Critical review of two academic papers about the impacts of festivals and events to local and regional development The aim of this essay is to critical review two academic papers relating to the impacts of festivals and events to local and regional development. The first key writing of Moscardo (2007) Analyzing the role of festivals and events in regional development, focuses on the potential role of festivals and events and explaining how can they contribute to regional development.
Another paper, wrote by Wood (2005) Measuring the economic and social impacts of local authority events, focuses on local authority use events in non-tourism regions and the post-industrial town of Blackburn in Lancashire. This essay will introduce the different methodological approaches that these two articles used and discuss why these methods suitable for these two papers. It will also discuss other parts of methods the authors used. According to Lancaster( 2009) using different kinds of methodological can make the data more reliable and valid.
Focus on the content of these two papers, in the first writing, Moscardo (2007) describes that the study explored 36 case studies and analysis identified 13 themes which connected to the efficiency of festivals and events in regional development. The results of this research, which are analysed by using the qualitative research method, are used to describing how festivals and events can contribute to regional development. They also analysed the factors to the success of events and festivals. Moreover, Eisenhard (1989 cited in Moscardo) provided the main steps in case study analysis.
In another article, Wood (2005) uses quantitative method to identified both economic and social impacts of community focused on local authority events. This research using mainly six questionnaires to evaluate two large events on different sides. As it mentioned, the authors used two different types of research methods. One is qualitative method and another one is quantitative method. As noted by Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Jackson (2008) there are mainly three distinct differences between qualitative data and quantitative data. First of all, qualitative data is based on through words express meanings and cannot be uantified. In contrast, qualitative data is based on meanings indicated through numbers and that can be counted or measured. Second, qualitative method conducted data from using conceptual model and quantitative method conducted data through using charts and statistics. Third, quantitative research relies mainly on statistical information and numbers, the results are numerical. Conversely, qualitative method need analyse longer descriptions instead of numbers. For using qualitative method, the advantages are this method strength is in uncovering more about people’s experience.
As qualitative research focuses on small groups, it can be less expensive than quantitative research which may require large groups of participants or expensive measurement tools. There are also have some “postivist” (Egan 2012) issues with qualitative research, such as subjective, cannot be generalised and it is difficult to determine the validity and reliability of linguistic data. For using quantitative method, it both have positive sides and negative sides too. The advantages are the data is specific, replicable, generaliseable and it is aggregates across multiple subjects and summarizes findings.
However, quantitative data may not be as rich as or as detailed as qualitative method and survey may be difficult for some participants, may not provide all the information needed for interpretations of data findings, and the large amounts of data may require more sophisticated analysis approaches (Cooper, Donohue and Tharenou 2007). Back on these two papers, the reason why Moscardo (2007) used qualitative research method is because this study is focused on a specific area about the role that successful events and festivals can play in regional development. It is need information specifically and robust.
Due to the purpose of the study, another author Wood (2005) used quantitative research method , which is evaluate two events and develop local people’s attitude to the region. They need widely information to know the general opinions of local authority events. Continuing focus on the different research methods the authors chose. Moscardo (2007) explored 36 case studies and identified 13 themes in content analysis. Anderson, Jansen and Velde (2004) state that case study research specializes in the understanding of a complex issue or experience in object and can be expanded or added to any known through previous research trengths. Case study highlights a limited number of events or conditions and detailed background analysis of the relationship between them. Elsmore (2012) maintains that case study has many merits. For example, first, it can put people , events and organisations in their both social and historical context. Second, it has a ability to treat the subject as a whole. Third, data collection is very flexible, this strategy permits researchers to adjust their research strategy as the research proceeds. Furthermore, there is on need to generalise to a defined wider population.
Moscardo also used Eisenhardt’s (1989) steps in case study analysis, the process as starting from traditional problem definition and construct validation similar to hypothesis testing research. It required specify population, make theoretical and not random sampling. Next, it should combine both qualitative and quantitative methods and overlap data collection to allow investigators to take advantage of emergent themes. Then, analyse cases and across cases and compare findings and similar literature to build internal validity. Lastly, extend and test hypothesis in other samples of case studies.
Anderson, Jansen and Velde (2004) indicate that the resultant theory from the Eisenhardt process is grounded enough for application. Wood (2005) developed 6 different questionnaires, it is important because these questionnaires are used to assess economic impacts of authority events and festivals through survey people’s attitude. Cooper, Donohue and Tharenou (2007) report that there are many benefits of questionnaires. The first one is the responses are gathered in a standardised way, so questionnaires are more objective than interviews.
Then, questionnaires not only can collect data relatively quick but also can contact a large number of people at a very low price if use telephone or postal. However, in some situations they can take a long time to design and analyse. Moreover, in some cases potential respondents will refuse to take the time to be interviewed or will refuse to answer some specific questions and response rates can be low from postal. In both papers, they chose different method, so the respondents and the numbers of information are different.
In Moscardo’s research, he use cases from different countries and a variety kinds of festival and event. About 50 per cent cases were from Australia, approximately all of the case were regular or recurring events. In Wood’s research, the respondents were people and organisations, it surveyed six types, the attitudes to the region before event, event attendees and participants, non-attendees, local business, sponsors, community groups and attitudes to the region after event. The attitude surveys were carried out by telephone interview, and the numbers were selected randomly.
Walliman (2011) says that when a sample is selected randomly, then every item in the population has an equal chance of being selected. These two writing were both described literature review in their different sections. According to Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Jackson (2008) literature review is all their own and contribute to knowledge through literature reviews on a specific topic of research activities. They serve as valuable resources for those who want to get overview of the available research in a particular area.
Literature review is always done as part of a paper highlighted key issues and related topics, and highlights the influence of conceptual or empirical studies already carried out in the field. To sum up, through comparing the methods used to the impacts of festivals and events to local and regional development in these two papers. It presents that there are mainly three differences between qualitative method and quantitative method. The biggest difference is that qualitative method express meanings through words and quantitative method is based on numbers.
In addition, they both have advantages and disadvantages. Due to their different purpose of studies, one of them chose case studies and another chose questionnaires as their research method and explains their positive sides and negative sides. Moscardo (2007) uses case from different countries and in Wood’s research, the respondents were people and organisations and Wood selected the sampling randomly. Finally, the last portion states why need literature review and how it is significant. Above all, a research should be use suitable methods, no matter it is qualitative or quantitative.
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