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Introduction to curriculum design in gifted training / edited by Kristen R. Stephens, Ph.D., and Frances A. Karnes, Ph.D. 1 on-line useful resource.
Description based mostly on print model report and CIP knowledge offered by writer; useful resource not considered. ISBN 978-1-61821-480-5 (pdf) -- ISBN 978-1-61821-481-2 (ePub) -- ISBN 978-1-61821-479-9 (pbk.) 1. Gifted children--Schooling--Curricula--United States. 2. Curriculum planning--United States. I. Stephens, Kristen R., editor of compilation. II. Karnes, Frances A., editor of compilation. LC3993.9 371.95--dc23
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction Kristen R. Stephens and Frances A. Karnes
Part I: Foundations
Chapter 1: In Context: Gifted Traits and the Implications for Curriculum Angela M. Housand
Chapter 2: Historical past of Gifted and Superior Tutorial Curriculum Concept and Observe Elissa Brown
Chapter three: Normal Curriculum Design: Ideas and Finest Practices Jessica A. Hockett and Catherine M. Brighton
Chapter four: Aligning Curriculum to Requirements Susan Okay. Johnsen
Part II: Survey of Curriculum Fashions
Chapter 5: Survey of Curriculum Fashions in Gifted Schooling: Frameworks for Growing and Implementing Differentiated Curricula Ann Robinson and Audrey Tabler
Part III: Curriculum within the Core Topic Areas
Chapter 6: Language Arts Curriculum for Gifted Learners Elizabeth A. Fogarty
Chapter 7: Arithmetic Curriculum for Gifted Learners M. Katherine Gavin
Chapter eight: Science Curriculum for Gifted Learners Michael S. Matthews
Chapter 9: Social Research Curriculum for Gifted Learners Shelagh A. Gallagher
Part IV: The Position of Evaluation in Curriculum Growth
Chapter 10: Curriculum Implementation, Administration, and Evaluation: Particular Consideration and Finest Practices Carolyn M. Callahan
Part V: Tendencies and Future Instructions for Curriculum for the Gifted
Chapter 11: Creativity and Curriculum for the Gifted Bonnie Cramond and Sarah E. Sumners
Chapter 12: The Position of Expertise in Curriculum for the Gifted: From Little Acorns Develop Mighty Oaks Brian C. Housand
Chapter 13: Service-Studying in Gifted Schooling: Addressing Cognitive and Affective Domains Kristen R. Stephens, David Malone, and Alissa P. Griffith
Chapter 14: Affective Curriculum: Proactively Addressing the Challenges of Rising Up Jean Sunde Peterson
Chapter 15: Culturally Responsive and Related Curriculum: The Revised Bloom-Banks Matrix Donna Y. Ford and Michelle Frazier Trotman Scott
In regards to the Editors
In regards to the Authors
Introduction Kristen R. Stephens and Frances A. Karnes
Curriculum is a elementary part of our academic system serving to information each academics and college students by means of the instructing and studying course of. In recent times, the examination of what and the way we educate has intensified with the introduction of the Widespread Core State Requirements in Arithmetic and English Language Arts. Though conversations pertaining to those and different requirements will be fairly contentious, these new requirements have inspired important reflection round what's essential for college students to know, perceive, and do inside and throughout grade ranges.
As modifications are made to the final curriculum, educators of the gifted should intently analyze the implications of such adjustments for the curriculum for presented college students. As curriculum reformers tout the implementation of those new requirements as offering a extra rigorous curricular expertise for college students, gifted training advocates should acknowledge that these extra rigorous requirements will nonetheless require changes to deal with the tutorial wants of our gifted learners. The concept of a “one-size-fits-all” curriculum will not be solely impractical, it's disingenuous given the distinctive studying wants of every scholar in our school rooms.
The purpose of this textual content is to current the present considering and scholarship concerning curriculum improvement for the gifted to help educators in creating new and/or modifying present curriculum for presented learners. The textual content is organized into 5 sections: Foundations, Survey of Curriculum Fashions, Curriculum within the Core Topic Areas, The Position of Evaluation in Curriculum Growth, and Tendencies and Future Instructions for Curriculum for the Gifted.
Part I: Foundations supplies the reader with the important background data wanted to develop curriculum for the gifted.
In Chapter 1, Angela Housand highlights the traits of gifted college students and their implications for curriculum improvement. Elements of the curriculum which can be conscious of the curious, inventive, succesful, related, and conscientious chief—all facets of the gifted learner—are examined.
Chapter 2 by Elissa Brown supplies an summary of the historical past of curriculum idea and follow. Social and political tensions in addition to developments in our understanding of the event of human cognition are all explored in relation to their affect on curriculum improvement in each normal and gifted training.
Jessica Hockett and Catherine Brighton current the rules and finest practices of normal curriculum design in Chapter three. The supply and group of the curriculum, the objectives and priorities of the curriculum, and the tailoring of curriculum are all mentioned within the context of creating high-quality curriculum for all college students.
In Chapter four, Susan Johnsen outlines easy methods to method the aligning of curriculum to related requirements. Three alignment fashions are introduced and consideration is given to how curriculum paperwork will be appropriately differentiated for presented college students.
Part II: Survey of Curriculum Fashions is comprised of Chapter 5 by Ann Robinson and Audrey Tabler. This chapter surveys the foremost curriculum fashions and frameworks at present in use to information curriculum improvement. Descriptions of chosen fashions, a abstract of efficacy analysis, and examples of initiatives at present implementing every mannequin are offered.
Part III: Curriculum within the Core Topic Areas examines curriculum improvement from the angle of particular content material areas—English language arts, arithmetic, science, and social research.
Elizabeth Fogarty, in Chapter 6, describes the traits of gifted English language arts college students, explains why they require totally different experiences within the classroom, and provides solutions for modifying curriculum to raised meet the wants of those college students
In Chapter 7, M. Katherine Gavin highlights the important parts of an efficient arithmetic curriculum for presented college students. Educational methods and pattern curriculum supplies are shared to assist the event of scholars as mathematicians.
Chapter eight by Michael Matthews supplies contextual concerns for creating science curriculum for the gifted and solutions for modifying, evaluating, and choosing present educational supplies within the sciences. The position of argumentation within the science classroom and proposals for Science Olympiad preparation are additionally supplied.
Growing wealthy and difficult experiences for presented college students within the social research is the main target of Chapter 9 by Shelagh Gallagher. The parts of a differentiated social research curriculum and concepts for enhancing studying experiences in social research by means of problem-based studying are shared.
Part IV: The Position of Evaluation in Curriculum Growth consists of Chapter 10 by Carolyn Callahan and examines curriculum implementation, administration, and evaluation. The entire processes mandatory to make sure that the curriculum is attaining desired outcomes are detailed on this complete chapter.
Part V: Tendencies and Future Instructions for Curriculum for the Gifted explores particular areas of consideration within the curriculum improvement course of, together with creativity, know-how, service-learning, social-emotional improvement, and cultural responsiveness.
In Chapter 11, Bonnie Cramond and Sarah Sumners handle a number of important questions which have implications for curriculum improvement: Why educate creativity? Can creativity be taught? Ought to we infuse creativity into the present curriculum or design a stand-alone creativity curriculum? Inventive inclinations and educational fashions specializing in the inventive course of are additionally detailed.
Chapter 12 by Brian Housand examines the position of know-how in curriculum for the gifted. From seamlessly integrating know-how into the curriculum to inspecting the methods college students interact with know-how within the classroom, a wide range of concerns are mentioned. Entry to know-how, use of know-how for inventive expression, and accountable use of know-how are extra subjects explored on this chapter.
Kristen Stephens, David Malone, and Alissa Griffith introduce the reader to service-learning in Chapter 13. The chapter summarizes the analysis supporting service-learning experiences for college students, highlights the position service-learning performs in curriculum improvement for presented learners, and shares academics’ experiences with implementing service-learning in faculties and school rooms.
In Chapter 14, Jean Peterson supplies an summary of affective curriculum that addresses the social and emotional improvement of gifted college students. Methods for incorporating affective parts into present curriculum in addition to creating “stand-alone” affective curriculum are introduced.
The event of culturally responsive and related curriculum is examined by Donna Ford and Michelle Trotman Scott in Chapter 15. The revised Bloom-Banks Matrix is shared. Though Bloom’s taxonomy addresses the rigor required of gifted college students, the Banks Multicultural Curriculum Mannequin ensures relevancy is equally thought-about in creating curriculum for presented college students.
It's our hope that every chapter on this textual content supplies the reader with the mandatory data and instruments to create new or adapt present curriculum for presented college students. The event and refinement of curriculum is an ongoing course of that not solely calls for staying abreast of probably the most present analysis to make sure implementation of evidence-based practices, but additionally requires educators to come back collectively, share experience, and replicate deeply about what is important for college students to know, perceive, and be capable to do throughout grade ranges and content material areas. Curriculum is our information, so we should be certain that it's all the time directing us to our desired vacation spot.
SECTION I Foundations
In Context Gifted Traits and the Implications
for Curriculum Angela M. Housand
Quite a few views throughout the literature on giftedness and expertise improvement try to characterize giftedness. Listings of traits typically embrace mental attributes, inventive traits, domain-specific behaviors, affective traits, and trait comparisons, to each illustrate similarities between gifted college students and eminent producers in addition to to focus on variations between gifted college students and their nongifted friends (Davis, Rimm, & Siegle, 2011; Reis & Housand, 2007; Renzulli, Siegle, Reis, Gavin, & Sytsma-Reed, 2009; Renzulli et al., 2013; Sternberg & Davidson, 2005). The needs for itemizing such attributes fluctuate from merely making an attempt to broadly outline manifestations of intelligence to informing procedures for successfully figuring out gifted college students. Recurrent throughout each functions is the suggestion that gifted and gifted college students are atypical learners, able to superior efficiency, and qualitatively totally different from their nongifted friends of their cognitive talents, persona traits, previous experiences, and/or affective traits (Clark, 2002; Renzulli, 1978, 1996; Treffinger, Younger, Selby, & Shepardson, 2002).
VanTassel-Baska (2011) contended that three traits of gifted and gifted college students— complexity, precocity, and depth—are important for curricular planning and improvement. Complexity as a attribute refers to gifted college students’ talents to grapple with advanced concepts, cause abstractly, interact in greater order considering, and revel in difficult actions. This means to get pleasure from complexity stems from their precocity or proof of superior efficiency in a site in addition to their emotional responsiveness and capability for intense give attention to subjects they discover fascinating. Though consideration of those traits definitely results in excellent curriculum for presented college students, it does slim the main target and limits consideration to the affect of surroundings, thus probably advancing the assumption that giftedness is static or unchanging and that after a scholar is recognized as gifted, she or he will all the time show these distinctive capacities.
More and more, nevertheless, consultants counsel that the traits of gifted people should not static in nature and nobody particular person possesses or shows all of those traits persistently throughout time or content material areas (Renzulli, 1986, 2005; Sternberg, 1997; Treffinger et al., 2002). It has been recognized for many years that giftedness varies amongst people; throughout gender, cultures, and socioeconomic standing; and throughout disciplines and time (Bloom, 1985; Frasier & Passow, 1994; Reis, 2005; Treffinger et al., 2002). Additional, presents and skills could also be manifest and obvious, emergent and ill-defined, latent and hidden, or camouflaged by a studying incapacity. To additional complicate issues, many conceptions acknowledge that
giftedness and gifted behaviors manifest on account of the dynamic interplay between inner components, corresponding to motivation, persistence, or curiosity, and exterior components, corresponding to entry to sources, enriched studying alternatives, or assist (Mönks & Katzko, 2005; Renzulli, 1996, 2002), and analysis helps that giftedness is developmental and fluid or much less fastened than beforehand believed (Dweck, 2006).
The overall settlement throughout the subject of gifted training appears to be that giftedness is a multifaceted assemble and no singular definition or clear consensus exists concerning the actual nature of giftedness. A place assertion by the Nationwide Affiliation for Gifted Kids (2010) advances the concept that gifted people are those that show excellent ranges of aptitude or competence in a given area. Inside training, these exceptionally in a position learners progress in studying quicker than their identical age-peers, are present in all segments of society, and require differentiated instructional experiences with alternatives for superior ranges, depth, and pacing of curriculum. Whatever the complexities, some consideration of those traits is key for designing and planning curriculum for presented and gifted learners (VanTassel-Baska, 2011).
Curriculum has to deal with the variability within the improvement of gifted behaviors and be ready to assist a broad vary of developmental levels and particular person traits even throughout the narrower inhabitants of scholars who've been recognized as having the potential for superior efficiency. Examples of some usually accepted and infrequently used differentiated studying experiences for presented college students embrace acceleration in domains of expertise or by grade-level; grouping practices which can be versatile and cluster gifted college students collectively by expertise space or for superior instruction; inquiry-based methods that depend on looking for solutions to open-ended issues or questions; embedding greater order considering and drawback fixing into core topic areas; and specializing in curricular content material and processes which can be based mostly on scholar pursuits, have functions exterior instructional settings, or have private which means for college students (e.g., related to their sense of identification or future objectives; Assouline, Colangelo, VanTassel-Baska, & Lupkowski-Shoplik, 2015; Ackerman, 2014; Colangelo, Assouline, & Gross, 2004; Renzulli & Reis, 2014; Rogers, 2004; VanTassel-Baska & Brown, 2007). Of paramount significance inside these differentiated instructional experiences are the curricular choices: the consideration, willpower, and outline of what college students finally are anticipated to be like and be capable to do (Stahl, 1994) or as Tomlinson (1999) would counsel, what college students ought to know, perceive, and be capable to do.
This supplies the platform for fascinated by curriculum as a method to serve not solely the inner traits of gifted college students, but additionally develop expertise traits which can be instrumental for superior achievement corresponding to mental engagement (Goff & Ackerman, 1992), openness to expertise (Costa & McCrae, 1992), perseverance and fervour for attaining long-term objectives (i.e., grit; Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007), a necessity for Ascending Mental Demand (Tomlinson et al., 2009), and intense focus in areas of non-public and “skilled” curiosity (Housand, 2014; Renzulli & Reis, 2014). What then are the attributes of gifted and gifted college students in our school rooms that may be leveraged to assist development and achievement for these people? In different phrases, which traits of giftedness are most essential to contemplate in choice making about high-quality curriculum, and what constitutes “high- high quality curriculum”?
Gifted college students are curious, inventive, succesful, and related. Additionally they have the potential to be the longer term leaders of society. These traits can be utilized to nice benefit when designing curriculum (see Desk 1.1). Curiosity, for instance, is a trademark of giftedness that naturally leads to engagement as gifted college students search solutions to their questions. Every discovery supplies the fodder for deeper questioning or a brand new line of inquiry altogether. Gifted college students’ capability for superior efficiency and inventive productiveness are demonstrated after they discover and resolve difficult issues and these college students benefit from the difficult work and alternative to be productive. Subsequently, curriculum should be conscious of this want to make sure they nonetheless love the problem even after they depart the tutorial setting. These college students, fairly merely, have the capability to go deeper and additional than their nongifted friends, and curriculum should assist and stretch these superior capabilities to assist them be aggressive in a globally related society and change into the compassionate and conscientious leaders that society wants.
Desk 1.1 Elements of Efficient Curriculum That Are Attentive to Gifted Pupil
Gifted Pupil Attribute Efficient Curriculum
• Connects to college students’ lives • Is actual and helpful past the
classroom • Permits for significant collaboration • Is delicate to world considerations • Gives genuine viewers • Requires genuine outcomes (e.g.,
merchandise) • Focuses on actual issues and
processes • Makes use of the conventions of a
self-discipline • Guided by habits of thoughts • Gives alternatives for
connecting with mental friends
• Promotes inquiry-based studying • Requires drawback fixing • Connects to college students’ lives • Displays interest-based content material • Helps persistence by means of
emotionally compelling subjects • Engages the learner by means of
enough problem • Requires effort
• Nurtures drawback definition • Requires drawback fixing • Makes use of divergent thought as a
problem-solving technique • Gives alternatives for authentic,
inventive, and sensible work within the disciplines
• Gives cognitive problem • Challenges beliefs • Addresses profound concepts • Requires development on the a part of the
scholar • Gives an genuine viewers • Requires genuine outcomes (e.g.,
merchandise) • Focuses on actual issues and
processes • Makes use of the conventions of a
self-discipline • Requires self-reflection • Requires reflective follow and
metacognition • Considers self throughout the world
Conscientious leaders • Delicate to multicultural and world considerations
• Requires college students to be respectful of others’ wants and contributions
• Requires choice making
Context First, contemplate the milieu of gifted college students at the moment. This era of scholars is related like no
different era earlier than (Pew Web Analysis, 2010). The Web and social media have remodeled not solely how folks talk, but additionally the methods they purchase, create, and share data. Though the attribute of connectedness will not be distinctive to gifted college students, it's elementary to who they're. Now not is know-how merely a software, it's the medium for attaining data, collaborating with friends, exchanging concepts, creating merchandise, and sharing data and insights. It's crucial that any consideration of curriculum assumes that using know-how instruments is key to the training course of, with an consciousness that college students at the moment are adept at socializing by way of the Web, however could but require instruction about efficient analysis expertise, skilled communication protocols, presentation modalities or instruments, and accountable digital participation (i.e., digital citizenship). The implications of this connectedness are multifaceted and serve to deal with logistical, course of, and content material considerations in choice making about high-quality curriculum.
Curricular Issues for Linked College students Logistical considerations. For instance, a novel logistical problem in addressing the wants of gifted
college students helps them join with friends who've related pursuits and skills. Discovering such a connection is especially essential to gifted college students’ sense of identification, establishing emotions of belonging and acceptance, their means to take care of engagement in and motivation for studying, and self- willpower for attaining profitable outcomes (Baylor, 2011; Phillips & Lindsay, 2006; Reynolds & Caperton, 2011; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Expertise and entry to the Web present distinctive curricular alternatives to attach youth to communities the place they will discover people who share their pursuits, superior data, and insights, and discover mentors who can serve to advance gifted college students’ data to knowledgeable ranges whereas encouraging continuous development in fields of curiosity. Take, for instance, one scholar in a pilot examine of FutureCasting® (Housand, 2014), who generated professional- degree weblog posts that garnered, inside a 24-hour interval, 273 “hits” and opened a world dialogue with individuals from the USA, Germany, Malaysia, and Singapore about attaining high quality photographic pictures with a selected digital camera utilizing varied lenses and aperture settings. This instance illustrates a number of issues about high-quality curriculum. Based on consultants, high-quality curriculum ought to join with college students’ lives, appear actual and helpful in contexts past the classroom, permit for significant collaboration, and be delicate to world considerations. Consultants additionally agree that high-quality curriculum ought to be genuine—centered on actual issues and processes, utilizing the conventions of the self-discipline, and guided by habits of thoughts (Hockett, 2009; Kaplan, 1986; Renzulli, Leppien, & Hays, 2000; Renzulli & Reis, 2014; Tomlinson et al., 2009; VanTassel-Baska, 2011). Subsequently, it's crucial that curriculum incorporate alternatives for college students to make connections to mental friends (not essentially age friends) who share their pursuits and skill to discover a subject with commensurate ranges of depth and focus.
Course of considerations. One other indicator of high-quality curriculum is a versatile curriculum that provides consideration to particular person scholar variations. It has already been established that gifted college students are qualitatively totally different than their same-age friends and that they require curricular changes, however it's important that these changes are enough. As soon as once more, the related nature of gifted college students’
experiences present alternatives for lodging corresponding to progressing by means of the curriculum at a quicker or slower charge; entry to curriculum, programs, and mentors who allow gifted college students to take part in sufficiently difficult studying experiences; and the supply of myriad decisions associated to course of, tempo, and content material of studying. In different phrases, know-how and entry to the Web present the chance for curriculum to give attention to course of expertise, corresponding to efficient analysis methods, and take away limitations curriculum can inadvertently create by permitting college students to discover as a lot and as many content material sources as deeply as their pursuits require and within the contexts which can be most significant to their lives.
Content material considerations. Content material can be an space the place the flexibility to attach by way of digital applied sciences supplies affordances for high-quality curriculum. Most curriculum consultants agree that efficient curriculum ought to be integrative, emphasizing connections between domains of information and throughout and inside disciplines (Kaplan, 1986; Renzulli et al., 2000; Renzulli & Reis, 2014; Tomlinson et al., 2009; VanTassel- Baska, 2011). Happily, gifted college students “related” lives present prepared entry to data and performance to assist each deeper ranges of exploration and connections between disciplines. Now not is a content material query one thing that must be memorized. As a substitute, prepared entry to content material data by means of laptop computer computer systems, iPads, and smartphones strikes information-level studying into the position of deeper and extra advanced which means making (Housand & Housand, 2012). With this scaffolding of information-level data, curriculum can give attention to requiring college students to make connections, switch concepts inside and throughout domains, apply data at a number of ranges, determine patterns, and perceive the depth and complexity of disciplines of examine. Additional, an integrative curriculum specializing in connections between disciplines permits college students to seek out totally different factors of entry, join their pursuits to the tutorial content material, and mix data from a wide range of fields to develop novel and insightful options to issues they encounter inside sufficiently superior studying alternatives.
Episodic Nature of Curiosity Gifted college students are curious by nature, however curiosity doesn't mechanically progress to a well-defined
curiosity space or superior ranges of engagement in curricular content material. College students could also be curious, however with out entry to sources to fulfill preliminary states of curiosity, episodes of curiosity is not going to result in continued pursuits or desired outcomes corresponding to superior achievement. Put merely, curiosity is a cyclical course of that when glad results in a want for brand new data (i.e., curiosity begets curiosity). Based on Arnone, Small, Chauncey, and McKenna (2011), when curiosity is glad, it turns into a multistage episode that may result in deepening ranges of curiosity and vice versa. The primary stage of episodic curiosity is the set off, which is a “stimulus characterised by uncertainty” (Arnone et al., 2011, p. 185). That is adopted by response and a decision. Studying relies upon whether or not the episode of curiosity was glad or not. If the curiosity will not be glad, studying in that occasion doesn't happen and the impetus for the subsequent episode of curiosity is negated. Furthermore, gifted college students are capable of purchase deep content material data and keep intense focus when looking for solutions to questions of curiosity, suggesting that gifted college students could also be uniquely capable of profit from curriculum that helps open-ended exploration and the cyclical processes that underlie curiosity. In flip, …
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