Quantitative Research

Flag question: Question 1

Question 11 pts

Correlational research allows the researcher to answer questions such as:

what is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B?

does change in Variable A cause change in Variable B?

is there a significant difference between scores on Variable A and scores on Variable B?

does change in Variable B causes change in Variable A?

Flag question: Question 2

Question 21 pts

Marialexa conducts an economic study and asks her participants to provide information about their family incomes. First, they are asked to check one box from a list of three, indicating whether they consider themselves low-income, middle-income, or high-income. She refers to this as the self-identification variable. Then, they are asked (if they are willing) to provide their annual income in dollars. She refers to this as the dollar-figure variable. The study is both confidential and anonymous, and most people answer both questions. Which of the following statements accurately describes Marialexa’s dependent variables?

Both are continuous

The self-identification variable is discrete and the dollar-figure variable is continuous

Both are discrete

The self-identification variable is continuous and the dollar-figure variable is discrete

Flag question: Question 3

Question 31 pts

In experimental design, the variable that is manipulated is the:

dependent variable.

independent variable.

confounding variable.

constant.

Flag question: Question 4

Question 41 pts

Advantages of questionnaires include all of the following EXCEPT:

large numbers of people can be contacted for a relatively low cost.

data can be gathered from a large number of people in a relatively short period of time.

participants may feel more confident about their anonymity and therefore respond more honestly.

because questions are in written form, they are less likely to be misunderstood by respondents.

Flag question: Question 5

Question 51 pts

A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in people’s preference for action movies. The researcher locates 50 people at each of the following ages: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 years. She asks them to rate their preference for action movies in relation to other sorts of movies. This is an example of which type of design?

longitudinal

nested

cross-sectional

panel

Flag question: Question 6

Question 61 pts

“There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.” During a test of this hypothesis, it was discovered that some of the participants lived with family members and others lived alone. This variable, living situation, is a/an ________.

independent variable.

dependent variable.

constant.

confounding variable.

Flag question: Question 7

Question 71 pts

A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in the music people prefer to listen to. The researcher locates 50 people who are about 20 years old. She sends these people a questionnaire every year for the next 10 years asking about the types of music they prefer to listen to. This is an example of which type of design?

longitudinal

nested

cross-sectional

panel

Flag question: Question 8

Question 81 pts

Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of semester all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the problem-based method constitute the:

placebo group.

treatment group.

sample.

control group.

Flag question: Question 9

Question 91 pts

Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of the semester, all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the traditional method constitute the:

placebo group.

treatment group.

sample.

control group.

Flag question: Question 10

Question 101 pts

Which of the following scenarios best illustrates a cohort-sequential design?

Don studies high school seniors’ concerns about world events during their post-secondary experiences. He surveys the entire senior class state-wide. He surveys them again every year for eight years.

Melanie is conducting a survey for her thesis that examines administrative policies in middle schools that are intended to decrease bullying. After developing her survey and piloting the instrument with a small group, she then administers the instrument to a sample of 2300 middle-school administrators.

Jana wants to understand what predicts student success on the statewide standardized biology competency test. She administers the Biology Interest Survey (BIS) to all of her students at the start of the term and then categorizes students into two groups: those who have taken biology before and those who have not. She then administers an in-class exam at the end of the term.

Molly’s study examines the benefits of exercise on weight loss. In one group she advocates exercise as well as a new diet program. In the comparison group she only presents the diet program. Those in the comparison group find out that some of Molly’s clients are in an exercise program too, so they form an exercise group on their own.

Flag question: Question 11

Question 111 pts

Among survey methods, ________ generally generate the highest response rate.

telephone interviews

interviews using video-conferencing

face-to-face interviews

online surveys

Flag question: Question 12

Question 121 pts

In Katia’s remedial mathematics study, she collected pretest data from a group of participants. She divided the participants into three groups. One group received no treatment, one group received instruction by a teacher-delivered intervention, one group received peer tutoring on the same problems. After the intervention she tested their math skills. With which validity threat should Katia be most concerned?

Maturation

Testing

Instrumentation

Attrition

Flag question: Question 13

Question 131 pts

Characteristics of samples are known as:

Concepts

Parameters

Statistics

Estimations

Flag question: Question 14

Question 141 pts

“There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.” In this hypothesis, mood elevation is the:

dependent variable.

independent variable.

confounding variable.

constant.

Flag question: Question 15

Question 151 pts

Which of the following is an example of a good research question for a correlational study?

What are the attitudes of the parents about our districts new homework policy?

Is there a relationship between student achievement and homework completion?

Are there differences in parent attitudes about homework between mothers and fathers?

How much homework does the average fifth grade teacher in our district assign?

Flag question: Question 16

Question 161 pts

“There will be gender differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy.” In this hypothesis, gender is the:

dependent variable.

independent variable.

confounding variable.

constant.

Flag question: Question 17

Question 171 pts

Of the following research topics, which is most likely to be an observational study?

The relationship between hours of exercise and sleep.

The difference in minutes a day exercising between boys and girls.

The types of exercise students engage in after school.

Students’ feelings about after-school track practice.

Flag question: Question 18

Question 181 pts

How are inferential statistics different from descriptive statistics?

Descriptive statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.

Descriptive statistics verify the accuracy of the inferential statistics.

Inferential statistics describe the results of a study.

Inferential statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.

Flag question: Question 19

Question 191 pts

Regarding the length of questionnaires to be used in survey research, which of the following statements is most accurate?

Including a large number of items on the survey assures that you will get useful data for all of your trouble.

Keeping the survey short makes it more likely people will be willing to complete it.

A relatively lengthy survey communicates your seriousness about the research endeavor so people will be more willing to complete it.

Shorter surveys produce data that are ambiguous and therefore not useful.

Flag question: Question 20

Question 201 pts

Characteristics of populations are known as:

Concepts

Parameters

Statistics

Estimations

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