“Fake News,” the Media, and constructions of Otherness

• Relationships between media logics and discourses round crime and terrorism,

• “Pretend Information,” [social] media and political discourses.

• Discourses of worry and constructions of Self and Different

• The Self is a relational concept- it's all the time in opposition to or in relation to the Different. Inside/Outdoors, Exclusion/Inclusion and many others.

• The Different is feared, and that which we worry can also be Othered

• Safety politics are literally instrumental to the creation and upkeep of state id (Campbell 1998)

• The state truly depends on safety politics and a story of risk with a view to solidify its legitimacy and continued existence

• Over-representation of violence and violent crime within the media. Implications?

– Will increase pervasive sense of worry in society

– Hyperlinks concepts and topics collectively specifically methods. Examples?

• Violent ßà Crime; Muslim ßà Terrorist; Gangsßà African People and many others.

– Framing and illustration. The media tells us what to concentrate to and what not to concentrate to.

• Each perpetrator and sufferer in information tales are knowledgeable by “perceived membership”

– In-group= sufferer/ out-group= perpetrator

– We different those who we worry and worry those who we different

– Serves a twin function:

• 1) Establishing a “group sense” of the boundaries of the “us” group

• 2) By way of this, create a shared sense of unease and worry across the (threatening) “different”

• So we assemble our id partially on the idea of a shared worry of those that are “not like us”. Why is this vital?

– How would worry of “others” and/or crime and/or terrorism contribute to social management?

• We have gotten extra armoured;

• We rely an increasing number of on policing and safety buildings to police “us” towards “them,” a lot in order that we don’t notice that these identical apparatuses and mechanisms are additionally policing us.

• We start to freely hand over our civil liberties to surveillance and enforcement brokers.

• Again to Schmitt: The Sovereign = THE DECIDER

– Decides when “exceptions” to legislation happen

– Decides who's protected, disciplined, punished, exiled or killed – ULTIMATELY then, sovereign energy decides who's IN and who's OUT

• Altheide - the mass media operates as a social establishment as a result of it's a “vital provider and definer of widespread tradition”

– Mass media codecs wield monumental social energy (i.e. the capability to outline a scenario for oneself or others).

• Homophily- results in political range or polarization?

• (Social) Media- Echo chamber or Public Sphere?

• Aware manufacturing of opinions- “Pretend Information?