Small Business Excel Sheet Exercise
Sheet1 JAMES CONFECTIONERS Monetary Statements INCOME STATEMENTS 20XX RATIO ANALYSIS 20XX SUBJECT INDUSTRY MEDIAN Gross sales Present 1.7 COGS Fast zero.eight GP A/R Flip 15.7 SGA Exp. Avg Coll 23 Deprec. Inv Flip four.9 EBIT (Oper. Revenue) Curiosity OI ROI EBT OPM Revenue Taxes FA Flip eight.2 Web Revenue Debt/TA zero.7 Instances Int 2.three BALANCE SHEETS 20XX ROE 16.5 ASSETS ROA 5.6 CURRENT ASSETS Money Accounts Receivable Inventories Different Present TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS FIXED ASSETS Gross PP&E Collected Depreciation Web PP&E Different Mounted TOTAL ASSETS LIABILITIES & EQUITY CURRENT LIABILITIES Accounts Payable/Accruals Brief Time period Debt TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES LONG TERM DEBT STKHLDRS EQUITY Widespread Inventory (par+paid-in) Retained Earnings TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY Sheet2 Sheet3 -research paper writing service
SPHE461 Assignment
SPHE461: Present Traits in Health & W ellness Cumulative Challenge –Half 1 Week Three Task & Rubric *Week #Three Task* This train is designed that will help you achieve the instruments essential to assess the health, sport, and well being trade, present tendencies and practices, and their relationship to well being and wellness administration. As well as, this can provide help to perceive how present well being and health tendencies will impression your private profession on this trade. This undertaking offers you some expertise in addressing a problem with a extra present pattern/observe, and designing a plan for its implementation utilizing evidence-based options. Week #1 Deliverable Gadgets: 1. Paper (Three-5 web page) 2. Media Gallery (pics) contribution Introduction to your Challenge: Deciding on a Neighborhood/Group & Present Pattern of Curiosity This week Three project is a brief paper that addresses every of the objects under serves as a proposal in your undertaking. Additionally, you will submit a contribution to the Media Gallery. This isn't a presentation, only a depiction of your group and/or present pattern. This can be a 2-part project that requires a submission to the Media Gallery, in addition to the submission of a paper to the Week Three Task space. Half 1 In a Three-5 web page paper, please establish and describe a group or group of curiosity to you, in addition to an outline of a present pattern and the way you should utilize it to learn this group/group. Please remember to embrace: • Description of the group or group of Curiosity • Description of the Present Pattern • Clarification of the well being and/or health drawback in that group or group • Clarification of the interrelationship between your group/group and the present well being and health pattern you might be reporting on • How you intend on utilizing the present pattern/challenge to learn this group/group • See further formatting tips under. Half 2 Please add an image to the Media Gallery that depicts your group and/or present pattern that you'll be discussing. 1. Get hold of or create your artifact (image). 2. Click on on the Media Gallery hyperlink that's positioned close to the underside within the left-hand menu in our classroom. Three. Add your artifact a. Add a brief description of your group/pattern b. Tag it with the Week Three Task Tag, so your classmates can see and remark. four. There's a small level worth to this (see rubric for particulars). Please take into account this an space for collaboration along with your classmates. This sort of sharing can give you (free) peer suggestions in your undertaking. Apart from the factors for merely importing your image, this can be a completely ungraded space and free from teacher feedback. Further Directions Your submission should be hooked up as a WORD doc solely. All references (5-Eight peer-reviewed references required), in-text citations, and narrative should be in APA format. You might be to assemble a paper that has a strong introduction, physique, and conclusion that addresses all objects listed above. Trace: Should you use the above objects as part headings, you'll have a better time together with the entire necessities. So, the structure of your paper could look one thing like what is printed following this paragraph. Instructed headings are in daring. Please take into account that chances are you'll use completely different headings and that what's listed under is for functions of instance and doesn't depict APA formatting. The fundamentals of APA formatting: • Embody a title web page • Three-5 pages in size (this requirement doesn't embrace the title or reference pages) • Please be at liberty to incorporate acceptable graphics and photographs • Embody an appropriately formatted reference record (6-Eight references) • Please take into account that if a useful resource is listed in your reference record on the finish of a paper, it should first have been used within the physique of your paper as an in-text quotation • 1” margins throughout (no further indenting –besides 1st line of every paragraph) • Double-spaced all through paper • APA in-text citations and reference formatting is required • 12-point, occasions new roman or arial • The vast majority of the paper needs to be written in third individual –this implies no private opinions, no sentences with “I” “my” or different 1st individual textual content. That is an instructional/scientific paper; with the caveat that additionally, you will be together with details about your undertaking that pertains to your actions. Introduction On this part you'll establish and describe a group or group of curiosity to you, in addition to an outline of a present pattern and the way you should utilize it to learn this group/group. In essence, you'll be describing what you might be about to jot down about. Neighborhood or group of Curiosity Describe Establish why that is essential to you and why they're open to this Present Pattern Describe pattern and its significance Again up with acceptable references Well being and/or health drawback in that group or group Clarification of the well being and/or health drawback in that group or group Why this pattern is acceptable for this group/group Clarification of the interrelationship between your group/group and the present well being and health pattern you might be reporting on Use of this present pattern/challenge to learn this group/group How you intend on utilizing the present pattern/challenge to learn this group/group Abstract Conclusion • Your submission should be hooked up as a WORD doc solely. • Please identify your doc utilizing your lastname, first preliminary, course quantity, and project quantity. Ex am ple: Oddi B four 6 1 W eek Three • *Please submit just one (1) doc -Should you use tables or graphics, please incorporate them straight into your phrase doc previous to submission. • As you submit your assignments, every paper is routinely run by way of Turnitin. Please search for a Similarity Rating of 20% or under. Don't attempt to move off different's work as your personal. Should you submit your project early sufficient and really feel that your Turnitin rating is just too excessive, and that you simply want to do some extra enhancing, chances are you'll submit it once more. Should you do that, permit for extra time for Turnitin to return an originality report. Planning forward is essential. SPHE461 Week Three Task *RUBRIC* Factors Standards Class Weight Establish and describe a group or group of curiosity to you, in addition to an outline of a present pattern and the way you should utilize it to learn this group/group. Please remember to embrace: • Description of the group or group of Curiosity • Description of the Present Pattern • Clarification of the well being and/or health drawback in that group or group • Clarification of the interrelationship between your group/group and the present well being and health pattern you might be reporting on • How you intend on utilizing the present pattern/challenge to learn this group/group 55% Media Contribution to Media Gallery: • Artifact/image was uploaded to the Media Gallery within the SPHE461 Classroom 5% Writing expertise - Together with grammar, APA Formatting, References, Vital Pondering • Demonstrates constant, right use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling. • Language is evident and exact. Sentences are persistently sturdy. • Paper is laid out with efficient use of headings, font, and white house. • Title web page, APA format, Citations, Headers, Web page numbers, Scholarly tone, Three-5 pages (plus title/reference) • 6-Eight acceptable references -current, related, acceptable (peer-reviewed) • Scholar quotes, paraphrases, and cites info clearly, with no errors or misinterpretations of supply materials. 20% APA Formatting, References, Vital Pondering • Paper is laid out with efficient use of headings, font, and white house. • Title web page, APA format, Citations, Headers, Web page numbers, Scholarly tone, Three-5 pages (plus title/reference) • 6-Eight acceptable references -current, related, acceptable (peer-reviewed) • Scholar quotes, paraphrases, and cites info clearly, with no errors or misinterpretations of supply materials. 20% Deductions • 5% discount for not utilizing acceptable file identify or for submitting greater than one doc • Timeliess-10% discount for every day that this project is overdue. Complete Feedback: Further Directions -research paper writing service
SPHE461 Forum
Reply the next query in 250-350 phrases please Program Adherence, as we all know, is likely one of the largest obstacles to reaching health targets and optimum well being. Everybody appears to be in search of that one factor that may assist them get there. And, every year brings one other set of Sizzling Health Developments that promise to ship. Among the presently common developments embrace: HIIT Body weight coaching Group Private Coaching In-House Health Wellness Teaching Practical Health Tactical Power & Conditioning First, why do you assume that there all the time appears to be a brand new “greatest” program yearly? Is there a spot for all of those developments? How would you gently steer a consumer away from a well-liked development that they might not be prepared for? Then, clarify how you need to use Conduct Change Concept (akin to S.M.A.R.T. Objectives, Well being Conduct Mannequin, Transactional Management, the Phases of Change, and so forth.) to assist enhance Program Adherence. -research paper writing service
Music Article3
British Discussion board for Ethnomusicology Birds of Wasulu: Freedom of Expression and Expressions of Freedom within the Standard Music of Southern Mali Writer(s): Lucy Durán Reviewed work(s): Supply: British Journal of Ethnomusicology, Vol. Four, Particular Concern: Introduced to Peter Cooke (1995), pp. 101-134 Printed by: British Discussion board for Ethnomusicology Secure URL: http://www.jstor.org/secure/3060685 . Accessed: 15/02/2013 14:45 Your use of the JSTOR archive signifies your acceptance of the Phrases & Circumstances of Use, obtainable at . http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps students, researchers, and college students uncover, use, and construct upon a variety of content material in a trusted digital archive. We use info know-how and instruments to extend productiveness and facilitate new types of scholarship. For extra details about JSTOR, please contact assist@jstor.org. . British Discussion board for Ethnomusicology is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, protect and lengthen entry to British Journal of Ethnomusicology. http://www.jstor.org This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/motion/showPublisher?publisherCode=bfe http://www.jstor.org/secure/3060685?origin=JSTOR-pdf http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp VOL Four BRITISH JOURNAL OF ETHNOMUSICOLOGY 1995 Birds of Wasulu: freedom of expression and expressions of freedom within the fashionable music of southern Mali Lucy Durdn Wassoulou is a sort of semi-acoustic music that has been fashionable in Mali for the reason that 1970s. This paper, an ethnography of wassoulou, traces its roots to the music of masquerade and the hunters' traditions of the Wasulu area within the south, and explores the methods wherein the cultural worlds of those traditions come to mind by means of the music. Wassoulou performers are referred to as birds (kono) and occupy a social r0le that enables them to touch upon social points with impunity, with gender taking part in an vital half. INMALI, a sort of music often known as wassoulou has develop into more and more fashionable up to now decade.1 Named after the Wasulu (Wasolon) area in southern Mali the place the music initially developed, and with which it continues to be related, it's of current (post-independence) origin, although its roots are far older. It first emerged in Bamako, the capital of Mali, within the early 1970s, reaching a peak of success in 1989 with the discharge of a cassette by the feminine singer Oumou Sangare (Fig. 1). This cassette, entitled Moussolou ("ladies"), offered extensively all through West Africa, consolidating a world viewers. There are at present dozens of younger artists performing and recording wassoulou in Mali, Ivory Coast, and Europe. One of the crucial vital traits of wassoulou is that its performers describe themselves as konow (sing. kono), that means "birds". By doing so, they're differentiating themselves from the endogamous social group or "caste" of musicians, the Mande2 jeliw, who in any other case dominate musical life in western 1 To tell apart between Wasulu, the identify of the area, and wassoulou, the fashion of music, I've adopted the 2 completely different spellings, and italicised the latter. The primary (Wasulu) is in accordance with modem Bamana orthography; the second displays frequent utilization within the native music trade. 2 Using "Mande" versus "Manding" to indicate a big group of West African peoples with a standard ancestry and talking the intently associated languages of Maninka, Bamana, 101 This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 102 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Fig. 1: Oumou Sangare (seated) with members of her group, backstage: singers Nabintou Diakite (left, standing), Alima Toure (proper, standing), Kassim Sidibe (kamalengoni) and Basidi Keita (djembe), Lille, 1995. In background: bogolanfini fabric. Mali. Although they share many primary cultural expressions with the Mande, the performers of wassoulou see themselves as fulfilling a really completely different social r61e from the jeliw. The fowl is a logo of freedom, knowledge and great thing about voice in Mande. The konow are musicians by alternative and pure potential, with a "fowl's eye" view of society, permitting them to touch upon social points in "freer" musical and textual methods than these of the jeliw. Regardless of its reputation each in Mali and overseas, there have been no research of wassoulou. This text presents an ethnography of the music,three its origins and growth, and inspecting its representations of the world of Wasulu hunters. It explores the (hitherto unreported) significance of using "fowl" as a time period for singer/musician, and the roots of that metaphor in oral Wasulunke, Jula (and so forth.) is problematic. In accordance with most present Anglophone scholarship I've chosen "Mande" as essentially the most handy time period. An outline of the historical past of those phrases and the confusion arising from them, plus some urged options, might be present in Vydrine (1995). three Primarily based on analysis carried out in Mali throughout one-month durations in 1986, 1987, 1991, 1993 and 1995, and intensive analysis with Malian musicians performing in Europe, from 1986 onwards. All interviews (listed on the finish of this text) have been performed on my own; translations into English are my very own. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp DurAn: Birds of Wasulu 103 traditions that date again to the start of the Mande empire (13th century). It argues that a part of the energy of wassoulou derives from its youth ethos. Wassoulou has created an area for youth basically, and single ladies particularly, to problem social norms, particularly these affecting gender relations. The patrilineal and gerontocratic nature of Mande society has largely offered the cultural and social fashions for the modem nation-state of Mali, whose former two presidents, Modibo Keita (1960-68) and Moussa Traore (1968-91) have been each members of aristocratic Mande lineages. On this mannequin there was little formal outlet for youth to claim themselves.Four Through the late 1980s, when disenchant- ment with Traore's regime was reaching a peak, numerous youth and scholar actions performed a big rOle in precipitating political adjustments, finally resulting in Traore's downfall in 1991, and transition to multi-party democracy within the following yr.5 It's no coincidence that wassoulou achieved its widest viewers exactly throughout this era. The explanations for this are embedded within the supply traditions of wassoulou, which pulls on three genres which can be attribute of the Wasulu area: kamalengoni, didadi, and sogoninkun. The primary of those is the dominant fashion in modem wassoulou, and consists of the appropriation by single youth of the ritual songs of hunters' societies. Didadi is a feminine harvest dance from the jap a part of Wasulu, and sogoninkun is a masquerade. The latter two are linked to festivities organised by age-set associations for agricultural cycles. These associations play a central function in Mande tradition extending far past their authentic social contexts.6 Due to its origins, wassoulou music operates on a unique "cultural axis" from the music of the jeliw who, because the hereditary musicians, have monopolised public efficiency. This distinction has given rise to a discourse, mentioned additional beneath, on the relative deserves of every, reflecting altering attitudes in direction of established hierarchies of age and lineage. Jeliw from Mali draw on comparable repertoire and efficiency kinds to the jeliw of Guinea, Ivory Coast, and to some extent even from Senegal and Gambia. Wassoulou, alternatively, is particularly Malian.7 But it has a large constituency extending far past its regional or linguistic borders. It's in some ways analogous to Bamana mudcloth (bogolanfini)--a comparability that's not arbitrary given their frequent hyperlinks with hunters. Bogolanfini is a sort of material Four Within the context of this text, youth is outlined primarily as single youth, each as audiences of the music, and as performers, who are sometimes of their teenagers. The music texts of feminine wassoulou singers are sometimes from the attitude of the single feminine or bride-to-be; e.g. Oumou Sangare's albums. 5 For an account of the financial and social issues dealing with Mali's city youth, and their function lately as "political actors", see Brenner, forthcoming. 6 See Meillassoux 1968b. Brenner, forthcoming, describes how these associations have been re- created as grin, a sort of casual city youth membership. 7 I've been unable to hint any variations of wassoulou as a modem fashionable style in Guinea, even supposing Wasulu can also be in Guinea. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 104 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) dyed a darkish brown or black from mud, often with white patterns. Initially made by ladies and worn throughout circumcision and excision rites, additionally one of many ritual cloths worn by hunters, bogolanfini has develop into one of the conspicuous symbols of Malian identification lately, particularly for the reason that democratic Third Republic. Throughout the nation it has now develop into inter-ethnic and is extensively utilized in style, artwork and textiles; musicians typically put on costumes produced from this fabric.s It's a image of custom that additionally accommodates a broad vary of latest expression.9 Each bogolanfini and wassoulou signify and encourage two-way hyperlinks between metropolis and countryside, custom and innovation. For these causes, an evaluation of wassoulou opens up new views not simply on the examine of Mande society, but additionally furthers our understanding of fashionable tradition in West Africa as we speak. Wasulu regional identification The illustration of Wasulu ethnicity and regional identification performs a elementary r^le within the music. As described beneath, the time period wassoulou itself solely appeared within the early 1970s; beforehand this music had been recognized by its constituent names. It started to be referred to as wassoulou in response to the truth that it was being carried out exterior the area, and was subsequently seen as a portrayal of regional "folklore". Wasulu is a geolinguistic space in southern Mali and jap Guinea (although right here we're involved completely with Mali). The a part of Wasulu that falls into present-day Mali lies inside Mali's third administrative area, Sikasso, comprising the cercles (administrative areas) of Yanfolila, Kolondieba and Bougouni simply south of the traditional heartland of the Mande (Mali) empire. It's typically described as distant and inaccessible (see Garrard 1995:31, 55, 139). Mande discourse typically depicts Wasulu as a spot of ample crops, with a lot time for leisure and the pursuit of musical leisure.10 There are various blacksmiths within the space, and robust pre-Islamic beliefs in occult energy persist. The realm is characterised by savannah forest, with agriculture and looking as the primary conventional occupations. The music related to these actions has performed a central rtle within the emergence of wassoulou as a well-liked fashion. In response to some oral traditions, Wasulu was outlined as a area through the reign of Sunjata Keita (c. 1230-55) with the settlement of a Fula brigand military underneath the Fula warrior Yoro, who additionally gave Wasulu its identify when he declared in Eight This may be seen within the BBC tv documentary "Below African skies: Mali" (1989), wherein lots of the bands proven wore bogolanfini. Oumou Sangare's musicians wore bogolanfini costumes throughout their current tour of Europe (Nov-Dec 1995). For a dialogue of bogolanfini see Imperato 1970. 9 Most just lately it has additionally develop into (together with Kente fabric) a well-liked expression of African identification within the USA. 10 Sidibe interview 1989; Clemens Zobel, pers. comm. 1995. See additionally Imperato 1981: 47: "historic proof of ample wildlife in southeastern Mali, and particularly Wassalu, has greatest been offered by A.H.W. Haywood, a British colonial official and looking fanatic who traversed the area on foot within the early a part of the century." This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Duran: Birds of Wasulu 105 Maninka "N te wa so toun: ne be n'solon ay la yan" ("I cannot return house; I entrust myself to you right here"), which grew to become abbreviated to Wasolon (Cisse and Kamissoko 1991:172). Amselle, who has written extensively about Wasulu, provides a number of different etymologies (1990:123). The area got here notably to the eye of French colonial directors (and ethnographers) throughout its conquest by the imam warrior Almamy Samory Toure (1835-1900). Samory Toure's army exploits are a topic of sogoninkun songs,11 as additionally of Mande jeliw's repertoire, however are conspicuously absent within the music texts of city wassoulou, which evoke a way of historical past in different methods. The origin legend cited above displays the blended identification of the area, which performs an vital function in wassoulou. The individuals who name themselves Wasulunke outline their ethnicity as tripartite: they're of Fula (Fulbe, Peul) lineage; their cultural framework falls inside the Maninka-Bamana matrix; and these two identities intersect in configurations which can be particular to the area. As well as, there's a lot interplay with neighbouring peoples such because the Senufo. Thus a part of the character of Wasulu is its variety. Imperato estimates the Wasulunke inhabitants at c. 100,000 (Imperato 1981), although this isn't based mostly on a agency census; many maps of ethnic teams and languages in Mali fail to quote the Wasulunke, classifying them as both Fula or Bamana. As well as, the Wasulunke have migrated extensively each as seasonal staff to Bamako (Meillassoux 1968b:49, 96) and as settled communities to the Gambia,'2 the Ivory Coast and inside Mali itself. Wasulunka is intently associated to Maninka, the language of the Mande heartland (which borders on Wasulu), differing primarily by means of pronunciation and a few vocabulary. Although they don't converse Pulaar (the Fula language), and certainly don't seem to have performed so for a lot of generations (Amselle 1990:73), the Wasulunke preserve not less than symbolically a powerful sense of Fula heritage. The 4 essential patronyms of Wasulu-Diallo, Diakite, Sidibe and Sangare- are clan lineages that are stated to be descended from the 4 sons of 1 Fula girl (Amselle 1990:35; Cisse and Kamissoko 1991:160fn). As Amselle has proven, nevertheless (1990: ch.three), the notion of Fula ethnicity is ambiguous and primarily related in relation to neighbouring identities. Music is a technique wherein the Wasulunke reclaim their Fula heritage, notably with teams who're exterior the area as an announcement of their very own identification. It's vital that a number of modern wassoulou singers have been born in Bamako (e.g. Oumou Sangare). Fula identification is symbolically emphasised in names of ensembles comparable to Wasolonfenin ("the cream of Wasulu")--a reference to the normal occupation of the Fula as cow-herders and sellers of milk, in addition to a metaphor that means "the perfect of'.13 Sure songs within the wassoulou 11 See Imperato's account of Sogoninkun (1981: 46) and Meillassoux 1968b: 99. 12 For instance it's stated that the oldest part of Bakau, a small coastal city within the Gambia, was settled by folks from Wasulu; this part remains to be referred to as Wasulunkunda ("the Wasulu compound"). 13 Featured on Electrical and acoustic Mali CD band 11 This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 106 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Fig. 2: Kassim Sidibe (kamalengoni participant), Lille, 1995 repertoire, comparable to Jula Samba, additionally make use of remoted Fula phrases.14 Two devices extensively related to the Fula have been launched into wassoulou ensembles up to now decade: the one-string horse-hair fiddle soku (actually "horse tail"; as utilized by e.g. Sali Sidibe); and the rim-blown cane flute fle, typically substituted by an orchestral flute and violin.15s Most vital is using the kamalengoni (youth harp; see Fig. 2), which is particular to Wasulu, and which has such a particular timbre that it instantly indicators regional identification, a lot the identical manner that, for instance, the sound of Uillean pipes indicators Irish music. 14 The music, in reward of a Fula cow-herder referred to as Samba, features a refrain in a mix of Pulaar and Mande phrases; cf. Sali Sidibe's Santana, from her cassette Sali Sidibe. 15 Notice that the pentatonic scales render a Fula ethos to the mix of violin and flute, which in any other case is related to the Cuban "charanga" orchestral formation, fashionable in Mali through the 1970s; cf. Oumou Sangare, Moussolou, CD. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durin: Birds of Wasulu 107 This may also be seen as a part of the development of some wassoulou kinds in direction of folklorisation, i.e. a acutely aware illustration of inter-ethnicity, wherein one can see the affect of cultural insurance policies initiated after Mali's independence, such because the formation of regional and nationwide ensembles. For instance, some wassoulou ensembles have included the bolon, the Maninka four-string bass harp previously performed to incite kings to struggle, and now not often heard exterior the context of state-subsidised regional ensembles. The big Senufo pentatonic gourd- resonated xylophone can also be featured in lots of wassoulou ensembles, reflecting the proximity of Senufo tradition within the Wasulu area (cf. Fig. three). One other facet of Wasulu identification, bolstered in nearly all types of wassoulou, is the affiliation with the cultural, ethical and non secular world of hunters, for which the area is known. This can be mentioned in additional element beneath. Fig. three: Karinyan (iron scraper), kamalengoni (participant sporting hunter's hat) and Senufo balafon; a part of Sali Sidibe's ensemble, 1989 '1 ;L '6 '" ": " :,tY::: ?'i ?"' ~:~P?. *; .,;a~'~?~--'=:"?'~?~'' -? ?, r t-~ c P?:" -'? '76:: ?.?~ i- :? r ii r t X; .r :lb c .iE ?: This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 108 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) The kono (fowl) as metaphor for musician One of many principal methods wherein the performers of wassoulou articulate their sense of a particular identification is within the social r61e and standing of their musicians. The important thing problem right here is the designation "birds" (konow, sing. kono). The konow outline themselves as musicians and singers by choice--not birth--who have the particular r6le of conveying vital messages. This units them diametrically other than the jeliw, the endogamous class of hereditary musicians, who underpin Mande social construction, and who concentrate on narrative histories and genealogies of Mande lineages. No documentation seems to exist on kono as a basic time period for Wasulunke musicians. That is presumably as a result of a lot of the music of the konow has not been studied, and likewise exactly as a result of they don't represent a particular social group. The time period emerges primarily in their very own discourse, as a manner of differen- tiating themselves from the jeliw. Although little doubt this has develop into extra of a difficulty for the reason that emergence of wassoulou on the favored music scene, there's loads of proof to counsel that the time period kono is way older than wassoulou itself. Certainly a number of key informants state that it's as previous because the time period jeli, although not as widespread.16 The metaphor of fowl for singers is, in fact, not at all unique to Wasulu. In lots of cultures world wide they signify nice voices-for instance the feminine Egyptian singer Um Kalthum was referred to as the "nightingale of the Nile"; the Peruvian singer Victor Alberto Gil, fashionable through the 1970s, was often known as "the hummingbird of the Andes"; whereas the canary in Spain and the mockingbird in Cuba are different examples of birds as metaphors for virtuosic voices.17 What is maybe singular to Wasulu is the way in which wherein the time period "fowl" is used not simply as an epithet, however as a particular appellation for all musicians who carry out music by alternative. For instance, the hunters' donsongoni participant is named "string- taking part in fowl" (jurufo kono) and the singer merely kono. In Cashion's transcription of the hunters' narrative Famori, Seydou Camara typically refers to himself as each kono and jurufo kono, in such a manner that it's clearly accepted utilization; e.g. "will you not give some meat to the string-playing fowl? I've given you renown" (I te ne jurufo kono son sobo la, n y'i son togo la), and "Hunters have gone to relaxation, Lore Tanin shouldn't be in the home...nostalgia entered the birds" (nyinansuma donin konoi la); "Mali cash has been given to the fowl, I thanks" (Mali wari dilen kono ma, ko barika). Cashion explains that "the 'birds' refers to these singers, each previous and current, who sang their [the hunters'] feats" (1984.2: traces 85, 129, 180; p. 336 fn). He doesn't, nevertheless, make any reference to the time period in his 16 Thus the kora participant Sidiki Diabate states, "kono is the way you name the singers who should not jeliw, there have all the time been konow" (interview 1995). 17 See Huaynos & huaylas: the true music of Peru, Globestyle CD ORBD 064, sleeve notes by L. DurAn, 1990. Feld has performed intensive analysis on fowl symbolism within the music of the Kaluli, Papua New Guinea (e.g. Feld 1982). This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp DurAn: Birds of Wasulu 109 description of the hunters' musician as performer, utilizing as an alternative the higher recognized phrases donsojeli and serewa (1984.1:286). In Mande, birds are a logo of knowledge, the human spirit, and all types of singing.18 In view of this, it's suprising that so little info on the kono as singer exists. The connection between birds and verbal expertise in Mande is historic and vital. The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, who visited Mansa Sulyeman's court docket in Mali in 1355, describes the r6le of "poets" (whom Battuta additionally calls jali) on a feast day. Every of them has enclosed himself inside an effigy product of feathers, resembling a [bird called] shaqshaq, on which is fastened a head product of wooden with a crimson beak as if it have been the pinnacle of a shaqshaq. They stand in entrance of the sultan on this comical form and recite their poems. I used to be advised that their poetry is a form of exhortation wherein they are saying to the sultan "This banbi on which you might be sitting was sat upon by such and such a king and of his good deeds have been so-and-so...so that you do good deeds which can be remembered after you". Then the chief of the poets mounts the steps of the banbi and locations his head within the lap of the sultan. Then he mounts to the highest of the banbi and locations his head on the sultan's proper shoulder, then upon his left shoulder, speaking of their language. I used to be knowledgeable that this act was already previous earlier than Islam, and so they had continued to do it. (Ibn Battuta, in Levtzion and Hopkins 1981:293) Battuta makes one other vital commentary: Mansa Suleyman's "interpreter" was a musician referred to as Dugha, who performed an instrument that's clearly the balafon (ibid), within the custom of Sunjata's personal jeli, Bala Faseke Kouyate. Duga means "vulture", a logo of bravery and knowledge in Mande, as within the proverb "the eldest/wisest fowl is the vulture" (kono korolin ye duga ye) (Sangare interview 1995). In Mande tradition typically, mastery is related to the knowledge acquired by means of age and expertise. Thus nice kono singers are termed kono koroba ("previous fowl") and typically merely duga ("vulture") (Sangare ibid).19 Birds additionally characteristic within the Sunjata epic as conveyors of vital messages. In Niane's model of the epic, they seem at numerous essential moments. On the eve of the decisive battle at Kirina wherein Sunjata lastly defeats his enemy Sumaoro, the latter "determined to claim his rights earlier than becoming a member of battle. Sumaoro knew that Sundiata additionally was a sorcerer, so, as an alternative of sending an embassy, he dedicated his phrases to one in all his owls. The night time fowl got here and perched on the roof of Djata's tent and spoke. The son of Sogolon in his flip despatched his owl to Sumaoro" (Niane 1965:61). The owl (gwingwin) is "the fowl that sees all, each in daylight and darkness" and is one in all many symbols of occult energy in hunters narratives (Cashion 1984.2:7, 335). As in lots of cultures, birds are thought of omens in Mande. The very best recognized instance of that is the "black fowl of misfortune" who heralded Somaoro's defeat 18 I'm grateful to Cherif Keita for elucidating many elements of fowl symbolism in Mande tradition to me; pers. comm., 1995. 19 Masterjeliw are against this referred to as ngara, "grasp musician"; see Durdn 1995. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 110 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) at Kirina (Niane 1965:65). That is the fowl that gave rise to the Kono cult celebrated yearly at Kirina, one in all six initiatory societies in Mande. It includes a masquerade with a masks that's part-elephant, part-bird, representing "man's capability for thought", which is a "fowl able to lifting an elephant and carrying it away". The songs of the cult reveal "how self-knowledge might result in satisfaction or to regret, and the way the 'inside voice' instructions or forbids such and such an motion" (Zahan 1974:19). Whereas the kono singers of as we speak's wassoulou don't acknowledge any direct relationship with the Kono cult, this assertion echoes with outstanding accuracy their very own discourse on their r61e and performance, as described beneath. There are a number of Mande fowl masquerades in Mali as we speak (McNaughton 1988; Arnoldi 1983). Along with the Kono secret society, there are additionally kono masquerades of age-set associations in Bougouni cercle wherein the masks represents the hornbill, whose "shrewdness and intelligence are hidden beneath a maladroit exterior". Imperato (1980:54) reviews witnessing a efficiency wherein feminine singers accompanied on drums sang kono si te kamale kono bo ("no fowl is as nice because the younger folks's fowl"). Birds are represented as symbols of knowledge and ancestry in masquerades and sculptures amongst different neighbouring cultures, e.g. the Senufo and the Dan (Garrard 1995:457; Zemp 1993). The nightingale (sorofe) additionally has robust associations in Mande tradition with verbal arts.20 It might be related to quote right here one other use of the time period kono: Leynaud reviews on the r61e of a kid termed kono, within the choice course of for the pinnacle of a senior Mande lineage.21 The kono within the musicians' discourse To know the importance of kono standing, it's essential to summarise right here the place of musicians typically among the many Mande. The three social courses of the Mande-the horon (freeborn; descendants of Sunjata and his generals); the nyamakala (craft-professions--music, reward, smithery, leatherworkers); and the jon (descendants of slaves), have been a lot researched and debated (see Conrad and Frank 1995). The hereditary musicians (jeliw) belong to the nyamakala class, and sing the histories, praises, and genealogies of the horon, with whom they've a patron-client relationship. Comparable endogamous teams exist amongst neighbouring peoples and are certainly additionally attribute of Wasulu. The jeliw are inclined to monopolise most types of public and professional efficiency (see Charry 1992; Camara 1992; Conrad and Frank 1995), except for some kinds 20 As within the cassette Jamana Sorofe, which options interviews with 4 main jeliw on the character of their musical and verbal artwork. 21 E. Leynaud (1960) Les cadres sociaux de la vie rurale dans la Haute-Vallge du Niger, Paris, pp.23-Four, cited in Meillassoux 1968b. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Dur-n: Birds of Wasulu 111 of drumming.22 Social attitudes in direction of the jeliw and the nyamakala as "folks of caste" have had a profound impact on these few people who, although "freeborn", have chosen music as their occupation, notably within the case of singers within the fashionable area.2 The konow fall exterior this social hierarchy and specific nice pleasure on this. They might reward people, simply because the hunters' musician might, however they don't sing genealogies or reward names. They co-exist with jeliw, however they're the "songsters" whereas the Wasulunke jeliw are story-tellers. The jeliw of Wasulu function in a restricted area, utilizing the speech mode often known as tarikou. Amongst Maninka jeliw, that is thought of the optimum mode for narrative, essentially the most tough and prestigious, carried out solely by senior male Mande jeliw (Duran 1995). The artwork of the kono, alternatively, is music, not speech: they see themselves because the voice of the folks, freed from any restrictions, whether or not of gender, age, efficiency mode or repertoire. They've two duties: to sing superbly, and to convey issues of significance. Oumou Sangare describes the respective roles of jeli and kono as follows: In Wasulu we now have numerous griots, born griots, they're often males...however they not often sing. They're historians, our griots. They take an ngoni, [lute], they sit down and inform all of the historical past of Wasulu. That is what we name griots, the wasulunkajeli. They inform how Wasulu was created...their music is totally completely different from mine. However they'll additionally do the music I do, everyone seems to be free to do it, you do not have to be a jeli...to do the normal music of Wasulu...We're kono as a result of we're messengers, we sing for a cause, with a purpose, to advise folks or move messages...not just like the griots. Earlier than, in Wasulu,...if a king needs to battle with one other king, he takes a fowl, writes a letter, attaches it to the leg of the fowl, then lets it go. When the hunters see the fowl they kill it, they know the message is for them, they learn it, the struggle begins. Lengthy way back! (Sangare interview 1995) This description has robust resonances with the owl episode in Sunjata quoted above. It have to be stated, nevertheless, that the jeliw typically additionally name themselves kono. Whereas extra analysis must be performed on this, it seems that such utilization doesn't change the time period jeli, however qualifies it, to indicate a very nice singer, or to sign a message of nice significance. For instance, the feminine jeli (jelimuso) Nantenegue Kamissoko, a grasp singer (ngara) from Kirina, calls herself Kirina kono and Lembouroula kono (the fowl of Kirina, the fowl of the lemon tree). The truth that she is from Kirina, house of the Kono cult, might presumably of some significance on this connection (Cherif Keita pers. comm. 1995). One other nice jelimuso, Fanta Damba "no.1", in speaking of Samory Toure's jeli Tasirimaghan, 22 The oppositional interplay between drumming and jeliw is clearly demonstrated in Meillassoux's account (1968a) of the famend septennial re-roofing ceremony at Kaaba within the coronary heart of Mande. 23 E.g. Salif Keita and Ali Farka Toure; see L. Durdn (1996) "Salif Keita", Folks Roots 149: 42- 48; L. Durin (1995) sleeve notes to Ali Farka Toure, Radio Mali, World Circuit WCD 044. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 112 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) says "when the monkey climbs the tree you may catch it by its tail, however not the fowl".24 Not surprisingly, birds are talked about steadily within the music texts of the jeliw each as omens and as metaphors for heroic sorts. Two of the oldest and most vital songs in thejeli's repertoire commemorate birds: Koulandjan (marabou stork), is a music in reward of hunters, and Duga (the vulture) is about bravery in battle.25 In Cono, a music by Salif Keita, one in all Mali's hottest singers (who although not a jeli has been influenced by the fashion of jeliw), the fowl represents a voice "of paths, of hills, of the river, of the gods" which has come "to not convey you struggling however to warn you as an alternative".26 In Simba, a music by the jelimuso Ami Koita (who by the way can also be from Kirina), a fowl performs an vital r61e as an omen, representing a non-Islamic voice. Simba tells the story of a lady who's having difficulties conceiving. She hears the voice of the koyankono, a fowl "who has two songs, one in all good omen, the opposite dangerous". This fowl mocks her by saying she's going to by no means have a toddler, however she replies, "I hear your voice, however I have not but heard the voice of God". Ultimately, her prayers to God are answered and she or he provides beginning.27 Many jeliw songs include the phrase: "the voice of the fowl of Mande has come forth" (Mande kono kan bora), typically as a repeated chorus.28 This components additionally happens in wassoulou lyrics. Not less than a 3rd of the songs recorded by Oumou Sangare's include phrases comparable to "hearken to the voice of the Wasulu kono".29 Her guitarist, Boubacar Diallo, explains that that is her manner of claiming "this message is vital; it comes from Wasulu, however it's for everybody, so concentrate" (Diallo interview 1995). The roots of wassoulou Wassoulou has its roots in a lot of kinds and dance rhythms carried out in quite a lot of contexts all through the Wasulu area. This paper focusses on the kamalengoni as the most important supply of wassoulou, however first, it outlines briefly the opposite genres which have contributed to the music, specifically sogoninkun and didadi. 24 From the cassette Jamana Sorofe, aspect B. 25 Chicken (1972b: 468) describes this music as "the oldest and most widespread music recognized in West Africa, recorded in early Arabic texts." 26 Salif Keita, Soro, Stems 1020 (1987). Cono is one other spelling of kono. 27 From Ami Koita, Tata Sira: the quotes are her personal explanations, from an interview, 1991. 28 Many examples might be cited, e.g. the younger jelimuso, Hadja Soumano: bolin ye Mande kono, kono kan ye sanukan ye--"the Mande fowl has come forth, the voice of the fowl is the voice of gold" (from her album Nteri Diaba, Syllart 38771-Four). See additionally the chorus of Mory Kante's acoustic music Teriya, which is concerning the energy of the phrase: "Ah, Mande kono kan bora"- '"the voice of the Mande fowl is out", from his album Ten Cola Nuts (Barclay BA581, 1986). 29 E.g. Oumou Sangare's music Kayini wura, wherein she sings: "Could my fathers and moms forgive me / might my wordsmith masters forgive me / for the apprentice is practising her language / Could they not be offended / Right here comes the fowl of Wasulu with the nice message / With the nostalgia of her brother Malians in her coronary heart" (from Oumou Sangare, Ko Sira: CD; translations from sleeve notes). This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durwn: Birds of Wasulu 113 Fig. Four: Djembe participant and sogoninkun dancers; child-naming ceremony, Bamako, 1995 Wassoulou performers attribute one of many roots of their music to a masquerade referred to as sogoninkun, which has specific rhythms and singing kinds (sogoninkun- folt). Sogoninkun ("the little antelope head") is essentially the most attribute masquerade of the Wasulunke and the southern Bamana, originating in Wasulu (Fig. Four). It has been documented primarily by Prouteaux (1929), Meillassoux (1968a) and Imperato (1981), and is talked about in passing by McNaughton (1988). Sogoninkun is one in all many masquerades whose authentic context was the age- set affiliation (ton). It's a fast-tempo masked dance carried out by males accompanied solely on the djembe and dundun (giant cylindrical drum performed with sticks). The lead singer (termed kono) is feminine as is the refrain. Made from sculpted wooden and heavy crimson or blue cotton fabric, the masks, which is claimed to signify a feminine antelope, covers the pinnacle fully, and hangs over the face, all the way down to the chest, with small holes for the eyes. There's a white bushy (goathair) tail on prime and smaller tufts of goathair hooked up to the perimeters of the face fabric. The masked dancers, sporting ankle rattles, work together with the drummers utilizing highly effective and supple acrobatic actions, described as these of a lion (a logo of energy). Those that have the status of being nice dancers, comparable to Amadu Ba (from Bougouni cercle), are typically referred to as "sorcier danseurs" and they're stated to "fly by means of the air" (Sali Sidibe interview). Ladies additionally carry out the sogoninkun as a dance, however with swish calm gestures (Diallo This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 114 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) interview). The songs assist to contextualise the masks and interpret their messages; the lyrics might confer with the prowess of sure animals and likewise to nice heroes of the previous. The dancers additionally work together with the singer: "the feminine soloist steadily locations her hand on the sogoni koun [sic] dancer's shoulder, allaying his fears, slowly singing his praises..." (Imperato 1981:45). Imperato states that sogoninkun is one in all a number of "animal kids" (wara deoun) masked dances carried out for public leisure, often for agricultural festivities. He reviews that whereas it has declined for the reason that Second World Conflict, "some very proficient sogoni koun performers have develop into theatrical stars with audiences and reputations nicely past their native districts" (Imperato 1981:40). Meillassoux's examine of Bamako within the 1960s reveals that migrant staff from Wasulu have been a major factor of the town's inhabitants; he describes an "inter-ethnic" Bougouni affiliation who carried out sogoninkun and different masked dances. The masked dancers have been "youthful males between fourteen and twenty, who have been born in Bougouni and stay quickly on the town as seasonal staff, typically unemployed...between the appearances of the masks younger males and even kids of the affiliation step in to carry out yayoba, an acrobatic dance..." (Meillassoux 1968b:97, 99). However, Imperato's account of sogoninkun performances in Mali through the late 60s reveals robust parallels with wassoulou. He describes how the singers addressed numerous messages to each dancers and viewers; the younger feminine soloist would "ask everybody's forgiveness, for herself and the troupe, for any direct or oblique insults that will inadvertently come up throughout her singing...[because] she is younger and like all younger folks is able to committing errors".30 He additionally recounts an occasion wherein one (feminine) singer brazenly ridiculed a European within the viewers who was attempting to file the efficiency, satirising first him as a person, after which Europeans basically: "Hey massive fats white man/you within the shorts/you with gray hair and glasses/I see your crimson shirt/your white socks/that stick you might be hiding/it's a microphone..." (Imperato 1981:46). Sogoninkun and different masked dances disappeared through the radical measures of Modibo Keita's regime previous to his overthrow in 1968, and thereafter went right into a decline (Imperato 1981). The extreme droughts that Mali suffered have additionally taken their toll on traditions related to the agricultural cycle. However sogoninkun continues to be carried out as a masked dance amongst Wasulunke each within the area and in Bamako, at weddings and circumcision celebrations, however not within the context of wassoulou music, the place it was recreated as a rhythm and elegance of singing.31 However, lots of the early wassoulou artists of the 1960s and '70s such because the late feminine singer Kagbe Sidibe, began out as sogoninkun singers. Abdoulaye Diabate, a well-liked singer initially from Segou, however now based mostly in Koutiala, who 30 Cf. Oumou Sangare's music Kayini wura, cited in earlier footnote. 31 E.g. in Oumou Sangare's music Djamakaisoumnou, from her CD Moussolou. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durnin: Birds of Wasulu 115 incorporates wassoulou kinds into his recordings, has a music entitled Sogoninkun, wherein he celebrates the custom. One of the crucial influential singers of wassoulou, Coumba Sidibe, can also be extensively related to sogoninkun; her father was reputed to be a terrific exponent of the dance.32 The second most vital supply of wassoulou, described by some musicians as even older than sogoninkun, is a ritual fertility dance which in its secularised fashionable model is named didadi an onomatopoeic sound for the drum rhythm, beforehand termed jakawara.33 The dance includes a semi-circle of girls and ladies, who bend forwards on the waist and dance with pelvic actions, to point out "the corpulence of the buttocks" (Diallo interview). Didadi has develop into a mode in its personal proper in wassoulou, differentiated from different kinds by the absence of the kamalengoni (youth harp). Some artists are inclined to concentrate on didadi, comparable to Nahawa Doumbia, a feminine singer from the Bougouni cercle. Her first album was entitled Didadi). Abdoulaye Diabate additionally is understood for his didadi fashion, as within the music Sissi kouloun wherein the refrain (didadi foli kera jinna foli ye "didadi is the music of djinns") reinforces the affiliation of wassoulou music with occult energy. Kamalengoni, wassoulou and the evocation of the hunters' world Probably the most distinctive and widespread fashion of wassoulou, nevertheless relies on the music of the kamalengoni, the six string "youth" harp. There may be in follow little distinction between the kind of music often known as kamalengoni and wassoulou. Each kamalengoni and its companion instrument the karinyan (iron tube scraper) present a direct hyperlink with the world of hunters, from which they've been appropriated. The kamalengoni represents a secularisation of the donsongoni, the hunters' harp, (donso = hunter; ngoni = string instrument) which is a ritual instrument, believed to include nyama34 (occult power, power). The donsongoni has a extremely distinctive timbre, which evokes, by associative course of, the "mystique" of looking (donsoya), and its values--bravery, talent, crafty and entry to that esoteric energy that grasp hunters possess. Taken out of this context, the kamalengoni is a powerless, playful youth model of the hunters' harp. But, with nearly similar taking part in approach and sound, it inevitably evokes an identical associative, emotional and aesthetic response; which contributes to the enchantment of wassoulou. 32 See her compact disc Sanghan, sleeve notes: "son pare dtait un sorcier danseur du Sokoninkou, toujours du grand Wassoulou". 33 In response to Oumou Sangare (interview 1995). I've discovered no additional info on the topic, aside from a music entitled Djaka wara by Fanta Naya Diawara, wherein she sings of djaka wara as synonymous with didadi; the music is in didadi rhythm and elegance (audio cassette Fanta Naya Diawara). Meillassoux supplies an outline of a masked dance referred to as jarawara which often is the identical (1968b: 91). 34 The idea of nyama has preoccupied students of Mande tradition for the reason that flip of the century; see McNaughton 1988. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 116 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Hunters play a particular r61e in Mande society, a r1le which has been nicely documented by Cisse, Chicken, Cashion and others. Although looking as such is a vanishing lifestyle, it stays in Mali (and elsewhere in Africa, as Herbert has proven) a "locus of perception' wherein "bush and forest are cosmological in addition to geographical constructs" (Herbert 1993:166). It's extensively accepted that hunters' societies contributed to the founding of the Mali empire. The respect for hunters and the world they symbolise--"an exercise that refuses to confess its anachronism" (ibid:164)--fimds many expressions in present-day Malian considering and cultural expression, together with music. Many songs of the jeliw both confer with and reward hunters, or include musical quotes from well-known songs by hunters' musi- cians.35 Nevertheless, jeliw and hunters occupy very completely different cultural and ideological domains, a distinction which is bolstered in a lot of origin legends.36 That is bolstered through the sound of the kamalengoni, the kono standing of its musicians, and using sure imagery, textual formulae, and music construction. For instance, Coumba Sidibe's mid-1980s music Mougoukan ("the sound of gunpowder") is devoted to the late president of the Ivory Coast, Houphouet Boigny, and his spouse (Madame Th6rbse). The music compares Boigny (and his military commanders) to the grasp hunter, whereas she claims for herself the authority of a fowl who observes from the gap of tree-tops: That is the dance of males, that is the sound of hunters' weapons, the sound of gunpowder places worry into the hearts of males you might be right here Boigny, that is the sound of the drum of Wasulu. Mine Therese, that is the sound of your drum. For you, the president of Ivorian ladies, right here is the sound of the Wasulu drum. The lion is harmful, commander Salimou, when the lion comes, everyone seems to be within the palms of their mom. Once I converse of males, Houphouet Boigny is a superb man...he has gunpowder with him, it is true! I am on prime of 1 tree, I'm going to a different tree, I converse of 1 individual, then I name one other...37 The fixed chorus of i ya dunun kan ye ("that is the sound of your drum") that follows every identify and place talked about on this music is an actual reproduction of the components utilized by Seydou Camara (see Cashion 1984.2: traces 90-249) and different hunters' musicians, often in direction of the start of their narratives. Certainly the 35 Thus Balakononfin, a music made well-known by the blind Maninka harpist/singer Bala Jimba Diakite, has been recorded in lots of fashionable variations by the Rail Band, Mory Kante, Salif Keita, and most just lately by the feminine singer Kandia Kouyate on her cassette Sa kunu sa. It has a easy, repetitive accompaniment on the simbi harp, which is instantly distinctive within the fashionable variations as nicely. 36 E.g. the well-known story of the 2 Diabate brothers, Damansa Wulemba and Damansa Wulending: the latter (youthful) brother is the nice marksman and manages to kill a wild beast, whereas the older brother sings his praises. See Darbo 1976. 37 Coumba Sidibe, Mougoukan, from her CD Coumba Sidibe, linear translations by Boubacar Diallo. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp DurAn: Birds of Wasulu 117 frequent reference to gunpowder and drums in each hunters' songs and wassoulou is arguably extra symbolic than literal. One other components of the hunters' songs that's echoed in wassoulou lyrics is the declaration that a jinn has "come out" for the individual to whom the music is devoted. This can be a manner of building the ability (nyama) of that individual, as in Sali Sidibe's music Diaby, which opens with the chorus Ah, Diaby, jinne bora Diaby ye ("Ah Diaby, the jinns have come out for Diaby").38 Comparable connections between wassoulou and hunters' music are made by means of references to sure hunters' dances such because the ntanan, that are reserved just for grasp hunters, e.g. those that have killed a lion; violation of this rule is believed to have severe penalties for the person. Therefore, wassoulou titles comparable to Ntanan (a 1988 music by Sali Sidibe, devoted to Mali's former president, Moussa Traore) have highly effective connotations. Herbert has proven that hunters in Africa together with smiths and kings are a "tripartite illustration of male energy", however in contrast to the latter two, hunters should not decided by lineage. Hunters' societies are egalitarian each when it comes to class and ethnicity; the title of "nice hunter" could also be conferred on any member, regardless of social standing age or ethnic background (Coulibaly). Certainly its solely exclusion is gender-based. Hunters' societies operate as a form of freemasonry, and although looking is now closely restricted (by laws, lack of recreation, deforestation and so forth.) the societies meet on a lot of events, for instance on the funeral of one in all their members. Sporting mud-dye fabric tunics lined with amulets, they fireplace their weapons into the air, and dance to the songs accompanied on donsongoni and karinyan. Though these are non-public gatherings, they typically entice a big public, inspiring respect and awe, in addition to a deep aesthetic response.39 The kamalengoni: development and tuning Hunters' harps are present in most of western, central and southern Mali, a raised bridge at proper angles to the sound desk,40 differing primarily in accordance with whether or not they have both one or two rows of strings, and are pentatonic or heptatonic. The Wasulu donsongoni, like its youth counterpart the kamalengoni, has two parallel rows of three (nylon, previously twisted rope) strings every, tuned to a pentatonic scale. Whereas the donsongoni might solely be performed within the designated ritual contexts of the hunters' societies, the kamalengoni has no such necessities, and has no particular powers. Some musicians nevertheless think about it a type of apprenticeship to the donsongoni.41 38 From her CD Wassoulou foli. Examine Seydou Camara's opening traces: A yee Famori lee, jina bolen Famori ye; Cashion 1984.2: traces 30-60. 39 See for instance Salif Keita, Future of an outcast, Island Productions, 1989. 40 Often known as ngoni, donsongoni, simbi (among the many Maninka and Khassonke) and tata (among the many Gana). The simbi has just one row of steel strings in heptatonic tuning (as within the music of the well-known blind harpist and singer Bala Jimba Diakite (Coulibaly and so forth.)). 41 In response to the late musician Alou Fane, a singer and kamalengoni participant from Ganadugu (on the periphery of Wasulu), and former musician with Tremendous Djata band: "When the hunter This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 118 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Fig. 5 The kamalengoni strings, their names and tuning Title Pitch denjurufitini D (little baby string) jemanje juru fitini A (little string within the center) bajouroufitini E (little massive string) LEFT HAND ROW (first finger and thumb) Title Pitch kumabal denjuru C (massive sound/baby string) jemanjejuru kumaba G (massive sounding center string) bajourouba D (massive string) RIGHT HAND ROW (thumb solely, however jemanje juru string may also be performed with left- hand thumb reaching over) (Participant sits right here) The karinyan (variant: narinyan; Fig. three) iron percussion rod can also be similar in identify, development and taking part in approach to the hunters' instrument. It consists of a flat piece of iron rolled right into a tube, with serrated edges which can be scraped with an extended iron needle, in a gradual down-up-down sample in both binary or ternary rhythm, additionally attribute of hunters' music. The absence of any documentation on the kamalengoni, could also be due to its current origin, or as a result of it's nearly similar to the donsongoni. Each have just one tuning (see Fig. 5), with intervals of a 4th between the strings of every row, and an total scale of DEGACD. The kamalengoni is tuned a couple of 4th increased than the donsongoni, reflecting the upper pitch of the younger singers' voices,42 in addition to the much less sombre musical fashion. It makes extra prolonged use of improvisation and particular methods comparable to harmonics. The format and tunings of the strings of the kamalengoni impose their very own stylistic parameters on the music. Most of its repertoire relies on the bottom right-hand string, referred to as bajourouba; i.e. the songs start and finish on this string. Wassoulou teams harmonise the bajourouba (DEGAC) scale on guitar or keyboard in a minor key; therefore, a lot of wassoulou music is minor key. Some alternate between the 2 minor scales based mostly on bajourouba and bajouroufitini reaches the age of 40, he turns into a terrific hunter. From this second on he performs his ngoni within the Dozon fashion" (Alou Fane, CD, 1994 sleeve notes). 42 That is confirmed by Diallo, who describes it as "the identical sort" of harp because the donsongoni. His diagram and tunings of the latter are certainly similar, besides that he provides the pitch as a 4th decrease (Diallo n.d.: 47). This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durin:Birds of Wasulu 119 Fig. 6: Kamalengoni, entrance view (EGACD) (e.g. Coumba Sidibe's Koniya, Ladies of Wassoulou CD vol. 1) whereas others comparable to Oumou Sangare's Diarabi nene begin out on bajourouba however then shift to kumaba (C) as centre, thus transferring to a significant pentatonic scale (CDEGA). The 2 center strings are sometimes additionally used as tonal centres to range the pitch and timbre. Just like the hunters' harp, the kamalengoni is constructed from an extended skinny barely curved neck which pierces a calabash resonator (fle), whose prime portion has been minimize open and lined in goatskin (bagolo). The bridge (so, actually "horse") stands at proper angles to the sound desk, placing this instrument into the class of West African bridge harps (Charry 1992, Knight 1973); the bridge is held in place with string tied to 2 lateral soundposts (Fig. 6). The 2 parallel rows of strings move by means of holes within the bridge and are wrapped round nails on the decrease aspect. There are two small cane holders (bolomenelan) that emerge upwards from the resonator and are tied to the decrease part of the neck, although solely the left one This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 120 British Journal ofEthnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) is definitely used to assist the instrument. The left little finger hooks across the holder, and each thumb and first finger are used of the left hand, whereas the suitable hand helps the instrument half-way up the neck, utilizing solely the thumb to play the strings. The distinctive "nervous" sound of the instrument is created by speedy alternating left and right-hand plucking utilizing a punchy, closely staccato strategy of damping the strings (ka dere). That is blended with harmonics ("the key of the ngoni"', as some gamers describe it), producing an interval of a 12th above the word, effected by touching the 2 highest-pitch strings with the knuckle of the thumbs or tip of the left first finger. Musicians typically evaluate the ensuing "uneven" sound (which may also be heard in hunters' music) to the funk rhythms of James Brown. The construction of kamalengoni music mirrors that of the donsongoni: it's constructed round a brief bipartite theme referred to as ngonisin, actually "the leg of the ngoni", that serves as a foundation for instrumental improvisations recognized by the overall time period of teremeli (actually, "musical bargaining"). That is similar to the r6le of kumbengo in Mandinka kora music (Charry 1992, Knight 1973). The songs are additionally much like the solo-chorus construction of the hunters' songs. The kamalengoni nevertheless has developed its personal repertoire, and new songs are always being composed. Appropriation and ethical censorship Not like didadi and sogoninkun, the kamalengoni and its music should not related to any specific event or age-set affiliation (ton). Wasulu musicians date its emergence from the 1930s or '40s, or presumably later, attributing its widespread reputation to at least one musician particularly, Alata Brulaye from Yanfolila. Former accompanist to Kagbe Sidibe, he's extensively credited with the event of the kamalengoni approach. The importance of this instrument is its placing reversal of the ritual nature of hunters' music, a reversal that was thought of surprising on the time. In response to Wasulu informants, the kamalengoni was first created in villages of Yanfolila cercle, by boys who appreciated the sound of hunters' music. Oumou Sangare explains: In Wasulu, hunters are nice healers. The kamalengoni is just like the donsongoni, which is performed by hunters and healers; it is the identical sort of instrument however performed in a different way...it is a symbolic instrument for us, it symbolises youth, as a result of it is the youth who created it. There was a second when it was a harmful phenomenon, as a result of when a youngster in Wasulu heard it, he'd cease working, he'd refuse to work, all of the youth would shout and go to the general public place within the village to bop to the kamalengoni. So the elders forbade it, they even gave it a pejorative identify, they referred to as it samakoro which implies fleas, as a result of when you've them in your mattress you may't sleep or be nonetheless...the women exit at night time and dance... (Oumou Sangare interview 1995) This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Duran: Birds of Wasulu 121 Yoro Zoumana Traore, an authority on Mande music,43 says: The arrival of the 'youth's harp' in Wasulu was a shock to the elders, as a result of they stated it was an instrument which was corrupting younger folks. When one performs the kamalengoni at night time, underneath the moon, younger ladies and boys would dance till daybreak. No lady might keep in her room if she heard it; she can be obliged to creep out to bop...The elders would say, 'this can be a dance social gathering. Let's hearken to the hunter's harp as an alternative...' When the youth harp is taking part in, it is purely for the youth. Its message is straightforward: you want me, I such as you, we rendezvous on the music. (Traore interview 1989) However the music had a strong aesthetic enchantment. "When this identical donsongoni obtained into the palms of the youth, and was very candy and simple to bop, and there have been no rites to do, then everybody went there...folks appreciated it as a result of they might not dance sure rhythms and songs which have been reserved completely for individuals who knew the best way to hunt" (Diallo interview 1995). The kamalengoni dance borrows straight from these of hunters (donsodon), but additionally reveals influences from fashionable American dances of the 1960s, notably the dances of the 1950s and '60s such because the jitterbug and the jerk (Kassim Sidibe interview 1995). It includes primarily a speedy sliding sideways foot motion; in three motions: 1) ft parallel; 2) heels collectively, toes outward in V form; three) toes collectively and heels outward in circumflex. Connections with the jitterbug are notably placing, not within the actions of the dance itself, however due to the parallel "itchy bug" terminology. Additionally, the form of ethical censorship first evoked by the kamalengoni echoes the methods wherein dances just like the jitterbug (and rock and roll basically) have been thought of immoral and corruptive once they first appeared. Such disapproval was additionally a response to the truth that many kamalengoni songs are about love, typically with overtly sensual lyrics, as within the music Diaraby Nene ("the shivers of ardour") made well-known by Oumou Sangare (see beneath), however first created as a kamalengoni piece and recorded by numerous artists. Regardless of the diversification of wassoulou kinds for the reason that late '80s, the sound of the kamalengoni regularly reinforces hyperlinks with rural Wasulu and the world of the hunters. Most just lately these hyperlinks have been made specific visually in "playback" movies of songs. Within the RTM (Radio Tv Malienne) video-clip of Oumou Sangare's music Ko Sira, for instance, a bunch of girls sing on the river whereas close by a younger hunter, wearing full hunter's costume and carrying a gun, dances to the donsongoni. 44 Arnoldi's and Brink's research of Mande theatre have proven how the Mande speak of their efficiency traditions in two total classes: nyan fe which is "severe" (sebe), i.e. non-public ritual, invested with occult energy; and nyenanje which is "playful" (tlon), i.e. public leisure (Arnoldi 1983:23-Four). The 43 Presenter of an influential weekly music programme on RTM tv, "Rencontre avec nos vedettes". 44 Ko Sira, produced Kolly Keita for RTM, 1993. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 122 British Journal ofEthnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) emergence of kamalengoni, its preliminary rejection by the elders as vulgar and corrupt, and using a pejorative identify, are all a side of motion from the "severe" to the "playful" area that may be seen in lots of fashionable music kinds. The event of wassoulou: developments, artists and lyrics Wassoulou first emerged as a named fashion within the years simply after independence, and seems to have been created when sogoninkun singers comparable to (the late) Kagbe Sidibe started to file for Radio Mali. Whereas sogoninkun was initially accompanied solely on drums, Kagbe Sidibe and others started to incorporate the kamalengoni and electrical guitars of their ensembles. Thus two completely different traditions, every with its repertoires, devices and singing kinds, have been mixed within the city context, and this mixture was seen as a illustration of Wasulu identification, therefore the identify wassoulou. The primary recordings date from the 1960s, however in any other case little info is out there on this early part. Wassoulou at this level was not widespread, and should have been eclipsed by Bamako's sogoninkun associations. However wassoulou was one of many earliest recorded kinds in Mali to characteristic feminine singers accompanied on electrical devices, not less than modern with the music of the feminine jeliw (jelimusow) who already have been "radio stars", mixing electrical guitars with conventional devices (Meillassoux 1968b:109). Some informants declare that wassoulou largely remained "underground" in Bamako through the socialist regime of Mali's first president, Modibo Keita (1960-68). Although not at all overtly political it was nonetheless seen as socially subversive as a result of it voiced the aspirations and needs of youth and girls. As has been proven, each sogoninkun and the kamalengoni have been carried out by youth who have been typically underneath the age of 20. The singers, with their "fowl" standing, operated exterior the constraints of patron-client relationships. Their r61e was thought of reverse to that of the jeliw, who within the 1960s have been "actively participat[ing] within the development nationale by means of extremely efficient pro-government propaganda, praising and explaining the leaders' and the social gathering's aims" (Meillassoux 1968b:111). The robust social messages of wassoulou have been "not all the time what folks in energy need to hear" (Diallo interview 1995). After the autumn of Modibo Keita, through the temporary interval of financial restoration underneath Mali's second president, Moussa Traore, wassoulou started to collect momentum. It developed in two essential contexts: the radio, and the Ensemble Instrumental Nationwide (EIN), a state-subsidized ensemble of some 40 musicians from completely different areas, who carried out at official features and at festivals. The primary wassoulou artist to hitch the EIN was the feminine singer Coumba Sidibe from Koninko, Yanfolila cercle, who stays one of many singers most generally related to the style. Often known as Coumba saba ("three Coumbas"): Kawako Coumba, Koninko Coumba, Bamako Coumba--"astonishing Coumba, Coumba from Koninko, Coumba from Bamako", the recognition of one in all her songs within the early 1970s raised consciousness of wassoulou as a style. Diya ye banna ("Pleasure ends") is a celebration of youth, lamenting the finite nature of all things--even the packet of sugar, which finally ends up as a mere paper bag that's crumpled up and This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durnn: Birds of Wasulu 123 thrown away. A model recorded in 1977 with the EIN has no kamalengoni, its r6le being taken by the bolon (four-string bass harp); the "folkloric" evocation of Wasulu identification is principally by means of the karinyan scraper. The music is subtitled "Wasulu folklore".45 Across the identical time, a number of the dance orchestras based mostly in Bamako started to incorporate wassoulou songs of their repertoire, which in any other case was largely based mostly on the music of Maninka jeliw (in addition to some worldwide kinds). For instance, the Ambassadeurs du Motel de Bamako carried out a kamalengoni music Deli geleman ("it's exhausting to half with somebody you've grown used to") and later recorded it in Abidjan, renamed Wassouloufoli, with the late "Mengs" Diakite as singer. The selection of Diakite (who was from Wasulu) for this music and never Salif Keita, in any other case the lead singer with the Ambassadeurs, is important. Wassoulou by no means performed greater than a marginal function in Mali's dance band tradition. Initially, it was felt that singers from the area have been required due to the difficulties of the Wasulunke language. With out this, and with out the presence of a kamalengoni, the pentatonic scales and rhythms of wassoulou weren't simply distinguishable from some types of Bamana and different regional musics. Usually it served a intentionally "folkloristic" operate in dance orchestras. By the early 1980s dance bands have been in any case on the decline in Mali; some (just like the Ambassadeurs, who have been independently financed) had left the nation, and others (just like the Rail Band, which was state subsidised) have been taking part in to diminishing audiences. Within the 1970s there have been solely a handful of artists performing wassoulou however the hole created by the demise of dance bands, and the success of Coumba Sidibe, inspired different Wasulunke musicians to maneuver to the capital. Sali Sidibe (Fig. 7), born in Bougouni cercle, was recruited in 1978 (whereas nonetheless in her teenagers) to the EIN, at a time when, in her phrases, "solely the songs of griots have been favoured by Bamako's residents". It was her concept to include the kamalengoni into the ensemble. In the future I requested Dji [the Minister of Culture, Idrissa Mariko] to introduce the devices from Wasulu into the Ensemble. He stated to me, "Why do not you do it? Sing the songs of your area for us!"...I replied, "I will not be capable of sing my songs correctly in my very own language [Wasulunka] with out my devices. The balafon [xylophone] of the jeliw is completely different from the Senufo balafon. The Senufo balafon 'speaks' my language, whereas Maninka devices just like the kora can not 'pronounce' Wasulunka." Then the Minister requested me to convey a djembe and kamalengoni, to see in the event that they actually might "converse" my language. That is how they first made their entry into the Ensemble Instrumental. (Sali Sidibe interview 1989). The brand new emphasis on kamalengoni within the EIN (Fig. Eight) was taken up within the '80s by a lot of smaller unbiased folkloric and wassoulou ensembles performing across the capital. The distinctive sound of the instrument revived the 45 A model recorded in 1977 was re-released on the LP Ensemble instrumental du Mali (Mali Stars), Syllart SYL 8379. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 124 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Fig. 7: Sali Sidibe and kamalengoni participant, at house in Bamako, 1989 connections with the hunters' world and offered a marked distinction to the music of the jeliw which used a unique instrumentation. Round this time many artists have been leaving the EIN, which was felt to be restrictive professionally, some (together with each Sali Sidibe and Coumba Sidibe) taking on solo careers. Each continued to use their standing as "free" singers by commenting on society in a lot of methods. For instance in one in all Coumba Sidibe's songs, Cautious, she condemns the corruptive nature of cash: "Coumba says cash is harmful; greenback cash is dangerous, French cash is dangerous, Malian cash is dangerous; women and men, be careful; when you have cash, however you do not use your head, that cash will destroy you". (from her CD Coumba Sidibe). This may be taken as a touch upon political corruption in addition to on the rising materialism of Malian society (and presumably additionally on the jeliw). This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durin: Birds of Wasulu 125 Fig. Eight: Kamalengoni participant (entrance) with members of the Ensemble Instrumental Nationwide du Mali, Bamako, 1987 The liberty of "fowl" singers to remark with impunity is encapsulated in a Bamana music of the interval by Abdoulaye Diabate: Yayankono, whose chorus says kono bee be kasi le, wa kiri te bo a la : "all of the birds are singing, however nobody can move judgment on them". On this music, he rebuffs criticisms which have been directed at him for issues he has sung, citing the chorus in his defence. Although Diabate is a jeli, he additionally courses himself as kono since he performs wassoulou kinds (Diabate interview 1991).46 46 See additionally above, within the description of sogoninkun and didadi, for a dialogue of Diabate's wassoulou kinds; he was the lead singer with the regional orchestras of Koutiala (Sikasso), Koule Star and Kene Star, c. 1975-85. Yayankono is on his cassette Namawou. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 126 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) The moralising tone of some lyrics mirror methods wherein Moussa Traore's financial and political insurance policies have been severely threatening the social material (see Brenner, forthcoming). In Douga Diarabi (on CD Wassoulou foli), Sali Sidibe sings: Those that are blessed on this world have an obligation in direction of those that should not. God has made some folks rich-what have they performed for God? Others He has made poor; what have they performed to deserve that? If God has listened to the blessings of oldsters and rewarded their kids with wealth, let Him not overlook the poor; if He has rewarded others with massive households, let him not overlook the orphans.47 Such songs, nevertheless, have been additionally balanced with different texts expressing nationalistic sentiments and even pan-Africanism, in addition to songs devoted to political leaders together with Traore himself,48 partly a "technique of survival" for unbiased artists who had no recourse to state subsidy or to the sorts of personal remuneration given to jeliw by their patrons (see Durin 1995). The oppositional relationship of jeli and kono mirror the rising rivalry between the 2; certainly some jeliw regarded the arrival of wassoulou onto the skilled music scene with concern and even hostility. Oumou Sangare recollects: "At first, when ladies singers of wassoulou wished to carry out in public, the jeliw gave us a tough time. They complained that since we're not born into the caste, we had no proper to sing. The caste had an actual monopoly on music in Mali. However our folks have turned all that round, as a result of even when we're not jeliw, we are able to nonetheless be 'artistes'. This has been an actual wrestle for us however in the long run we're popping out on prime as a result of the general public is bored with being extorted for cash." Ami Koita, the most effective recognized and hottest and profitable feminine jeliw (jelimusow) of the mid-'80s and early '90s, articulates a widespread view amongst these singers that they have been the r61e fashions for the feminine "stars" of wassoulou. "Possibly [Wasulu] ladies started to sing their music due to our personal success. Once I was little, each women and men sang wassoulou but it surely wasn't very fashionable, largely it was one thing you heard within the area. It's totally current that folks like Oumou Sangare are profitable with this fashion and I consider it is due to us" (Ami Koita interview 1991). The discourse on the relative deserves of wassoulou vs. jeliya (the artwork of the jeli) extends to ideas and evaluations of musical creativity. The jeli works from a longtime repertoire and inside well-defined parameters of efficiency modes,49 whereas the konow are free to compose new items for which they themselves regularly reset the parameters. On this, parallels between the kono and hunters' musician might be seen. The songs of the jeliw are "merchandise of an extended 47 This (non-linear) translation by Annick Sy was performed to convey the general sense of the music for sleeve notes of the CD. 48 E.g. Coumba Sidibe's music in reward of Houphouet Boigny, and Sali Sidibe's music Ntanan for Moussa Traore, cited above. Sali Sidibe's music Faso Bara encourages Francophone international locations to unite; from her cassette, La perle noir du Wassoulou. 49 These are mentioned intimately by Knight 1972, Charry 1992, and Durdn 1995. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durmn: Birds of Wasulu 127 custom of singers. Nobody artist can create a brand new epic, whereas it isn't out of the bizarre to discover a [hunters'] artist who creates new heroic songs..." (Chicken 1972a:290). Wassoulou is by nature eclectic, combining completely different supply traditions in different methods wherein the kono is seen to have a extra particular person r81e as composer. The folks of Bamako...have grown bored with all the time listening to the identical items carried out repeatedly and invariably by the griots, all the time saying the identical issues. For example Yoro Zumana50 as soon as requested the griots why they do not innovate, do musical analysis, and compose new melodies, they manner that the singers of Wasulu do. The griots replied: "We do not innovate as a result of we now have been born into this, we observe the custom of our moms and dads." This isn't the case [of the kono], and this must be emphasised. (Sali Sidibe interview 1989) Through the 1980s wassoulou underwent an attention-grabbing reversal of the prevailing tendency in Malian fashionable music. At a time when the jeliw have been going more and more "hi-tech", a brand new wave of younger wassoulou artists have been transferring in direction of a extra conventional sound highlighting the kamalengoni but additionally bringing collectively a variety of different regional kinds and devices. One of the crucial influential of those musicians was Oumou Sangare. Born in Bamako, with a household background in Wasulu (her mother and father are from Medina Diassa in Yanfolila and her mom is a sogoninkun singer), Sangare started performing professionally with the folkloric group Djoliba Percussions in 1986. She recorded her first album in Abidjan in 1989 when she was simply 21 years previous and nonetheless single. It was thought of radical in a lot of methods, most of all due to her lyrics brazenly tackle feminist points. The kono, Islam, and gender This raises broader questions of the extent to which gender performs a r61e in wassoulou music, since lots of its greatest recognized exponents are ladies. A full consideration of this problem is exterior the scope of this examine, however right here a number of vital factors could also be raised. In Mande society, singing is usually constructed as a feminine exercise. Camara, in his intensive examine of Maninkajeliw, states categorically that "in Maninka nation, males don't sing in any respect, aside from the griots" (Camara 1975:124; my translation). This division of musical labour (music = feminine; instrumental efficiency, and use of the speech mode = male) (see Durin 1995) has been remarked in passing (although not analysed) by many students. In Meillassoux's dialogue of on the inter-ethnic gumbe5t associations of Bamako within the 1960s, he feedback: "as in different forms of conventional associations, singing is the enterprise of women" (1968b:126). Arnoldi's examine of puppet theatre among the many Bamana provides frequent examples of feminine singers (1983:14, 149, so See word 44 above. 51Gumbe is a mode of youth city music fashionable in Bamako within the 1960s, having arrived there from Senegal within the 1930s; it's widespread in west and central Africa, and was first launched into Sierra Leone within the mid- 19th century by re-settled freed slaves from Jamaica. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 128 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) 200). In each kamalengoni music and sogoninkun the singers are invariably women-indeed within the latter their r1le "is proscribed to singing" (Meillassoux 1968b:96-100). Even within the in any other case all-male hunters' societies, ladies contribute as singers; each Chicken and Cashion confer with the r61e of Seydou Camara's spouse as singer in his in any other case all-male ensemble of apprentices (Chicken 1972a:279; Cashion 1984.2:333 fn Four). The assemble of singing as feminine among the many Mande is a particularly advanced topic.52 Elsewhere, I've famous how feminine jeli singers (jelimusow) dominate fashionable kinds of jeliya in Mali, to the extent that male singers are not often profitable (Durin 1995). In wassoulou, nevertheless, singers could also be of both gender, and it's clear that this represents a break from custom, since in its preliminary phases the singers are invariably feminine. The pioneer singers of wassoulou within the 1960s and early '70s have been ladies, however for the reason that late '80s male singers-notably Abdoulaye Diabate (beforehand talked about), Yoro Diallo (kamalengoni fashion), the singers of the group Wasolonfenin and Jah Youssoufou ("wass reggae")53--have taken their place alongside the feminine konow. This, I counsel, shouldn't be as a result of males are "taking up", however as a result of, with its ethos of social equality and freedom of expression, wassoulou supplies a discussion board for difficult prevailing gender relations, together with the belief that girls ought to be the only real singers. Wassoulou is commonly perceived as reinforcing hyperlinks with non-Islamic perception, and right here too gender performs a r1le. The all-male hunters' music on which wassoulou attracts makes intensive reference to occult energy, since, within the phrases of the singer Seydou Camara, "one can not develop into a hunter/ if no sorcery is in him/ you don't develop into a hunter/ when you have no fetish/ you can not develop into a hunter/ for those who possess no altering energy" (Cashion 1984.2:traces 225-30). Such references are acceptable inside the context of the hunters' world; it's nevertheless one other matter for girls to sing of such issues in public. Sali Sidibe, whose father was the village Imam, says: God made music my factor. However when the authorities [the Ministry of Culture] got here to search out me, my father most popular to go away by the again door not correctly dressed reasonably than must greet them. He stated to me, "Sali, you might be damned in my household! How can I proclaim the phrase of God when you sing profane and animist songs? Clearly, you might be damned. I will not tackle a phrase to those that encourage you in your alternative."...However God made me love music, which I've been performing as much as this present day. I really like nothing extra on this planet than music. (Sali Sidibe, interview 1989) Wassoulou ladies singers concentrate on gendered themes comparable to fertility, wherein occult powers are referred to as upon for assist (infertility is all the time seen as a feminine 52 Some wassoulou and kamalengoni informants present a easy clarification: ladies concentrate on singing as a result of they exhort their menfolk to work the fields. 53 Wass reggae first appeared within the early '90s as a mixture of reggae rhythms with the instrumentation and sound of wassoulou. Most just lately the hyperlinks with wassoulou by self-styled wass reggae artists comparable to Askia Modibo are musically tenuous; Modibo is himself not from Wasulu. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durin: Birds of Wasulu 129 Fig. 9: Oumou Sangare's group in efficiency: Boubacar Diallo (left, guitar), Alima Toure (dancing), Basidi Keita (djembe), Oumou Sangare (proper, background), with calabash percussion, Lille, 1995 downside). For instance, the younger singer Dieneba Diakite had a "hit" in 1993 along with her music Dougou dasiri wherein she implores the dasiri (the sacred defending spirit of the village) to offer her a child, providing sacrifices of crimson kola nuts, a black cockerel and a white sheep in return.54 Typically ladies singers of wassoulou have gotten more and more overt of their criticism of such social establishments as organized marriages and polygamy, whereas their efficiency kinds have a good time ladies's tradition, e.g. by means of using the cowry-strung calabash percussion (Fig. 9) particular to feminine marriage ceremony events. That is echoed within the many songs entitled "ladies", as in Oumou Sangare's album Moussolou. The championing of girls's rights in a society the place the prevailing gender ideology is male-biased is turning into one of the vital developments of wassoulou. In Sangare's most up-to-date recordings, one music (Tiebaw, "males") is addressed to the primary spouse of a polygamous marriage: "She feels deserted by her husband, 54 From her eponymous CD. Diakite was one of many refrain singers on Oumou Sangare's 1989 album Moussolou earlier than forming her personal group Farafina Lolo. The dasiri is claimed to inhabit a spring, rock or tree exterior the village commemorating the village's founding web site; see Zahan 1974:11-13. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 130 British Journal ofEthnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) who now provides all his consideration to the brand new spouse; he provides the whole lot to her. However God is our witness, all this struggling will finish. Ladies of Mali, ladies of Africa and the entire world, allow us to battle collectively to place an finish to this social injustice." One other (Worotan, "ten kola nuts") means that for the worth of ten kola nuts-- the ritual reward of the bridegroom's father to the daddy of the bride-a girl can nearly be offered into slavery.55 Such texts, thought of extremely provocative by extra conservative sectors of Malian society, illustrate methods wherein the konow are pushing their r6le as commentators to an excessive. In all probability essentially the most well-known wassoulou music, Diarabi nene, summarises this spirit in addition to reaffirmnning the youth voice of wassoulou. That is additionally Sangare's "fetish" piece. The time period "fetish" is utilized by performers to explain their most profitable and solicited piece, which in efficiency reconfirms their magical qualities of "stardom"; in live performance, she all the time adjustments right into a costume reflecting the temper of the lyrics (Fig. 10) (Sangare interview 1995). Diarabi nene ("Shivers of ardour") is an adaptation of an older kamalengoni music which has explicitly erotic lyrics expressing the point of view of the single feminine. In the meantime, the unmistakable sounds of the kamalengoni punctuate the music with vivid solos, drawing the listener again into the world of Wasulu hunters. Ah child, we'll see one another within the morning. Anticipate me, my love, and do not suppose an excessive amount of, do not suppose an excessive amount of concerning the shivers of ardour. ...after I speak of shivers, I am not speaking of the chilly season, or the rains, I am speaking of the shivers of affection, my candy one. my fathers, you may tut at me, my moms, I'm responsible... life is pleasurable, I swear to God. Anticipate me right here, my love. Oh God, the day that I obtained up, every to his future! to knock on the door, no want to speak, my love opened the door, no want for phrases. I put my leg on his leg, his leg is chilly, I put my hand towards his arm, my pores and skin is gooseflesh, on my love's arm. I put my hand on his chest, his chest is chilly, my love's chest. My chest is shivering. I put my hand low on his abdomen, on my love's abdomen, mm, the shivers of affection! There are various pleasures however not all are the identical! Ah child, I will see you within the morning.56 55 WCD zero45, forthcoming June 1996 (as but untitled). Descriptions of the music lyrics have been provided by Oumou Sangare. 56 From Moussolou, CD; translations with assist from Annick Sy. An older, much less elaborated model of this music might be discovered on Bintou Sidibe's eponymous cassette. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durtn: Birds of Wasulu 131 Fig. 10: Oumou Sangare performing her 'fetish' piece Diarabi Nene, Paris, 1995 Conclusion The time period wassoulou is now used to cowl a variety of musical kinds which, regardless of the identify, solely loosely signify regional identities and musical genres. Extra vital is the truth that its performers are persevering with to enact an important social r6le as musicians who carry out by alternative, not beginning, a r6le which has its roots in a lot older traditions. This "free" standing, emphasised within the time period "fowl", allows them to remark with impunity on elementary problems with relevance to Malian society, whereas re-creating the heroic values of the previous by means of their music. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 132 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This text is an growth of a paper introduced on the third worldwide MANSA convention held at Leiden, March 1995. It represents present work in direction of my PhD thesis (SOAS, College of London) on the function of girls in Mande fashionable music. I wish to thank members of MANSA who've contributed to this text, particularly Cheick Cherif Keita who offered essential insights and data, and gave generously of his time. Barbara Hoffman, Eric Charry and Stephen Belcher have additionally made helpful ideas. Thanks additionally to Annick Sy for assist with translations. REFERENCES Amselle, Jean-Loup (1972) 'Histoire et construction social du Wasulu avant Samori.' Paper introduced to the Convention on Manding Research. (1990) Logiques mitisses: anthropologie de l'identitd en Afrique et ailleurs. Paris: Bibliothbque scientifique Payot. and M'bokolo, Elikia, ed. (1985) Au coeur de l'ethnie: ethnies, tribalisme et stat en Afrique. Paris: Editions la d6couverte. Arnoldi, Mary Jo (1983) Puppet theatre within the Segu area of Mali. PhD thesis, Indiana College. Chicken, Charles (1972a) 'Heroic songs of the Mande hunters.' In Richard M. Dorson (ed.) African folklore, 275-93. Indiana Univ. Press. (1972b) 'Bambara oral prose and verse narratives collected by Charles Chicken.' In Richard M. Dorson (ed.) African folklore, 441-77. Indiana Univ. Press. Brenner, Louis (forthcoming) 'Youth as political actors in Mali.' In C. Newbury et al (ed.)Transitions in Africa: increasing political area. Camara, Sory (1975) Gens de la parole: essai sur la situation et le r6le des griots dans la socidtd malinke. Paris: Karthala. (2nd ed. 1992) Charry, Eric (1992) Musical thought, historical past and follow among the many Mande of West Africa. PhD thesis, Princeton. Cashion, Gerald A. (1984) Hunters of the Mande: a behavioral code and worldview derived from the examine of their folklore. PhD thesis, Indiana College. Cisse, Youssou Tata (1964) 'Notes sur les socidtds de chasseurs malinke.' Journal de la socigtg des Africanistes 34.2: 175-226. ___ & Wa Kamissoko (1991) Soundjata: la gloire du Mali. La grande geste du Mali vol. 2. Paris: Karthala-Arsan. Conrad, David & Frank, Barbara (1995) Standing and identification in West Africa: nyamakalaw of Mande. Indiana Univ. Press. Coulibaly, Dosseh Joseph (1985) Rdcit des chasseurs du Mali--Dingo Kanbili: une epopee des chasseurs malinke de Bala Jinba Jakite. Paris: Conseil worldwide de la langue frangaise. Darbo, Seni (1976) A griot's self-portrait: the origins and function of the griot in Mandinka society as seen from tales advised by Gambian griots. Gambia: Gambia Cultural Archives. Diallo, Mamdou (n.d. [1988]) Essai sur la musique traditionnelle au Mali. France: ACCT. Durdn, Lucy (1995) 'Jelimusow: the superwomen of Malian music.' In Liz Gunner and Graham Furniss (ed.) Energy, marginality and African oral literature, 197-210. Cambridge: Cambridge College. Press. (1996) 'The songbird, Oumou Sangare: fanned, fetished and feminine.' Folks Roots 154: 40-5 Feld, Steven (1982) Sound and sentiment. Univ. of Pennsylvania. (2nd ed. 1990) Garrard, Timothy (1995) "Standing fowl." In Tom Phillips (ed.) Africa: the artwork of a continent, 457ff. London: Royal Academy of Arts. Herbert, Eugenia W. (1993) Iron, gender, and energy: rituals of transformation in African societies. Indiana Univ. Press. Imperato, Pascal James (1970) 'Bogolanfini.' African Arts three.Four: 32-41, 80. (1980) "Bambara and Malinke ton masquerades." African Arts 13.Four: 47-55, 82-7. (1981) "Sogoni koun." African Arts 14.2: 38-47, 72, 88. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Durn: Birds of Wasulu 133 Keita, Cheick M. Cherif (1995) Massa Makan Diabate: un griot mandingue Four la rencontre de l'dcriture. Paris: L'Harmattan. Knight, Roderic (1973) Mandinka jaliya: skilled music of the Gambia. PhD thesis, UCLA. Levtzion, N. & Hopkins, J.P., ed. (1981) Corpus of early Arabic sources for West African historical past. Cambridge Univ. Press. McNaughton, Patrick R. (1988) The Mande blacksmiths: information, energy, and artwork in West Africa. Indiana Univ. Press. Meillassoux, Claude (1968a) "Les cd6rmonies septennales du kamablo de Kaaba (Mali)." Journal de la socidtd des Africanistes 38.2: 183-Eight. (1968b) Urbanisation of an African neighborhood: voluntary organisations in Bamako. Univ. of Washington. Niane, D.T. (1965) Sundiata: an epic of previous Mali. Transl. G.D. Pickett. London: Longman Drumbeat. Prouteaux, M. (1929) "Premiers essais de th6Atre chez les indigbnes du Haute-C6te-d'Ivoire." Bulletin du comitd d'dtudes historiques et scientifiques de L'A.O.F 12: 448-75. Thoyer-Rozat, Annik (1978)Chants des chasseurs du Mali par Mamadu Jara. Paris: (no writer listed). Vydrine, Valentine (1995) "Who speaks 'Mandekan'? A word on present use of Mande ethnonyms and linguonyms." MANSA (Mande Research Affiliation) Publication 25: 6-9. Zahan, Dominique (1974)The Bambara. Leiden: Brill. Zemp, Hugo (1993) C6te d'Ivoire: masques dan. Compact disc sleeve notes, Ocora C580048. INTERVIEWS Oumou Sangare, Bamako 1991, Paris 1995, [original language: French]; Abdoulaye Diabate, Paris 1992 [French]; Sidiki Diabate, Bamako 1995 [Mandinka]; Sali Sidibe, Bamako 1989 [Bamana, trans. into French by Youssouf Tata Cisse]; Zoumano Yoro Traore, Bamako 1989 [French]; Boubacar Diallo, Paris 1995 [French]; Kassim Sidibe, Paris 1995 [Wasulunke, trans. into French by Amadou Tera]; Ami Koita, Bamako 1987, London 1991 [Maninka, trans. into French by Samir Naman] DISCOGRAPHY Diabate, Abdoulaye: Namawou (Syllart audio cassette SYL 83135) Diabate, Abdoulaye: Kassikoun (Syllart audio cassette SYL 38765-Four) Diakite, Dieneba: Dieneba Diakite (Mali Stars CD 38108-2) Diallo, Yoro: Yoro Diallo dit "Tiekorobani" vol.1 (Samassa audio cassette SAM 0182924) Diawara, Fanta Naya: Fanta Naya Diawara no.1 (audio cassette AM 91001) Doumbia, Nahawa: Didadi (Syllart SYL 8337) Fane, Alou: Fote mocoba---kamalan n'goni-dozon n'goni (Dakar Sound CD DKS 005, 1994) Jamana Sorofe: Jeliya (Jamana audio cassette Ok2043) Koita, Ami: Tata Sira (Bolibana CD 42079.2) Sangare, Oumou: Moussolou (World Circuit WCD 021) Sangare, Oumou: Ko Sira (World Circuit WCD 036) Sangare, Oumou: (title not obtainable) (World Circuit WCD zero45, forthcoming) Sidibe, Bintou: Bintou Sidibe (Tremendous Sound audio cassette ENC SS 37) Sidibe, Coumba: Coumba Sidibe (Mali Stars CD 38111-2) Sidibe, Coumba: Sanghan (Camara Manufacturing CD FDBO32) Sidibe, Sali: Sali Sidibe (Syllart audio cassette SYL 8362) Sidibe, Sali: Wassouloufoli (Stems STCD 1047) Sidibe, Sali: La perle noir du Wassoulou (Camara audio cassette CK7 044) (numerous artists) The wassoulou sound: ladies ofMali vol 1 (Stems STCD 1035) (numerous artists) The wassoulou sound: ladies ofMali vol 2 (Sterns STCD 1048) Wasolonfenin: on Electrical and acoustic Mali (EMI Hemisphere CD 72438 2818625, bd 11) This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp 134 British Journal of Ethnomusicology, vol. Four (1995) Lucy Durin is Lecturer in African Music on the College of Oriental and African Research. Since 1976 she has performed intensive fieldwork on Mandinka music in Gambia and Senegal, altering focus in 1986 to Maninka fashionable music in Mali. She has produced a number of albums with Mande musicians. Her intensive publications and freelance broadcasting (for BBC radio and tv) have lined numerous areas of Africa and Latin America. Handle: SOAS, Thornhaugh Avenue, London WC1H OXG, England; e- mail ld@soas.ac.uk Peter Cooke was the primary to introduce her to African music, by means of recordings of amadinda. Later, they labored collectively on the New Grove dictionary of music. This content material downloaded on Fri, 15 Feb 2013 14:45:06 PM All use topic to JSTOR Phrases and Circumstances http://www.jstor.org/web page/data/about/insurance policies/phrases.jsp Article Contents p. 101 p. 102 p. 103 p. 104 p. 105 p. 106 p. 107 p. 108 p. 109 p. 110 p. 111 p. 112 p. 113 p. 114 p. 115 p. 116 p. 117 p. 118 p. 119 p. 120 p. 121 p. 122 p. 123 p. 124 p. 125 p. 126 p. 127 p. 128 p. 129 p. 130 p. 131 p. 132 p. 133 p. 134 Concern Desk of Contents British Journal of Ethnomusicology, Vol. Four, Particular Concern: Introduced to Peter Cooke (1995), pp. i-x+1-184 Entrance Matter [pp. i-iv] Editorial Preface [p. v] Visitor Editor's Preface [p. vi] Peter R. Cooke, Checklist of Publications [pp. vii-ix] What Can We Study Piobaireachd? [pp. 1-15] Melodic Relationships in Pibroch [pp. 17-39] The Concertina as an Emblem of the Folks Music Revival within the British Isles [pp. 41-49] Music and Politics in Eire: The Specificity of the Folks Revival in Belfast [pp. 51-75] Ritual, Faith and Magic in West Mongolian (Oirad) Heroic Epic Efficiency [pp. 77-99] Birds of Wasulu: Freedom of Expression and Expressions of Freedom within the Standard Music of Southern Mali [pp. 101-134] Compositional Methods in Roman Catholic Church Music in Uganda [pp. 135-155] Evaluations of Books Assessment: untitled [pp. 157-158] Assessment: untitled [pp. 158-160] Assessment: untitled [pp. 160-161] Assessment: untitled [pp. 161-163] Assessment: untitled [pp. 163-166] Assessment: untitled [pp. 166-168] Assessment: untitled [pp. 168-169] Assessment: untitled [pp. 169-171] Assessment: untitled [pp. 171-172] Assessment: untitled [pp. 172-174] Assessment: untitled [pp. 175-176] Assessment: untitled [pp. 176-179] Evaluations of Recordings Assessment: untitled [pp. 179-181] Assessment: untitled [pp. 181-182] Assessment: untitled [pp. 182-184] Assessment: untitled [p. 184] Again Matter -research paper writing service
Data Visualization 300
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BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 1 Programme: BA (Hons) Enterprise Administration (Half-time Prime Up) Module Code: BAMG1109 Module Title: Tutorial Improvement and Skilled Apply Tutorial 12 months: 2021-2022 Credit score Worth: 15 credit Module Coordinator: Alan Poon (Hong Kong) E-mail: alanpoon.eng@cityu.edu.hk Room: P6511, Yeung Kin Man Tutorial Constructing, Metropolis College of Hong Kong Recommendation and Suggestions hours: By appointment Module Overview Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Sort Annotated Bibliography 50% (Particular person) Reflective Apply Report 40% (Particular person) Engagement in seminars 10% (Particular person) Size 1,500 phrases + / - 10% Reflection – 1,200 phrases + / - 10% Weighting 50% 50% Deadline 12 November 2021 (Friday) 23:59 HKT o Through Turnitin (Canvas) solely eight April 2022 (Friday) 23:59 HKT o Through Turnitin (Canvas) solely Return date No later than 20 working days succeeding the ultimate submission date Observe: All coursework should be submitted electronically through Turnitin by the deadlines, until there are mitigating circumstances. Info on penalties and late submissions could be discovered at http://www.dmu.ac.uk/dmu-students/the- student-gateway/academic-support-office/deferral-of-assessments.aspx. The School is dedicated to a 20-day turnaround time for the marking and return of coursework. The turnaround time doesn't embrace weekends, financial institution holidays, and college closure days. http://www.dmu.ac.uk/dmu-students/the-student-gateway/academic-support-office/deferral-of-assessments.aspx http://www.dmu.ac.uk/dmu-students/the-student-gateway/academic-support-office/deferral-of-assessments.aspx BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 2 CONTENTS 1. Instructing staff 2. Module goals three. How it's going to be taught four. How this module pertains to your programme of research 5. How this module enhances your employability 6. Your tasks 7. Tentative module schedule eight. Module assets 9. Canvas and module communication 10. Evaluation Briefs BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) three 1. Instructing staff STAFF NAME TELEPHONE EMAIL Recommendation and Suggestions date, time and site Alan Poon 34427422 alanpoon.eng@cityu.edu.hk By appointment Surgical procedure hours can be found all through the 2 semesters, and we might encourage you to utilise the tutor conferences regularly. It's your allotted time and alternative to debate any points arising in actual time. When you have issues concerning your understanding of any matters mentioned inside the lectures, seminars, tutorial apply, and/ or assessments, please go to us to speak by this. If we all know what your points are, we are able to resolve them with out them impacting in your time going ahead on the module. This service is obtainable on a first-come-first-served foundation, subsequently we might advise, each time attainable, that you just write your instructor an e-mail to substantiate your attendance in an effort to allocate you a time slot. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) four 2. Module goals Welcome to BAMG1109 Tutorial Improvement and Skilled Apply. This module is designed to help you within the growth of your tutorial research abilities. It goals to go with the skilled apply alternatives obtainable all through the course and to give you the talents essential to maximise in your graduate employability. This module additionally ensures that you've sufficient entry to your private tutor, with the identical private tutors instructing the seminars. Tutorial and pastoral help might be supplied by your private tutor on an on-going foundation. Coming into increased schooling creates numerous challenges for first yr learners. Alongside your course’s core matters, you're required to develop your tutorial abilities. This allows you to analysis and current your assessments in a formalised method. This module supplies learners with a basis in DMU’s core tutorial talent necessities with the intention of bettering the usual of your work throughout all modules. The module additionally focusses on employability abilities in addition to growing and enhancing your present capabilities. Your experiences according to the United Nations sustainable growth objectives gives you the chance to work on a proposal for an exercise in groups, and you'll mirror in your participation and growth plans. It will support you in establishing a profession path, which might then be clarified and nuanced over the period of your diploma, supporting you to turn into able to work upon commencement. Aims and studying outcomes By the top of this module, college students will 1. develop the flexibility to analyse and consider a variety of enterprise knowledge and sources of knowledge and use applicable methodologies in figuring out the causes of an issue and making evidence-based choices about its resolution (annotated bibliography), 2. develop consciousness practices: focussing notably on planning, organising, and managing time, being versatile and resilient, and the flexibility to successfully talk their concepts (particular person reflective apply report), and three. reveal consciousness of the social and environmental tasks of enterprise (particular person reflective apply report). BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 5 three. How it's going to be taught Evaluation Lectures Tutorials 1. Annotated Bibliography Fashions, theories, assignments, and tutorial necessities - Lecture Weeks 1 - 6 Utility apply by duties and case research – Tutorial Weeks 1-6 2. Particular person Reflective Report - Seminar engagement - Tutor conferences Fashions, theories, necessities for the project - Lecture Weeks 7-12 Utility apply by sensible actions, written duties, case research, and dialogue duties – Tutorial Weeks 7-12 To be able to improve your studying alternatives, the category supplies might be made obtainable prematurely on Canvas, together with additional assets, wider studying, hyperlinks to visuals and replay recordings. The seminars will observe the lecture design, permitting you to embed your understanding by using each tutorial research and sensible work. EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES Minimal studying and evaluation exercise necessities are topic to all learners. To be able to improve alternatives, extracurricular studying and sensible actions can be found to these learners who need to problem themselves. These supplies are usually not obligatory, however gives you the chance to stretch your understanding and abilities and in flip improve your capabilities. four. How this module pertains to your program of research This module will allow you to grasp and undertake tutorial necessities throughout your entire modules all through your research. 5. How this module enhances your employability You'll study from completely different visitor audio system from sizeable industrial enterprises about enterprise administration and job utility processes. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 6 6. Your tasks College students are anticipated to attend and take part in all timetabled actions, together with lectures, seminars, and sensible periods. College students are additionally inspired to totally take part within the tutorial and cultural lifetime of the college, together with visitor lectures, seminars, public debates, and exterior visits. As college students, your tasks are Preparation: Full the required readings earlier than coming to every timetabled session on this module and undertake the required follow-up work. Participation: Participation at school is predicated on participation in lectures and seminars in addition to group actions at school. To help your engagement at school, you must come ready by writing down concepts, quotes, or ideas from the studying record that you just discover attention-grabbing in addition to thought frightening. It is best to come ready so as to absolutely have interaction at school discussions and actions. In case you are late to class, then please settle your self as quietly as attainable. Respect: All through your research, it's important that you just deal with different college students with respect and have interaction in a respectful method with our tutorial workers. It's crucial that you just take heed to others and deal with their contributions with respect, even if you happen to disagreed with them. Specifically, it's important that  you're respectful of your friends’ studying and resist speaking in seminars, workshops, and lectures,  you don't reply your telephone name, until it's an emergency, and  you compromise your self as quietly as attainable, if you're late. The module instructing and evaluation staff will contribute to this atmosphere by  treating all college students with respect,  welcoming various viewpoints, experiences, and interpretations of the category supplies, and  difficult your considering, beliefs, and analyses of points, ideas, and concepts on this class. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 7 7. Tentative module schedule (topic to modifications by the Module Chief) Time period Week Quantity Lectures (L) and Seminars (S) 1 (Improvement of educational abilities) Week 1 Introduction to Module; Module Assessments; An annotated bibliography Analysing texts (analysis of their relevance and reliability) Week 2 Analysis Written Supplies (Half One) (L) Analysis strategies and significant considering (S) A1 preparation (see Evaluation 1): On-line analysis exploring the sustainability objectives and localised social points Week three Analysis Written Supplies (Half Two) (L) Harvard (Cite Them Proper) referencing; Researching by the E-library (S) A2 preparation (see Evaluation 1): On-line analysis exploring efficiently applied options to social issues Week four Analysis Video clips (information websites) (L) Listening/ Observe-taking abilities (S) A3 preparation (see Evaluation 1) Figuring out key points and themes and analysing the extent of influence/ significance Week 5 Enterprise Report and Essay Writing (Half One) (L) Evaluating format/ Presentation and language; Paraphrasing, summarising, and synthesising abilities (S) A4 preparation (see Evaluation 1) Week 6 Enterprise Report and Essay Writing (Half Two) (L) Marketing strategy writing; staff collaboration (Visitor sharing) (S) A5 preparation (see Evaluation 1) 12 November 2021 (Friday) 23:59 HKT Deadline of submission of Task 1 BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) eight 2 (Enhancement apply) Week 7 Evaluation 2 preparation (L) Writing a enterprise proposal (S) Formation of scholar teams and identification of a social or environmental concern; Identification of roles and allocation of duties; Dialogue of a enterprise proposal define template Week eight Evaluation 2 preparation (L) Major surveys (interviews or/ and questionnaire distribution); Preparation of a enterprise proposal (S) Investigation of profession and employability alternatives: Introducing placement alternatives for graduates; Investigating job advert specs Week 9 Evaluation 2 preparation (L) Job-hunting writing abilities growth: CV specifics; Cowl letter writing (S) Firm analysis: Devising questionnaires; adaptation of CV; Writing a cover-letter Week 10 Evaluation 2 preparation (L) Communication and interpersonal abilities: Major analysis interview strategies (S) Practising mock interviews/ Enterprise proposal pitches: Interviewing contacts, following-up, and evaluating correspondence Week 11 Evaluation 2 preparation (L) Reflection of enterprise writing Abilities (S) Reflection on the person contribution, team-work (planning and implementation), and analysis of course of for successes and/ or challenges in enterprise Week 12 Visitor profession sharing eight April 2022 (Friday) 23:59 HKT Deadline of submission of Task 2 BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 9 eight. Module assets Task 1 It's suggested that the next books be studied totally concerning matters that you just really feel you're much less succesful in. Cameron, S. (2016) The Enterprise College students Handbook: Abilities for Research and Employment. sixth Version. Harlow: Pearson. Cottrell, S. (2003) The Research Abilities Handbook. 2nd Version. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Cottrell, S. (2011). Crucial Considering Abilities. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Greetham, B. (2018). Research Abilities, how one can write higher essays. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016). Cite Them Proper: The Important Referencing Information. 10th Version. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Reid, M. (2012). Pocket Research Abilities: Report Writing. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Wider readings: It's suggested that that the next books be learn to help additional understanding. Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2007) Enterprise Analysis Strategies. 2nd Version. Oxford: Oxford College. Bryman, A. (2004) Social Analysis Strategies. 2nd Version. Oxford: Oxford College Press. Creswell, J. W. (2009) Analysis Design, Qualitative, Quantitative, and Combined Strategies Approaches. third Version. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Girden, E.R (2001) Evaluating Analysis Articles from Begin to End. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Silverman, D. (2005) Doing Qualitative Analysis. 2nd Version, London: SAGE Publications. Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them Proper – The Important Referencing Information. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 10 Additional-curricular readings: It's suggested that the next books be learn to realize a deeper perception into the module matters inside an organisational context. Belbin, M. (2004) Administration Groups: why they succeed or fail. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. Blundel, R. and Ippolito Ok. (2008) Efficient Organisational Communication: Views, ideas and practices. third ed. Harlow: FT Prentice Corridor. Rouse, M.J. and Rouse, S. (2002) Enterprise Communications: A Cultural and Strategic Method. London: Thomson Studying. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 11 Task 2 It's suggested that the next books be studied totally concerning matters that you just really feel you're much less succesful in. Cameron, S. (2016) The Enterprise College students Handbook: Abilities for Research and Employment. sixth Version. Harlow: Pearson. Cottrell, S. (2003) Abilities for fulfillment - the non-public growth planning e book. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Wider readings: It's suggested that that following books be learn to help additional understanding. Moon, J. (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Studying. London: Routledge- Falmer. Megginson, D. and Whitaker, V. (2007) Persevering with Skilled Improvement. 2nd Version. London: CIPD. Moon, J. (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Studying. London: Routledge- Falmer. Tamkin, P. (1996) ‘Sensible purposes for private growth plans’, Administration Improvement Evaluation, Vol. 9 (7): 32-36. Tamkin, P. (1996) ‘Sensible purposes for private growth plans’, Administration Improvement Evaluation, Vol. 9 (7): 32-36. Taylor, D. and Edge, D. (1997) ‘Private growth plans: unlocking the long run, Profession Improvement Worldwide, Vol. 2 (1): 21-23. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 12 Additional-curricular readings: It's suggested that the next books be learn for these wishing to realize a deeper perception into the module matters inside an organisational context. Beausaert, S., Segers, M. and Gijselaers, W. (2011) ‘Using a private growth plan and the endeavor of studying actions, expertise-growth, flexibility and efficiency: the function of supporting evaluation situations’, Human Useful resource Improvement Worldwide, Vol. 14 (5): 527-543. Bennett, B. (2006) ‘Private growth plans: proof from analysis on their use’, Improvement and Studying in Organizations, Vol. 20 (6): 13-15. Rigopoulou, I. and Kehagias, J. (2008) ‘Private growth planning beneath the scope of self- model orientation’, Worldwide Journal of instructional Administration, Vol. 22 (four): 300-313. Watson, G. and Reissner, S. (2010) Creating Abilities for Enterprise Leaders. London: CIPD Web sites: De Montfort College Research Abilities http://www.dmu.ac.uk/dmu-students/student-resources/dmu-library/study-skills.aspx DMU International: De Montfort College Information to International Experiences https://www.dmuglobal.com Enterprise- and Research-related Twitter websites: The Economist @EconBritain The Economist @TheEconomist Assume with Google @ThinkGoogleAPAC Mintel Analysis @mintelnews Ted Information @TEDNews Enterprise Insider @businessinsider BBC Information @BBCBusiness BBC Information @ BBCWorld Al Jazeera @AJEnglish Telegraph Information @TelegraphNews The Guardian @guardian Observer Enterprise @innovation World Financial Discussion board @wef Harvard Enterprise Evaluation @HarvardBiz Monetary Instances @FT http://www.dmu.ac.uk/dmu-students/student-resources/dmu-library/study-skills.aspx BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 13 9. Canvas and module communication Necessary data referring to this module could be discovered on Canvas. This consists of details about the module, lecture and seminar supplies, bulletins, in addition to the process for submitting assignments through Turnitin. You possibly can entry Canvas by going to https://canvas.cityu.edu.hk. Login utilizing the identical person identify and password that you've for entry to the CityU’s pc providers. When you have any difficulties logging right into a Zoom session or any pc on campus, then you could contact the Service Desk positioned on the four/F, Li Dak Sum Yip Yio Chin Tutorial Constructing, Metropolis College of Hong Kong. As well as, you could contact the hotline (34428341 or 34426727) or ship an e-mail to csc@cityu.edu.hk. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 14 10. Evaluation Briefs Task 1: Annotated Bibliography (50%) Task overview You're required to undertake the creation of an annotated bibliography, which contains 5 quick texts. Every doc needs to be mentioned in no greater than 300 phrases (1,500 phrase rely in complete for this project). Please make sure the respective references accompany every data supply according to the Harvard (Cite Them Proper) Referencing System. Submission necessities 12 November 2020 (Friday) 23:59 Hong Kong Time through Turnitin (Canvas) Rationale Utilizing the tutorial abilities taught within the lectures and seminars, you'll search to grasp the relevance and availability of analysis supplies and proof your understanding of a number of tutorial practices. This written project will allow you to grasp sources of data obtainable to you and summarise and current completely different fundamental concepts when it comes to reliability. You'll synthesise the primary concepts of various kinds of authoritative and up to date supplies. Recognising reliability of the supplies allows you to perceive the relevance of analysis sources all through your core modules. Aims and studying outcomes By the top of this module, college students will develop the flexibility to analyse and consider a variety of enterprise knowledge and sources of knowledge and use applicable methodologies in figuring out the causes of an issue and making evidence-based choices about its resolution. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 15 Core components You're required to create an annotated bibliography for the next 5 sources of knowledge: A1 – Tutorial Written Supply Synthesise the primary concepts in any ONE latest tutorial supply (e.g. a e book chapter, a journal article, a dissertation, a convention continuing, an tutorial report) in regards to the causes of the social drawback in Hong Kong or every other a part of the PRC area which you will deal with in Task 2. A2 – Tutorial/ Authoritative Written Supply Synthesise the primary concepts in any ONE latest authoritative supply (e.g. an tutorial supply or a supply from BBC Information, The Economics, Harvard Enterprise Evaluation, Monetary Instances, Enterprise Insider, Telegraph Information, The Guardian, or Observer Enterprise) about an enterprise’s technique to unravel the same social drawback which you will deal with in Task 2. A3 – Authoritative Video Clip Synthesise the primary concepts in any ONE video clip from an authoritative audiovisual supply (e.g. The Economics, BBC Information) about the same social drawback which you will talk about in Task 2. A4 – Enterprise Report Synthesise the primary concepts in the latest enterprise report (e.g. an annual report, an interim report, a sustainability report, a monetary report) of the social enterprise in Hong Kong or every other a part of the PRC area which you'll select to work for in Task 2. A5 – Tutorial Written Supply Synthesise the primary concepts in any ONE latest tutorial supply (e.g. a e book chapter, a journal article, a dissertation, a convention continuing, an BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 16 tutorial report) pertaining to the United Nations Sustainable Improvement Targets. Format necessities Instances New Roman (12 level) Phrase restrict: 1,500 phrases Spacing: double line spacing Embrace the gadgets as follows: 1. Cowl web page (the clean file to be uploaded on ‘Canvas’) 2. Annotated bibliography with the 5 entries (A1-A5) three. Reference record four. Marking Scheme NB: You needn't connect the unique sources to your softcopy. Nonetheless, please retain all the unique sources, in case you're requested to submit any of them in future. Extensions Authorisation is required by your Module Chief in an effort to achieve an extension. Extensions should be requested previous to the submission date, and proof, corresponding to a physician’s word, might be required, once more, previous to the submission date. Extensions won't be given for the next kinds of points arising: Feeling unwell, chilly and flu, issues importing to Turnitin, points attending to campus. Bear in mind: TIME MANAGAMENT issues. It is best to begin your project as quickly because the semester begins, and Turnitin might be obtainable weeks earlier than the deadline date. Due to this fact, it is possible for you to to work systematically to finish your annotated bibliography. Reassessment College students might be given the chance to re-take components of the module wherein they achieved lower than the required stage by the College. The place the primary project on a module is accomplished but fails to attain a mark of 40%, that project could be resubmitted with out lack of a proper reassessment try. The utmost mark that may be achieved for a resubmission is 40%. College students MUST have tried the project in an effort to profit from in-course restoration. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 17 Often Requested Questions About Evaluation 1 1. How can we outline a social enterprise? We may even see a social enterprise as a for-profit or non-profit organisation whose goal is to make use of enterprise methods in a financially sustainable means (i.e. not completely counting on donations or authorities packages) in an effort to enhance the well-being of a society and/ or the atmosphere as a substitute of purely maximising co-owners’ earnings. The target clearly features a social purpose, which is to advertise, encourage, and make social modifications. Many social enterprises worldwide can present revenue era alternatives which meet the essential wants of people that reside in poverty. Whereas social enterprise might have a traditional agency construction, it could even be a cooperative, mutual organisation, a disregarded entity, a social enterprise, a profit company, a group curiosity firm, an organization restricted by assure or a charity organisation. 2. Which social enterprise ought to we go for? It's urged that you just select a social enterprise the place you've got shut contact level. Understanding some current workers inside will allow you to gather knowledge from them for Task 2. Your group, in fact, has to verify whether or not or not you could get entry to their most up-to-date enterprise report. three. What's going to we've to do with the workers of the social enterprise chosen? You will solicit their workers’s opinions to see in the event that they assume their social enterprise might be within the various things proposed in your marketing strategy. You'll invite a few of their workers to finish questionnaires and/ or invite a few of them to conduct interviews, if wanted. four. May we deal with a couple of social or environmental drawback? It might be a good suggestion so that you can give attention to one social drawback talked about within the ‘United Nations Sustainable Improvement Targets’. So long as the issue pertains to at least one in Hong Kong or any a part of the PRC Area and is the one the chosen social enterprise has been fascinated by, your challenge is believed to be related and applicable. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 18 De Montfort College Leicester BAMG1109 Tutorial Improvement and Skilled Apply Semesters A and B (2021-2022) ASSIGNMENT 1: MARKING SCHEME (50%) Pupil’s identify: ____________________________ DMU ID quantity: ______________________ Social drawback to be addressed in Task 2: _______________________________________ Social enterprise to work for in Task 2: __________________________________________ CRITERION MARKS 5 *applicable supplies that kind the annotated bibliography are included as outlined within the module information, together with consideration into personal alternative. (20 marks) In-text citations are appropriate, according to the Harvard (Cite Them Proper) Referencing System (10 marks) The 5 central themes of the supplies have been examined respectively. (30 marks) The standard and accuracy of the supplies have been mentioned, which filter from irrelevant particulars and private analyses. (10 marks) Grammar and punctuation are passable. The format and phrase rely are as outlined within the module information. (30 marks) TOTAL BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 19 Alternative of Sources for Evaluation 1 * “Appropriateness” of a textual content for BAMG1109 Evaluation 1 could be outlined as being related, present, dependable, and goal. 1. Relevancy: Is the borrowed secondary supply straight related to the particular concern you're discussing? 2. Forex: Is the borrowed secondary supply latest and up to date sufficient? What's the yr of publication? [NB: Sources which can be considered in this assessment as ‘recent’ are those published, broadcast, or delivered within 10 years (i.e. 2011 – 2021).] three. Reliability and Authority: What's the supply of the data? Who's providing the findings? Does s/he concentrate on what's being talked about? What's the writer? Is it respected? four. Objectivity: Is the textual content closely ideological? Can you discover any background details about the author(s) or speaker(s)? Does any author or speaker have any goal of reporting the findings? Have you ever explored the analysis strategies? Are the information legitimate and dependable? NB: As alternative of texts is likely one of the evaluation standards (on p.18 of the Module Handbook; 20 marks) for BAMG1109 Evaluation 1, it could be not very applicable for a Module Trainer to touch upon this facet direct previous to college students’ submission of their Evaluation 1. Alternatively, Module Lecturers are advisable to reply college students’ particular questions, each time applicable. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 20 Task 2: Reflective Report (40%) Task Overview You're required to put in writing a private reflective report which builds in your expertise of exploring a social enterprise in Hong Kong (e.g. Science Park, Cyberport) or one other a part of the PRC Area. Submission necessities eight April 2022 (Friday) 23:59 Hong Kong Time through Turnitin (Canvas) Rationale Consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Improvement Targets, companies on the planet are adapting their enterprise strategies to carry about wider impacts on communities and the atmosphere. In order to grasp and embed these ideas into schooling, it's crucial that you just search to develop and adjust to adopting ethical and moral strategies as a part of your small business diploma. Over the second a part of the course, you'll work along with your classmates to give you a proposal which will probably find a way to be applied to deal with probably the most present social problem or concern which your chosen social enterprise is going through. The usual group dimension for assessments regulated by the QA mechanism of De Montfort College Leicester is four. 1. Your group’s proposal goal is to first establish and lift consciousness of a specific social drawback impacting your chosen social enterprise or environmental drawback. Then, you're required to plot a plan (a proposed resolution) that can probably be applied to resolve the difficulty. A proposed timeline is predicted to be specified within the plan. You're advisable to reference the supplies employed in your Task 1. Your proposed resolution needs to be associated to ONE of the United Nations Sustainable Improvement Targets. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 21 2. Upon completion of your proposal, you're then required to write a private reflective report on the general analysis and team-work course of, together with your particular person contribution to the proposal and the efficacy or potential influence of the proposed concepts in addition to explaining any potential implementation successes and/ or failures or challenges you may foresee. You must also elaborate on the advantages of this challenge in direction of your future research and /or profession path. You're required to incorporate appendices of paperwork pertaining to your profession growth. (Please see under for the main points.) You're additionally anticipated to debate along with your Module Trainer from time to time about your plan and employability alternatives, previous to the finalisation of your reflective report. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 22 Aims and studying outcomes By the top of this module, college students will develop their consciousness of skilled practices, by focussing notably on planning, organising, and managing time, being versatile and resilient, and the potential to successfully talk their concepts. They will even reveal their consciousness of the social and environmental tasks of enterprise. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 23 Core Components Reflective Report: 1. The target of the proposal (e.g. to deal with a specific social/ environmental problem or concern) 2. A top level view with the proposed concepts with a urged timeframe three. Your private reflection in your contribution to the challenge and the team-work course of four. The efficacy or potential influence of the proposed concepts 5. Potential implementation successes and/ or failures or challenges foreseen 6. What you've got learnt from the challenge and the way this may occasionally influence upon your future research or profession path Appendices: 7. Survey outcomes which reveal the problem or concern confronted by the social enterprise eight. A template of a questionnaire or record of interview questions 9. A résumé to be learn by the chosen social enterprise 10. A canopy letter to be learn by the chosen social enterprise Format necessities Instances New Roman (12 level) Phrase restrict: 1,200 phrases (excluding the appendices) Spacing: double line spacing Extensions Authorisation is required by your Module Chief in an effort to achieve an extension. Extensions should be requested previous to the submission date, and proof, corresponding to a physician’s word, might be required, once more, previous to the submission date. Extensions won't be given for the next kinds of points arising: Feeling unwell, chilly and flu, issues importing to Turnitin, points attending to campus. Bear in mind: TIME MANAGAMENT issues. It is best to begin your project as quickly because the semester begins, and Turnitin might be obtainable weeks earlier than the deadline date. Reassessment College students might be given the chance to re-take components of the module wherein they achieved lower than the required stage by the College. The place the primary project on a module is accomplished but fails to attain a mark of 40%, that project could be resubmitted with out lack of a proper reassessment try. The utmost mark that may be achieved for a resubmission is 40%. College students MUST have tried the project in an effort to profit from in-course restoration. BAMG1109 Tutorial Apply and Skilled Improvement (2021-2022) 24 De Montfort College Leicester BAMG1109 Tutorial Improvement and Skilled Apply Semesters A and B (2021-2022) ASSIGNMENT 2: MARKING SCHEME (40%) Pupil identify: ____________________________ DMU ID quantity: ______________________ Social drawback addressed: _____________________________________ Social enterprise to work for: ____________________________________ CRITERION MARKS Relevance of the proposed options based mostly on the survey findings and a transparent understanding of the related social/ environmental concern or drawback (20 marks) Reflection on the team-work course of and potential implementation successes and/ or failures or challenges foreseen (20 marks) Reflection in your contribution to the proposal and the efficacy or potential influence of the proposed concepts (20 marks) Reflection in relation to how the exercise has impacted you now and sooner or later (20 marks) Completion of the report (with the appendices) within the appropriate format and achievement of the phrase rely (10 marks) Appropriate format of the in-text citations, according to the Harvard (Cite Them Proper) Referencing System (10 marks) TOTAL Engagement in seminars and tutor conferences (10%) -research paper writing service
MLK Discussion
Purpose Contribute to a class-wide dialogue of a secondary supply in regards to the contrasting methods of King and Malcolm X within the Civil Rights Motion Preliminary Dialogue Submit (due Wednesday, 11:59pm) For this dialogue, we are going to give attention to the scholarly article "Violence and/or Nonviolence within the Success of the Civil Rights Motion: The Malcolm X-Martin Luther King, Jr. Nexus" by August H. Nimtz. To your preliminary publish, reply the next questions: What's August H. Nimtz's thesis, or foremost declare, in his article? Immediately quote the sentence(s) from the article that finest convey(s) Nimtz's central argument. Then paraphrase his thesis in your personal phrases. What sorts of proof does Nimtz use within the article to help his thesis? Lastly, do you discover Nimtz's argument persuasive? Why or why not? -research paper writing service
World History
reply the questions in response to the knowledge discovered within the article and the video. Do NOT merely search for the knowledge on-line; it is probably not appropriate. Make sure to reply utilizing full sentences. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwXfvfPy6fc “PBS Particular: King Tut”,2017 https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/67423/9-strange-uses-ancient-egyptian-mummies “9 Unusual Makes use of for Historical Egyptian Mummies,” 2015. 1. Listing and describe 4 various things mummies had been used for throughout the Victorian period in England, in response to the article. 2. Why was Egypt referred to as the “Reward of the Nile?” three. Mummified bread and numerous mummified animals had been typically discovered within the tombs. Why? four. Why did some early pyramids have steps on the skin of them? 5. Why did pharaohs finally cease utilizing pyramids as burial tombs? 6. What are shabti? What did the useless pharaohs use them for? 7. Why had been so many objects in Tut’s tomb painted with or made with gold? eight. Discover and connect of a portray believed to make use of Mummy Brown -research paper writing service
4 Paragraph essay
2 Political Analogy Paper Background We’ve been trying on the ideological variations between Democrats (left) and Republicans (proper). On this paper, select ONE political difficulty (ex: immigration), and provide you with an analogy that pertains to every events’ ideological views (ex: Republicans are like cats and Democrats are like canine). The analogy will need to have TWO sides (one for every social gathering). You must be capable to join the similarities to the Democrats and the Republicans ideologies, and you could incorporate a quote. Paragraph Construction (four paragraphs whole) Introduction (paragraph one) · Introduce the analogy (ex: how are Democrats like cats? How are Republicans like canine?) · Inform us about how the political difficulty you give attention to connects to the analogy (ex: after we have a look at immigration, how are Democrats like cats and Republicans like canine?) This could solely be a sentence...you'll develop on this within the physique paragraphs. · You might also wish to embody necessary background details about the analogy, particularly if it's a matter I’m unfamiliar with. (for instance, if you're evaluating Democrats and Republicans to characters I'm unfamiliar with. Physique Paragraph 1 · Matter sentence: how are Democrats LIKE one thing else (ex: cats) relating to a political difficulty (ex: immigration) · Clarify the connection (what do Democrats and Cats have in widespread when it comes to their habits?) · Use a QUOTE from a democrat about a difficulty like immigration. NOTE: don't quote one thing about cats. Maintain the quotes related to politics. · Comply with the quote with one other connection to the analogy. · This paragraph should embody a minimum of one sentence combining method we have mentioned on this unit. Physique Paragraph 2 · Matter sentence: how are Republicans LIKE one thing else (ex: canine) relating to a political difficulty (ex: immigration) · Clarify the connection (what do Republicans and Canine have in widespread when it comes to their habits) · Use a QUOTE from a republican about a difficulty like immigration. NOTE: don't quote one thing about canine. Maintain the quotes related to politics. · Comply with the quote with one other connection to the analogy. · This paragraph should embody a minimum of one sentence combining method we have mentioned on this unit. Conclusion · Take a stance. Which political ideology do you like? In case you are “caught within the center,” clarify the place you stand on the actual points you talked about. Submission Particulars Submit as a doc · Please add a .doc or a .pdf to submit the task. "File add" is the Submission Sort for this task. · This task will likely be due by Solar Sep 19, 2021 11:59pm. Vital: Please do NOT use "cats and canine" because the analogy for this paper! Be extra inventive! Aims On this unit, we have now been speaking about analogies, politics, quotes, storytelling, and sentence combining. On this task, show what we have now mentioned to this point by together with the strategies we have labored on within the modules. Your remaining draft ought to embody the next: · Sentence combining strategies · Correctly cited quotes · A considerate/ inventive analogy · An attention-getting title -research paper writing service
CJ 4960 MOD 3 Paper BELL essay
Indiana Tech School of Skilled Research CJ 4960 Senior Capstone: Comparative Legal Justice Methods On-line Syllabus Course Content material Teacher Data Please see Professor Profile on the Blackboard educational web site. Course Schedule Please see Course Schedule within the Course Syllabus space of the Blackboard educational web site. On-line Course Insurance policies All the on-line programs taken by college students are required to observe the insurance policies posted on-line at http://on-line.indianatech.edu/tech-policies/insurance policies/. Please assessment the posted insurance policies rigorously. In case you are unable to abide by the insurance policies listed, please contact the Warrior Data Community (WIN) at 888.832.4742 and request to withdraw from this course. Textbook Reichel, P. L. (2013). Comparative prison justice techniques: A topical strategy (sixth ed.). Higher Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Corridor. Grading Occasions & Grading Standards Except in any other case specified, all assignments should be submitted through Blackboard Course Preparation Quiz 15 Factors Dialogue Board (Week 1, 2, four) 100 Factors Undertaking One (Legislation Enforcement) 150 Factors Undertaking Two (Legal Legislation) 150 Factors Examination One 100 Factors Examination Two 100 Factors Tech Reside Weekly Reflections 60 factors Whole Factors 675 Factors Class Participation/Dialogue: College students are anticipated to have learn the assigned supplies previous to the weekly module and be capable of intelligently reply to questions on and talk about the readings. Factors will likely be primarily based on the next standards: 1. Response to the posted query/matter throughout the week of the module protecting in thoughts that greater than opinion is being solicited. Assist your opinions/arguments using course materials and/or different related and academically oriented sources. 2. Response to at the very least two different college students’ posts which is designed to foster interplay in addition to designed to problem each other to probably take a look at matters or arguments from a differing viewpoint. Hold in thoughts the intent is to not trigger argument however reasonably to problem considering. College students are inspired to boost points and ask questions relating to present or outdoors the classroom occasions that are associated to the course. A pupil MUST have full participation with responding to the entire posted questions/matters for every module in addition to a minimal of at the very least two responses to different college students’ posts in order to achieve the total 100 (100) factors for sophistication participation. http://on-line.indianatech.edu/tech-policies/insurance policies/ Tasks (2): College students are required to write down two (2) papers describing (2) main elements of overseas nation of the scholars selecting (teacher should approve choice). The assignments would require the coed to analysis, write a paper, and make a presentation, via growing a PowerPoint presentation overlaying the fabric introduced within the formal paper describing (1) Police/Legislation Enforcement of a overseas nation and (2) The Legal Legislation Parts of a overseas nation. The particular matters and grading standards for the written assignments and presentation observe and are included into this syllabus. Written assignments are to be phrase processed utilizing Microsoft Phrase, dimension 12 New Occasions Roman font, double spaced with one (1) inch margins across the web page (default), utilizing the American Psychological Affiliation (APA) quotation technique. Your analysis papers and displays needs to be thorough and scholarly. Jargon, lingo, and avenue language are to be averted and their use will lower your grade. By means of instance, and never limitation, “cop” is usually unacceptable, “police officer” or “legislation enforcement officers” is most popular. A individual could also be “mentally ailing” or “legally insane” (they aren't the identical), not “nuts” or “loopy”. The fabric anticipated to be lined in every written venture is roofed towards the top of this syllabus. Hold in thoughts, the paper needs to be written as such. In different phrases, primarily based off the fabric listing pertaining to info that needs to be lined, make the data right into a paper—don't merely bullet level solutions. Additional, guarantee that you're crediting the supply(s) used for the data that you're referencing by using the correct APA format. The written paper should be submitted previous to the date/time due, as famous within the course schedule, and submitted through Blackboard’s SafeAssign function. The PowerPoint portion of the task should be submitted through an piece of email (electronic mail) attachment previous to the due date/time or using the submit function throughout the respective module beneath the task part. If the coed runs into issues submitting the e-mail because of dimension of the attachment, “notice pages” of the presentation can be completely acceptable. If questions come up in regard to how to take action, prematurely, be sure that you get with the teacher to work by means of PowerPoint to “print” the notice pages if vital. Data to Cowl for Tasks: PROJECT ONE: POLICE/LAW ENFORCEMENT CLASSIFICATION OR TYPE OF STRUCTURE NUMBER OF AGENCIES IN THE COUNTRY OFFICERS PER 1000 POPULATION ARMED OR UNARMED ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Centralized or decentralized Nationwide State or provincial Native JURISDICTIONAL STRUCTURE Overlapping Coordinated Uncoordinated OPERATIONS/DUTIES Proactive Reactive Investigative CRIME RATE CORRUPTION AND MISCONDUCT ISSUES LEVEL OF COOPERATION WITH FOREIGN AGENICES PROCEDURES, POLICIES, METHODS OR IDEAS THE U.S. SHOULD ADOPT: A minimum of one (1) process, coverage, or concept should be described that you simply really feel the U.S. ought to undertake and clarify why. PROCEDURES, POLICIES, METHODS OR IDEAS THE U.S. COULD NOT OR SHOULD NOT ADOPT: A minimum of one (1) process, coverage, or concept should be described that the united statesshould not or couldn't undertake and clarify why. PROJECT TWO: CRIMINAL LAW BACKGROUND OF COUNTRY Location on map Demographics Inhabitants Racial, ethnic, and/or non secular inhabitants percentages Technique by which sovereignty was attained ECONOMIC STRUCTURE Centralized Socialist Capitalist Combined GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE Sort of presidency Monarchy Dictatorship Republic Democratic Structure Widespread Legislation Written Different Branches Govt Legislative Judicial Technique of choosing officers in branches LEGAL TRADITION Widespread Civil Islamic Jap Asia Mixture SOURCE OF: Substantive Legal Legislation Procedural Legal Legislation DESCRIBE PROCEDURAL PROTECTIONS PROJECT GRADING CRITERIA 150 factors attainable per venture Grading areas for Paper Portion Size/Grammar 20 factors attainable Theoretical Sourcework 15 factors attainable Essential Thought 50 factors attainable Matches Parameters of Project 15 factors attainable Paper Portion: 100 Factors Potential -Lower than 700 phrases, poor grammatical utilization, poor doc development Zero-11 factors -700+ phrases, many grammatical issues, average development 12- 17 factors -700+ phrases, few grammatical issues, good development 18- 20 factors -No theoretical part, inadequate cites, no bibliography/refere nce listing, makes use of identical quotation repeatedly Zero-5 factors -Theoretical substance missing, info referenced however not defined, errors with citations, references not clearly marked, some overlap of citations used 6-10 factors -Effectively cited, thorough software after all content material/theoretical elements, properly documented bibliography 11-15 factors -No enlargement of fabric/perception, doesn't relate personal observations/expertise to paper Zero-15 factors -Some enlargement of fabric/perception, reveals some understanding and software after all materials, relates some expertise/observations to paper 16-30 factors -Expands materials/perception to personal experiences and observations, reveals full understanding and software after all materials, questions and confirms course materials with personal perception and assist of different documentation 31-50 factors -Project not adopted/doe s not tackle matters as famous Zero-5 factors -Follows some features of task however doesn't totally tackle all matters 6- 10 factors -Addresses all features of task and totally covers all matters 11-15 factors PowerPoint Presentation 50 Factors Potential -Scholar’s presentation is inconsistent, unclear or not cohesive failing to totally cowl/tackle areas listed in necessities and doesn’t match materials in paper Zero-15 factors -Presentation is pretty clear and cohesive whereas overlaying most however not the entire areas listed in necessities and considerably matches materials lined in paper 16-34 factors -Presentation is properly organized and totally covers all areas listed in necessities and matches materials introduced in paper 35-50 factors Examinations: Examinations will include fifty (50) questions in a a number of selection, true/false, and fill-in the clean format. Every response has a worth of two (2) factors in the direction of a pupil’s grade. Examinations should be accomplished by the date/time listed within the course syllabus and should have time restrictions. Grading Scale The next grading scale will likely be used to assign a grade on the finish of the course: Late Assignments All assignments and required on-line actions are due in keeping with the deadline listed within the course schedule. Granting deadline extension is the course teacher’s autonomy. Incompletes In case you are unable to finish the necessities for this course because of extenuating circumstances, an Incomplete grade (I) could also be granted in the event you meet the final pointers acknowledged under. Normal Pointers for submitting a course incomplete request: • Greater than 50% of the course session has elapsed. • The scholar has encountered an sudden scenario that's past his or her management. • The scholar is o in good educational standing -- updated on the entire course assignments and has at the very least an total passing grade, o in a position to full the entire remaining coursework inside a session (6 weeks for undergraduate and graduate programs) that instantly follows the session the coed is at present enrolled, and o in a position to present assist documentations to substantiate the necessity for further time ought to a session will not be sufficient to finish the course necessities. A 90-100% B 80-89.99% C 70-79.99% D 60-69.99% F 59.99% or under If an Incomplete is granted, the teacher will set a deadline for all work to be accomplished. The deadline can't go previous one (1) session. All incomplete grades and deadlines are topic to approval by the designated College authority. Course Associated Communication On-line programs are performed in an accelerated format. Well timed communication is essential. When receiving emails out of your classmates or teacher, please reply as quickly as you'll be able to. College students are REQUIRED to make use of their Indiana Tech electronic mail account for all course associated communication. The most direct, and efficient, option to electronic mail your course teacher, and classmates, is by utilizing the Ship E mail perform from the Blackboard course web site. While you use the Ship E mail perform, you robotically obtain a carbon copy of the e-mail you despatched. Within the occasion when you should substantiate your declare that you simply did electronic mail your classmates or teacher, you'll be able to present that carbon copy to the individual(s) who requested it. Please notice that Blackboard solely allows you to ship electronic mail, it doesn't offer you the examine electronic mail perform. All the emails your classmates and teacher despatched to you can be delivered to your Indiana Tech electronic mail account. You might be strongly inspired to examine your Indiana Tech electronic mail account usually, ideally a number of occasions every week, to attenuate the chance of miscommunication. The College coverage requires every on-line course teacher to answer a pupil’s electronic mail inside 24 hours. Except there may be an extraneous scenario that forestalls the teacher from following this rule, you'll be able to count on to hear from the teacher inside 24 hours. For those who don’t obtain a reply inside 24 hours, please don't hesitate to observe up with one other electronic mail or ahead the carbon copy of the e-mail you despatched to OnlineSupport@IndianaTech.edu with a notice “Please assist. It’s been 24 hours and I've not heard from my teacher” and the College assist workers will act in your behalf to contact your course teacher. mailto:OnlineSupport@IndianaTech.edu -research paper writing service
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