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The modular measuring system consists of two various kinds of monitoring models, a battery block-voltage monitoring unit and a battery current- and temperature monitoring unit. Following the dialogue of the measuring , a LabView realization of a common BMS software program is described intimately. As a result of versatile design of the LabView BMS, the system is ready to carry out management and surveillance actions for any sort of battery software and battery know-how (e. g. Pb, VRLA, NiCd, NiMH and many others. ).
The BMS was initially designed for VRLR batteries in uninterruptible energy provide techniques (UPS), however was additionally examined in electrical autos (VW CityStromer, BMW).
In a second step, a common battery administration system (BMS) was realized as a LabView software. The usage of a private laptop as a substitute of a microcontroller results in a lot increased flexibility of the BMS and permits simple adaptation to numerous sorts of battery purposes and battery applied sciences. The LabView-based BMS controls knowledge acquisition, performs knowledge processing, visualization and storage and offers a graphic person interface.
Aside from monitoring options, the BMS evaluates the measured knowledge and interacts with exterior parts, such because the charger, the temperature regulation system and the inverter controller. A modem battery administration system, in distinction to easy battery screens, is able to actively affecting battery operation. Earlier than the presentation of the brand new measuring and the LabView-based battery administration system, the primary rules and basic construction of a BMS are mentioned. I INTRODUCTION I1
Sturdy necessities regarding battery life-time, reliability and energy-efficiency are imposed on modem battery purposes, e. g. , on batteries in unintermptible energy provide techniques (UPS) or batteries in electrical autos (EV). These excessive calls for can solely be met by using refined battery monitoring and administration techniques. At current, battery customers (e. g. in telecommunication vitality provide or in energy stations) know too little concerning the state of their batteries to attract economically optimized choices regarding upkeep and alternative.
The employment of a battery monitoring and administration system helps discovering the best time for battery upkeep and alternative and, as well as, will lengthen the service intervals on account of taking lively affect on battery operation. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF A BMS Fig. 1 exhibits the final construction of a battery administration system and divides the duties to be carried out into logical blocks [2, eight, 91. Battery administration techniques require battery knowledge (battery block-voltages, present and temperature) and environmental knowledge (temperature). Moreover, software relying system knowledge is required.
To acquire these values, a specialised knowledge acquisition system is used. An instance of an acceptable knowledge acquisition system for BMS is pre1. sented in chapter 1 1 The next logical block of a BMS (see Fig. 1) performs the information processing. Aside from decoding the transmitted measured values, this block calculates battery portions (e. g. total battery voltage, common battery temperature, and many others. ), integrates portions just like the battery present and performs statistical evaluation (e. g. distribution of block voltages, deviation of block voltages from the typical block voltage, and many others. . Moreover, the information procession unit wants details about the current most and minimal restrict of block voltages, the utmost battery present and many others. This data is both deduced from the system’s battery mannequin or might be supplied immediately by the person (“parameter correction”). The parameters of the battery mannequin need to be constantly tailored to the measured and computed portions (e. g. , temperature, common load present) to make sure that the mannequin precisely represents the battery’s current state. 630
To manage battery operation, battery administration techniques require the correct measurement of battery block voltages, battery present and battery temperatures. Due to this fact, in a primary step, a modular knowledge acquisition system, particularly designed for battery purposes, was constructed. The measuring consists of two various kinds of monitoring models, a battery block-voltage monitoring unit (VMU) and a battery current- and temperature monitoring unit (CMU), which have been developed in cooperation with SIEMENS AG, Erlangen.
VMUs have already been employed within the SIEMENS Masterguard UPS to be able to present the system’s microcontrollerbased BMS with the required measured knowledge. Zero-7803-5069-Three /98/$10. 00 01998 IEEE Fig. 1 Construction of a battery monitoring and administration system (BMS). In Fig. 1, the logical block “parameter adaptation” is chargeable for battery parameter willpower and replace. The “monitoring” block in Fig. 1 performs fault detection and person data actions. Fault detection checks if a battery amount has exceeded or is more likely to exceed its allowed limits.
Measured knowledge, alarm messages and knowledge associated to service or upkeep wants are given to the person interface by the monitoring block. In distinction to the monitoring block, the “administration” block is chargeable for fault avoidance, which goals to maintain the battery inside sure limits of operation. If a amount goes to exceed a restrict, the administration system reacts, for instance, by activating the cooling system. In excessive conditions, e. g. , within the case of exhaustive discharge, the fault avoidance could restrict and even interrupt the present to guard the cells towards reversion.
Moreover, the administration block is ready to management intelmethod, preligent charging algorithms just like the IU,,, sented in , which limits the utmost of every battery block-voltage as a substitute of simply limiting your entire battery voltage through the time of constant-voltage cost. In Fig. 1, the exterior parts, that are influenced by the administration block (charger, coolingheating system, inverter controller) are summed up within the “management” block. The hnctional block “in-/output” represents the person interface which supplies chosen knowledge and messages to the person and which permits person intervention, e. . the correction of battery or system parameters. Information choice in addition to knowledge storage are represented by means of the logical block “knowledge administration”. 111 DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM Fig. 2 exhibits the construction of the measuring and knowledge acquisition system, consisting of battery block-voltage monitoring models (VMU) and current- and temperature monitoring models (CMU) [ 1,2]. Information switch between the measuring models (any quantity and sequence is feasible) and the information acquisition unit (DAU), which represents the interface to the information processing block of Fig. , is carried out by way of a fiber-optic transmission system (FOTS). Optic knowledge transmission offers electrical insulation of the modular measuring system and results in excessive immunity towards electromagnetic noise. Energy provide for the VMU and CMU is drawn immediately from the measured batteries which minimizes the variety of electrical connections and subsequently results in a straightforward and quick set up. The VMU measures as much as eight voltages every starting from Zero. Three V to 16 V with an accuracy of Zero. 15 YO, which permits the measurement of single-cell and block voltages for any kind of battery.
Relying on the shunt resistor, the CMU is ready to measure battery present, e. g. , over a spread fiom OA as much as f 300 A. The CMU additionally measures battery temperature (-5OC to 6OOC). When the battery administration system doesn't want measured knowledge, the monitoring models relaxation in a stand-by mode throughout which the modules’ energy consumption is negligible in comparison with the self-discharge of the batteries. As quickly as measured values are wanted, the models are switched on by the central knowledge acquisition unit utilizing the fiber-optic transmission ring.
After some setup-routines are accomplished, the VMUs and CMUs begin the measuring course of. As quickly as knowledge is accessible, the modules retailer the measured values of their transmission buffers. Receiving a so referred to as “data-locomotive”, the primary module 631 214 –. . – I t Information Acquisition Unit I 1 I —-I Fibre Optic Transmission System (FOTS) T T t eight block voltages Fig. 2 eight block voltages eight block voltages 5 temperatures and three currents t 5 temperatures and three currents t Construction of the measuring and knowledge acquisition system [ 11.
The electrical knowledge enter and knowledge output alerts of the serial port (TxD, RxD) are reworked into optic alerts and are transmitted by way of the fiber optic transmission system. The electrical handshake alerts RTS and CTS in addition to DSR, DTR and DCD will not be transmitted in order that, on the one hand, just one transmission ring is required, however, however, handshake alerts can't be used. Due to this fact, through the growth of the LabView BMS a lot effort needed to be taken to make sure the synchronization of knowledge communication between the measuring models (CMU and VMU) and the private laptop.
Having began the Labview software for the primary time, the person is requested to offer compulsory system data, e. g. , the quantity and sequence of the measuring models, the worth of the shunt resistor for present measurement, the time between new measurement requests and the paths for knowledge storage. In the meanwhile, the introduced system is pre-configured to cope with as much as eight measuring modules. The default time interval between measurement requests is ready to 4 seconds, however might be augmented in addition to shortened (down to at least one second) by the person. After the receipt of a sound knowledge chain, LabView decodes the transmitted knowledge.
If the decoded knowledge is acknowledged as measured values (and never as error message) these values are in contrast with the corresponding most and minimal limits. If a measured worth exceeds the tolerated interval an alarm message is generated and proven on the graphic person interface. The minimal and most limits could also be set by the person, or be deduced from an acceptable battery mannequin. Person interface: A display screen shot of the person interface referred to as “entrance panel”, might be seen in Fig. Three. On the entrance panel, the person can present enter data. Moreover, the typical battery interrupts the measuring course of and begins sending the data-locomotive ollowed by its personal measured knowledge to the subsequent module within the ring. This module acknowledges the locomotive and the transmitted knowledge and attaches to the information chain its personal measured values. The central acquisition unit is ready to decode the acquired knowledge chain because it is aware of the order of the monitoring models [l]. IV LABVIEW-BASED UNIVERSAL AND BATTERY MONITORING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (BMS) LabView (Laboratory Digital Instrument Engineering Workbench) from Nationwide Devices Company is a software program growth software which makes use of a graphical programming language, G, to create packages in block diagram kind.
Since LabView contains libraries of features for knowledge acquisition, serial instrument management, knowledge evaluation, knowledge presentation and knowledge storage it commends itself for the BMS software. LabView packages are referred to as “digital devices (VI)”. These VIS include an interactive person interface (“entrance panel”, see Fig. Three), a dataflow diagram that serves because the supply code, and icon connections that enable the VI to be referred to as from increased degree VIS [ 5 ] . Because the BMS is executed on a private laptop, it provides increased flexibility and far more graphic instruments for knowledge visualization than microcontroller-based techniques.
Due to this fact, the central unit of the diagram in Fig. 1 in addition to the in-/output interfaces have been realized as a LabView software. Information acquisition: For communication between the measuring system and LabView (request for and receipt of measured values) one of many serial ports of the private laptop is used. 632 27-Four Fig. Three Entrance panel of the LabView-based BMS eight measuring channels and might localize the battery block, which is exceeding its operation limits. Fig. Four exhibits the show for module 1. The measured voltage of block 1 has exceeded ts most restrict and, subsequently, has triggered the alarm message on the entrance panel. If the is doubtful, whether or not the battery,s usable ca- temperature, as much as six currents of parallel battery strings and your entire battery voltage are always monitored. Fault detection: In case of an alarm message, the corresponding monitoring unit is marked. Clicking on the “module #,’button, the person will get detailed details about the module’s block 1 1 block2 1 block3 1 block4 block5 block6 block7 block8 i Fig. Four Detailed details about measuring module 1 633 acity might need decreased, it's doable to run a battery-check discharge, which helps recognizing and localizing faulty cells. This battery-check, which might be outlined as part of the fault detection features (monitoring) of the BMS, but additionally as part of lively intervention (administration) is described under (see “fault avoidance and intervention”). Information processing: ment, the battery charger, which performs a blockvoltage limiting and subsequently battery defending charging algorithm (1Uma), is related to the BMS by way of a second RS 232 serial port. It's anticipated that future BMS purposes, e. . , BMS in electrical autos, will use modem fieldbus configurations, resembling CAN bus, which is able to result in extra versatile, open techniques. Information administration: Aside from calculating your entire battery voltage and the typical temperature, LabView calculates the battery’s state of cost utilizing a modified Peukert equation [2,6,7]. Switching the button “SOC” the state of cost of the battery strings is proven on the show. Moreover, the distribution of block voltages is displayed. The histogram of the measured voltages might be seen by clicking on the “voltage distribution” button.
Fault avoidance and intervention: Relying on the width of the voltage distribution, e. g. throughout floating operation, or relying on a reducing usable battery capability, the BMS is ready to acknowledge if a so-called “battery conditioning” (in case of lead acid batteries) must be carried out and provides a corresponding message to the person . A “battery conditioning” algorithm performs a particular sequence of discharging and recharging durations which reverses to a sure extent getting older of the batteries. A typical instance of reversible damages of lead acid batteries is the so-called “untimely capability loss” .
To permit evaluation of the information at a later second, the measured values in addition to the messages given to the person are constantly saved. This default storage mode is helpful for battery examination in analysis and growth. Utilizing the BMS for frequent battery purposes an event-controlled storage mode might be chosen, which shops a measured worth, whether it is considerably totally different kind the worth earlier than. For future business battery purposes, for instance, battery leasing, one other easy storage mode, which solely information the alarm messages on the person show, may simply be employed.
V SUMMARY To find out the reducing battery capability in case of batteries throughout floating operation (UPS-batteries), it's doable to run a battery-check discharge (e. g. 10% of nominal battery capability). In the course of the battery verify the battery block-voltages are recorded and in contrast with the corresponding values from earlier assessments. In case of great deviations, the battery’s usable capability Qo has most likely decreased as effectively. Due to this fact, a “battery conditioning” must be really useful.
If a measured temperature exceeds its limits or the variations between the measured temperatures exceed a predefined restrict, a water circulation system is switched on. This technique could both cool or warmth the batteries or may set up a uniform temperature distribution. Parameter adaptation: On this paper, a brand new developed, versatile LabView-based battery administration system is introduced. By the LabView realization of the BMS (in distinction to older microprocessor based mostly ideas ) it was doable to create an simply adaptable monitoring and administration system for any sort of battery software.
Extra monitoring or administration options for BMS can simply be added to the LabView software program. Even unexpected calls for on BMS, which will flip up with the utilization of recent battery applied sciences, might be met with out issues. VI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors want to thank SIEMENS AG, Erlangen for supporting the event of the introduced battery measuring system and, moreover, acknowledge D. Linzen for his contributions to this mission. VI1 REFERENCES A. Lohner, S. Buller, E. Karden, R. W.
De Doncker, “Improvement of a Extremely Correct, Common and Cheap Measuring System for Battery Administration Methods”, 15” Electrical Automobile Symposium (EVS), 1998, Brussels (Belgium) E. Karden, P. Mauracher, A. Lohner, “Battery Administration Methods for Power-Environment friendly Battery Operation: Technique and Sensible Expertise”, 1 Three ~ Electrical Automobile Symposium, 1996, Osaka (Japan), Vol. 2 pp. 91-98 The quantity of cost Qo which might be saved in and discharged from a battery at nominal values of present and temperature, is generally not equal to the nominal capability QN, which is an impact of getting older.
Due to this fact, which is a mannequin parameter of the modified Peukert equation, must be up to date usually, e. g. , through the conditioning cycles. As a result of modular construction of the LabView software, extra refined battery fashions could also be applied in keeping with particular person person’s necessities. Management interfaces: eo, Aside from communication between LabView and the measuring system for knowledge acquisition, the BMS has to produce other interfaces to regulate exterior parts such because the cooling system or the battery charger. On the mo634 A. Lohner, E.
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