How to Manage Pelvic Floor Issues

How to Manage Pelvic Floor Issues

Pelvic floor issues are a common problem that can affect both men and women. The pelvic floor is a group of muscles and tissues that support the bladder, bowel, uterus, and other organs in the lower abdomen. When the pelvic floor is weak, damaged, or overactive, it can cause symptoms such as urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, and more.

In this blog post, we will discuss some of the causes, risk factors, and treatments for pelvic floor issues. We will also provide some tips on how to prevent or improve pelvic floor problems with exercises and lifestyle changes.

Causes and Risk Factors of Pelvic Floor Issues

There are many factors that can contribute to pelvic floor issues, such as:

– Pregnancy and childbirth: The weight of the baby and the strain of labor can stretch and weaken the pelvic floor muscles. This can lead to urinary or fecal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or pain during sex after delivery.
– Aging: As we age, our muscles tend to lose strength and elasticity. This can affect the pelvic floor muscles as well, making them less able to support the organs and control the sphincters.
– Menopause: The decline in estrogen levels during menopause can cause the vaginal tissues to become thinner and drier, which can reduce their support for the pelvic organs. This can also increase the risk of urinary tract infections and vaginal infections.
– Obesity: Excess weight can put extra pressure on the pelvic floor muscles, causing them to weaken over time. This can also increase the risk of diabetes, which can affect the nerves that control the bladder and bowel.
– Chronic coughing: Coughing repeatedly due to smoking, asthma, allergies, or other respiratory conditions can cause the pelvic floor muscles to contract forcefully and frequently. This can damage the muscles and tissues over time and lead to stress incontinence or prolapse.
– Constipation: Straining to pass hard stools can put pressure on the pelvic floor muscles and damage them. This can also cause hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or rectal prolapse.
– Heavy lifting: Lifting heavy objects or performing strenuous physical activities can strain the pelvic floor muscles and cause them to weaken or tear. This can also increase the risk of hernias or back pain.
– Surgery or trauma: Any surgery or injury that involves the pelvic area can damage the nerves, muscles, or tissues of the pelvic floor. This can result in loss of sensation, function, or support for the organs.

Treatments for Pelvic Floor Issues

The treatment for pelvic floor issues depends on the type, severity, and cause of the problem. Some of the common treatments include:

– Pelvic floor exercises: Also known as Kegel exercises, these are designed to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles by contracting and relaxing them repeatedly. They can help improve bladder and bowel control, prevent or reduce prolapse, and enhance sexual function. Pelvic floor exercises should be done regularly and correctly under the guidance of a physiotherapist or a health care provider.
– Biofeedback: This is a technique that uses sensors to monitor the activity of the pelvic floor muscles and provide feedback on how to contract them properly. It can help improve awareness and coordination of the muscles and prevent overactive or underactive contractions.
– Electrical stimulation: This is a method that uses mild electrical currents to stimulate the nerves and muscles of the pelvic floor. It can help improve muscle tone, strength, and endurance. It can also help reduce pain and inflammation in some cases.
– Medication: Some medications can help treat certain symptoms of pelvic floor issues, such as urinary urgency, frequency, or leakage; overactive bladder; constipation; pain; or infection. However, medication may have side effects or interactions with other drugs, so it should be used with caution and under medical supervision.
– Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be needed to repair or restore the function or structure of the pelvic floor organs or tissues. Surgery may involve removing excess tissue, inserting a mesh or sling to support the organs, repairing a tear or defect in the muscles or fascia, or implanting a device to stimulate the nerves or sphincters. Surgery may have risks or complications such as bleeding, infection, nerve damage, recurrence of symptoms, or sexual dysfunction.

Prevention and Improvement of Pelvic Floor Issues

There are some steps that can be taken to prevent or improve pelvic floor issues, such as:

– Maintain a healthy weight: Excess weight can put pressure on the pelvic floor muscles and weaken them over time. Losing weight can help reduce this pressure and improve bladder and bowel control.
– Avoid smoking: Smoking can cause chronic coughing that can damage the pelvic floor muscles. It can also increase the risk of bladder cancer and other health problems. Quitting smoking can help improve respiratory health and protect the pelvic floor.
– Drink enough water: Drinking enough water can help prevent dehydration, constipation, and urinary tract infections. It can also help flush out toxins and bacteria from the bladder and bowel. However, drinking too much water can cause frequent urination and leakage, so it is important to find a balance that suits your needs.
– Eat a balanced diet: Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fiber, fruits, vegetables, and lean protein can help promote digestive health and prevent constipation. It can also help prevent obesity, diabetes, and other conditions that can affect the pelvic floor. Avoid foods that can irritate the bladder or bowel, such as spicy, acidic, or caffeinated foods.
– Practice good hygiene: Keeping the genital and anal area clean and dry can help prevent infection and irritation. Use mild soap and water to wash the area and pat it dry with a soft towel. Avoid using harsh chemicals, perfumes, or dyes that can cause allergic reactions or inflammation. Change your underwear and pads or tampons regularly and avoid wearing tight or synthetic clothing that can trap moisture and bacteria.
– Seek professional help: If you have any symptoms or concerns about your pelvic floor health, do not hesitate to consult your doctor or a pelvic floor specialist. They can diagnose the problem, provide treatment options, and refer you to other resources or support groups. Do not be embarrassed or ashamed to seek help, as pelvic floor issues are very common and treatable.


Pelvic floor issues are not something to be ignored or suffered in silence. They can affect your quality of life, your self-esteem, and your relationships. Fortunately, there are many ways to manage pelvic floor issues with exercises, lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. The key is to be proactive, informed, and seek professional help when needed. You are not alone in this journey, and you deserve to live a healthy and happy life.

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