is a better instrument for unification. Through friendships formed with pupils pursuing other curriculums and having vocational and dtlemtlimal goals widely different from their own, the pupils realize that the interests Which they hold in COMM ,th othe’ are, after all,, ar more. important than the differences that ,. dd tend to make them antagonistic to Others. Throughschont assemblies and organizations they ‘acquire common ideas. Through group activities they secure,training in cooperation. Through loyalty to a whoa which includes many,aroups they are
26 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
prepared for loyalty to State and Nation. In short, the compre- hensive school is the prototype of a democracy in which various groups mist have a degree of self-consciousness as groups and yet be federated into a larger whole through the recognition of common interests and ideals. Life in such a school is sa natural and valuable preparation for life in a democracy.
3. For objedires other thoit rocatio7LA comprehensive high school can .provide much more effectively for health education. educa- tion for the worthy use of leisure, and home-making education than a numberof smaller special-type schools can.
The most effective health education requires adequate equipment and instructors competent to diagnose health needs and direct health activities. Expenses and difficulties of duplication of such facilities in every smaller special-type school are almost prohibitive. Prepara- tion for the worthy use of leisure is best achieved when there is a wide variety of activities from which pupils may select, such as arts and crafts clubs, literary Jand debating societies, and musical organizations. All of these require for their success enthusiastic leadership such as can best be secured from a large faculty. Girls in all curriculums should have the advantages of work in household arts under efficient directors and with adequate equipment. Such conditions are most readily provided in the comprehensive ‘school where there is a strong department of household arts.
With the establishment of a special-type high school it frequently happens that various important phases of education are neglected or minimized in the other schools of that system.
4. For accessibility.In cities large enough to require more-than one high schobl it is desirable to have each’school so located as to serve a particular section of the city, thereby reducing the expense and loss of time involved in travel on the part rf pupils. The proximity of the schoolto the homes results also in greater interest in education on the part of pupils and parents, and consequently increases the drawing and holding power of the school.
5. Adaptation to local nerds. In recommending the comprehensive high school as the standard secondary school tlm commission recog- nizes that in large cities where two or more high schools are needed it is not always possible to provide every curriculum in each high schoOl, such .a practice being precluded hy the fact that certain curriculums would thereby’ enroll in the several schools too few pupils to perthit economical organization and administratien:., such cases a few curriculums may well appear in selected comprehen- sive schools or even in a single school only, while other. curriculums appea in every school. ,
The commission alSo recognizes the impracticability of offering On* .curriculum In every snIall rural high school. In sock cao0
CARDINAL PRINGIPLIS 01′ REKOWDART
is desirable that a curriculum for which -The number of pupils dots not warrant such duplication should be offered in selected schools. and that pupils needipg that curriculum should go to those schools. This plan is substantially the same as that recommended for the large city.
6. Effecti organithtion of (wirienlif His in O1 prthCIINieC high whools.Finally, the commission recognizes that in ‘the past: rela- tively ineffective instruction has been afforded in some comprehen- sive’ schools. This has been clue in part to the fact that ever,y- where vocational education has been passing and is still passing through a period of experimentation. The commis ion believes, however, that the most serious defect in vocational education in the comprehensive high school has been due to a lack of proper organiza- tion and administration.. Effective voeatiopal education can not be secured when administered like so many aceidNial groupings of sub- jects. To remedy this Situation the commission remmmends that each curriculum, or group of closely releb..d curriculums, in, the largo. comprehensive high school be placed under the supervision of a director whose task it shall be to organize that curriculum and maintain its efficiency. The curriculum directors must work under the general direction of the principal; who must be the coordinator of all the activities of the school. Especially is it necessary that each director shall be selected with the same care that would be exer- cised ie choosing the- principal of a special-type school enrolling as many pupils as are enrolled in the ‘eurrienlunt or eurAculums under his direction. In medium-sized high schools tumble to employ directors for the various curriculums. the teachers should be or-; ganized into committees to -consider the problems of the various curriculums:, all working under the.direct ion of the ‘principal.
Unless the various omit:idioms are effectively organized and ad:. ministered, and unless tlw democrat ic spirit pervades (lie school, the
`- comprehensive high school is in danger of failure: with these factors !
present, it has every promise of success:
XVII. RECOGNITION OF THE OBJECTIVES IN ORGANIZING THE SCHOOL.
The .objectives must determine the organization. or else the orA ganization will determine the objectives. If. the only basis upon which a high school is organized is, that of dui subjects of study, cue-it department being devoted- to some particular subject, there. will result an over – valuation of the importance of subjects as such,. and the tendency will be for’ each teacher to regard his function as merely that of leading the pupils to master a particidar .subject, rather than that of .using the subjects of study and the activities of the-Schnot as means for achieving the objectives.of education. The
2$ CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
departmental organization is desirable but needs to be supplemented. The two following methods are suggested: (A) The Principal’s Council.
The principal may select from his teachers a council, each .member of which shall be charged with the responsibility of studying the activities’ Of the ‘school with reference to a specific objective. Plans for realizing these objectives shOuld be discmSed by the principal and the council. Without impairing in ‘utly way the ultimate re- sponsibility of the principal, it as a rule, increase the efficiency of the school if the principal encouinges initiative on the part of these council members and delegates to them such responsibilities as he finds they can discharge. -The members of such a council and their duties are suggested as follows:
Health director.This council member should seek to ascertain whether the health needs of the pupils are adequately met. For this purpose he should consider the .ventilation and sanitation pf the buiiding,.the provisions for lunch, the posttp of pupils, the amount of home worli required, the provisions for physical training, and the effects of athletics. Ile should find out whether the pupils are having excessive social activities outside of school, and-devise means for gaining the cooperation of parents in the proper regtgation of work and recreation. He may well see whether the teaching of biology is properly focused upon hygiene and’ sanitation.
Citizenship director. The ‘citizenship director should determine whether the pupils are developing initiative and the sense of per- sonal responsibility. He should foster civic-mindedness through the school papey, debating society, and general school exercises, and give suggestions for directing the thinking of the pupils to significant problems of the day.
Curriculum directors. As discussed in. Section XVI f’,f this re- .port, for each important group of vocations for .which the school offers a curriculum, or group of cnrricultuns, there should be a. director to study the Reeds of these vocations and find out the respects. in which the graduates are succeeding. or failing in meeting legitt- .
. mate vocational demands, ‘With the knowledge thus gained ho ,should strive to improve the work *offered by the school.
One of these curriculum directors should have charge of prepara- tion for colleges and normal schools. He should obtain the records of :graduates attending. those schoOls and find, out the strong and Weak points in their .preparation. He will advise with pupils in- tending to enter these institutions as ‘to the work that they should take in the high school.
Director of vocational aid educational guidance.-Ois. member of the council should collect data regarding various vocational and edu-
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. . 29
cational opportunities and the qualifications needed. If the school is small, he may help individual pupils in acquiring an intelligeht attitude toward the choice of a vocation or of a higher education; but if the school is large, he must train others mho can know the pupils more intimately. to assist in this seiie. always holding him- self ready to give advice.
nieretor of preparation p».iehmre.This council member should, so far as possible, see that the pupils are developing interests that will assist them in later life to use. their irisure wisely. He should censider especially the musical.organizat ions, the school library, the art clubs and classes. and the various ways in which pupils are spending their leisure:
The large school nrny have need for additional dirmor’s to deal with other vita! phases of education.
By Committee& The principal may appoint committees of teachers -ouch of which
would be charged with duties similar to these dexribed. An ad- vantage of the committee plan is that a larger number of ,teachers will be stimulated to acquire- a broAd educational point of view.
Theoretically, it is possible for the -principal himself to supervise. the teaching and direct all the :let; vit u” r!;1, school. PracticallY, however, the majority of administrata’s tend to become absorbed in a few aspects of education. In fart, intensive creative work along any one line on the part of the prineipiil leads naturally to at least a temporary neglect_ of the Other aspects of education. Consequently, . either a principal’s council or committees of teachers seem essentitil in order that none of the objectives may be neglected.
It is not intended that the council or the committees should in any way lessen the, ultimate responsibility of the principal, but that -* by this n1bhtig the 661i-dation of the etitIrj-teachibg body may be
, secured and all the objectives held in view. .
. XVIII. SECONDARY EDUCATION ESSENTIAL FOR ALLN.YOUTH.
To the extent to which the objectives ()alined herein are adopted as-the controlling aims of education, to that extent will it be I’m*: nixed that an extended education for every boy and girl-is essential to the welfare, and even to the txistence, of democratic. society. To .significance of these objectives more ‘and more ap- parent under modern conditions in our democracy. These.conditions grow out of increased knowledge of science with its rapidly extend- ing applications to all the tiffairS of life, keener. coMPetition ‘its attendant dangers, closer contacts of peoples of varied racial and religious types, and greater assertiveness of. all men and women in the control of their own ‘destinies. These and many other tendencies
j80 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
;ha:crease the significance of health,. worthy home-membership, WM- tiolij citizenship, the worthy use of leisure, and ethical character.
Each of these objectives requires for its realization, not only the training. and habit formation that the child may secure, but also the intelligence and ;efficiency that can not be developed before ado- lescence. In fact, their realization calls for the full period allotted to bath the junior and senior high schools.
Comeguently, this comMission holds that education should be so ‘reorganized that every normal boy and girl will be encouraged to remain in school to the age of 18, on full time if possible, otherwise.
P’ an part time.
XIX. PART-TIME SCHOOLING AS A COMPULSORY MINIMUM REQUIREMENT.
As stated in Section I of this report, only one American youth in about three reaches the.first year of the four-year high school, and only one in about nine remains in school to the end of the high- school course. This condition is, in the last analysis, due principally to .four causes: Fhst, the limited: range of instruction commonly .offered by secondary schools; second, the failure on the part of- the school adequately to demonstrate to young people and their parents the value of the education offered; third, the lure of employment, together with the desire for increased economic independence on the
;part of Noting persons; and fourth, economic pressure in the family, :real or imagined.
The first. of causes is rapidly disappearing through she intro- :Auction of curriculums with rich vocational content. The second maybo removed by subordinating deferred values and reorganizing instruction so as to make the values more evident to the learner, as
Idiscusied in “Sections VIII and IX.. The third truly be diminished in its effect by greater ‘virility in school Work:. Economic pressure will continue until. social conditions can be materially improved.
In the meantime, a sound national policydictntes the urgent need for ‘legislation whereby all young persons, whether employed or not, shall be required to attend school not less than eight hours. in each
‘Week that schoolsare iisession until they reach the age of 18. Attendance for eight haus in each week will make possible ini7
,Portant. progress not only in vocational efficiency but also in the promotion of .health, . preparation for worthy home- membership, civic-intelligence and efficiency, the better.utilization of leisure, and ethical development… All these objectives are evidently as impor, tint for the young worker as for those who reniikin in full-time at- . tendance at school. ar
The value of part-time instruction, if proPerly organized, is out of all proportion to the time involved, because it can utilize as a basis
CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EnuCATIOI, 31
the now experiences of the young worker and his new social ‘and .civic contacts. Moreover, continued attendance at school will a ;ford :in intellectual stimulus too often lacking to these young persons undt’r the modern subdivisidwof labor.
COnseguently,Mix COMmiftxion recommends the enactment of legis- lation wheikhy all young persons up to the an of 18. whether em- Nloyed Or not, .lull be required to attend thAtetondary school not leer than.,:ight hours in each ‘week. that the schools am in session.
lu some States it mity be held to be impracticable at the outset to require such part-time attendance Iteyond the age of 113 or 1-7. but the commission holds that the imperative needs of American democracy can not be met. until the period is extended to 18.
To make. this part-time schooling effective it will be necessary to adapt it specifically to the needs of the pupils concerned. More- over. leachers must be trained for this new type of work. Without such provisions there is great danger of failure and a consequent re- action against this Most valuable extension of secondary. education.;
In view of the importance of developing a sense of common inter-. ests and social solidaritron the part. of the young worker and those of his fellows who are continuing in full-time attool.,nce at school, it appears to this commission that this part-time education should be
in the comprehensive secondary than in- separate continuation schools. as is the custom in less democratic soieties.- this plan the part-time students and the full-time students may share in the use of the a:tenthly hall. gymnasium, and other equipment, providedl.or all. Till plan has the added advan- tage that the enrollment of all pupils may be continuous in the sec- ondary. school, thus furthering employment supervision on the one hand and making easier it return to full-time attendance whenever the lure of industry or the improvement of economic conditions in the family makes such a return inviting bud feasible..
The part -time attendance for eight hours a week of ‘all .persons between 14 and 18 who are not .now in school.Nvi II require a large ‘increase in the teaching force in st..condftry schools. No other single piece of educational legislation could, however. do more to raise the level of,intelligence and efficiency and to insure, the .welfare of
deMocracy. . XX. CONCIatIoN.
In ooncluding this report on the cardilial principles of secondary ctfulation the commission would.call attention to its 17 other reports in which the principles herein set. forth are the’various aspects of secondary. education.. The repoyts now available are listed on the last page of this bulletin, and other are nearly ready for pubL. licntidn. One repoit will consider in detail the application of these
32 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.
principles to the organization and administration of secondary schools. Thirteen reports deal with the aims, methods, and content of the various subjects of study and curriculums in the light of these principles. Three (tilers dismiss vocational guidance, physical edu- cation, and the moral N’alues that should be derived from secondary – school organization and instruction.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that the problems of sec- ondary eUtcatien merit much more serious attention than they have received heretofore. The study of the best methods for adapting sec- ondary education to the needs of modern 41c.mocratic life is but begun. The physical, intellectual, emotional, and ethical clotracteriSties of young people are still but vaguely comprehended. Such linowledge of social needs and educational theory and practice as is already avail- able. has been seriously studied by comparatively few administrators and teachers. Progress will depend very largely upon adequate pro- fessional. training of teachers both before and after entering upon service. Plans nmst be adopted fur poolin the results of successful experimentation On the part of individual teachers. To ‘make the reorganization effective, competent supervision and constructive lead-
.. ership must be provided in the various fields of secondary education. It is the firm belief of this commission that secondary education
in the United States must aim at nothing less than complete and worthy living for’ all youth, and that therefore. the objectiVes de- scribed herein must find place in the ducation of every boy and girl.
Finally, in the process of translating into bkily practice the cardi- nal principles herein’set forth, the serondary school teachers of rho United States niust themselves strive to explore the inner meaning of the great democratic movement now struggling for supremacy: The doctrine that each individual has a Tight to the opportunity to develop the best that is in him is reinfOrTrd.Wthe belief in the po- tential, nd perchance unique, worth of the indMdual. The task of education,.as of life, istherefore to call forth that potential worth.
While seeking to evoke the distinctive excellencies of-.individuals and groups-of ‘individuals; the secondary school must be equally zealous to develop those common ideas, common ideals, and common modes of thought, feeling, and action, whltieby America, through a rich, unified, common ,life, may render her truest service to a’ world
– .seeking for democracy among men and nations:
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