APA Abstract Assignment
Journal of Household Violence (2011) 26:163–169 DOI 10.1007/s10896-Zero10-9346-Zero Predicting Officer Bodily Assaults at Home Assault Calls Richard R. Johnson Revealed on-line: 18 January 2011 # Springer Science + Enterprise Media, LLC 2011 Summary Police work is rife with the potential for bodily hurt, and home assault calls are one supply of assaults on officers. Lack of ability to precisely predict what circumstances may result in an assault is one explanation for officer cynicism and paranoia. Being able to determine which suspects pose the best menace of assault would permit officers to take acceptable protecting measures. Utilizing knowledge collected from 1,951 home assault calls throughout three cities, the current examine in contrast traits and behaviors of the batterers with whether or not or not the batterers bodily assaulted the responding officers. Findings revealed 5 vital batterer traits (employment standing, shared residence with abuse sufferer, alcohol consumption, property injury, and hostile demeanor towards officers) that efficiently predicted officer assaults. These threat components could also be integrated into police security coaching within the response to household violence calls. Key phrases Home violence. Officer security. Officer assaults The potential for assaults on law enforcement officials dealing with home assault calls has been the topic of some debate over the previous few many years. Whereas some research have discovered that home assault calls solely contribute to a really small portion of the assaults that officers expertise (Garner and Clemmer 1986; Hirschel et al. 1994; Konstantin 1984), research in totally different communities have prompt that home assault calls are one of many three most frequent conditions the place officer assaults happen (Ellis et al. 1993; Stanford and Mowry 1990; Uchida et al. 1987). Even when different forms of calls have larger charges of officer assault, this doesn't essentially imply that home assault calls are “protected.” On the opposite, as FBI statistics point out that from 1980 by 2003 greater than 224,000 police officers within the U.S. had been assaulted whereas dealing with household disturbance calls (Johnson 2007, 2008). Moreover, whereas survival charge for officers assaulted within the U.S. has been steadily rising over the past 30 years, the survival charge for officers assaulted at home violence calls has failed to extend for officers assaulted at home assault calls. It's the unpredictability and fixed potential for hazard within the type of a violent bodily assault that distinguishes the work atmosphere of the police officer. Lack of ability to precisely predict what circumstances may lead to an assault is usually recommended to be a major explanation for police cynicism and officer distrust of the public, inflicting officers to emphasise protecting their guard up always (Barker 1999; Skolnick 1966; Wilson 1968). That is inconceivable to attain, nevertheless, and will result in paranoia or citizen complaints for overly aggressive conduct. Subsequently, rising an officer’s potential to predict which home assault conditions pose the best potential for assault might be very useful. Having the ability to determine for officers which circumstances pose threats of assault would permit officers to take protecting measures. The current examine sought to make the most of traits of the home batterer and the situational circumstances of the incident to foretell assaults on law enforcement officials attending home assault calls. This examine prolonged the earlier analysis on police officer assaults by transferring past merely trying to find correlates of assault and creating prediction odds ratios for assaults. A easy correlate normally refers to an element that happens concurrently the end result, whereas predictor variables predict an elevated chance of the end result (Loeber 1990). This examine Web page 164 sought to foretell elevated possibilities of assaults on officers. Moreover, this analysis focused assaults at home calls, which some earlier analysis has prompt happen considerably in a different way than assaults on officers performing different duties (Johnson 2007, 2008). It was hoped that key traits might be recognized that may be helpful in predicting the chance of an officer assault and allow the utilization of proactive security techniques by officers. Literature Evaluation Whereas there was a good quantity of analysis on the correlates of police use of drive in opposition to residents (see for instance Alpert and Dunham 1999; Geller and Toch 1995; Terrill and Mastrofski 2002), there has solely been restricted analysis on the correlates of bodily assaults in opposition to law enforcement officials. Meyer et al. (1979) reviewed the traits of assailants in 1,143 assaults on law enforcement officials from 37 municipal regulation enforcement companies in 5 U.S. states. The majority of the assailants in these assaults had been younger (between ages 18 and 25), male, members of racial minority teams, unemployed, had been consuming alcohol, and had displayed an indignant or belligerent demeanor previous to committing the assault. Various these people additionally had private issues similar to a scarcity of a highschool training, a prison file, and household relationship difficulties (Meyer et al. 1979). Extra not too long ago, Pinizzotto et al. (1998) reviewed the assailant traits in all regulation enforcement officer murders reported to the FBI from 1985 to 1994. Once more they discovered that almost all of the assailants had been younger (between the ages of 15 and 29), male, members of racial minority teams, unemployed, low socioeconomic standing, single, below the affect of medicine or alcohol, and had a prison file. Different Western nations have additionally carried out related research and recognized related assailant traits. Brown (1994), Moxey and McKenzie (1993), and Noaks and Christopher (1990) analyzed knowledge from officer assaults in the UK. In all three of these English research the assailants had been discovered to be predominantly decrease earnings males who had been unemployed, had a prison file, and had been consuming alcohol on the time of the assault. Most had been between the ages of 17 and 25, with a median age of 22 years previous. In Australia, Mayhew (2001) analyzed official police experiences and located related traits had been prevalent in those that assaulted officers in that nation. The Australian assailants had been typically younger males of decrease socioeconomic standing who had been intoxicated, with aboriginals being over-represented among the many assailants. In Iceland, Bragason (2007) carried out a survey of assaulted law enforcement officials who described the traits of their assailants. Once more it was discovered that those that assaulted the officers gave the impression to be predominantly younger indigenous males who had been unemployed, had a prison file, and had been consuming alcohol. Whereas the earlier analysis has completed a reasonably good job of describing the traits of the assailants who assault law enforcement officials in many countries, all of them did not make any try to predict officer assaults. Whereas the one who is more than likely to assault law enforcement officials is described as a decrease class, adolescent male who has been consuming alcohol, it might be argued that this description suits a major proportion of the residents with whom the police routinely work together. But solely small fractions of the intoxicated, decrease class, adolescent males the police encounter truly assault them. So how do the assailants differ from the non-assailants that officers usually encounter? The earlier literature has been silent on this query. One other weak spot to the earlier literature is an assumption that every one assault incidents are related. Assailant traits are pooled throughout all forms of officer assault incidents. Not too long ago there was proof to counsel that there could also be variations in each offender traits, and the way assaults happen, throughout several types of officer assault incidents (Johnson 2007). Earlier research did not look particularly at bodily assaults of officers dealing with home assault calls to find out what traits offenders in these particular conditions have, and the way these traits differ from batterers in home assault calls who didn't assault the police. The current examine tried to fill this void within the literature. Technique Contributors Knowledge used got here from the pooling of datasets from three earlier research. A pattern of home assault calls was wanted that contained descriptive details about the batterer concerned, and contained each circumstances that concerned an assault on an officer and circumstances that didn't. Knowledge from three well-known home violence arrest experiment research had been used, the primary being the Minneapolis Home Violence Experiment (Sherman and Rogan 1984) which concerned official police experiences in 1,250 home assault circumstances dealt with by the Minneapolis Police Division. The second was a replication of the Minneapolis experiment that was carried out in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, involving 921 home assault circumstances dealt with by the Milwaukee Police Division (Sherman et al. 1991). The final examine was a replication examine in Miami, Florida that concerned 907 Web page 165 home assault circumstances dealt with by the Metro-Dade Police Division (Pate et al. 1991). 1 Although these knowledge had been collected within the 1980s, they continue to be related as we speak for a number of causes. First, they proceed for use in analysis on household violence revealed in prestigious social science analysis journals (Garner and Maxwell 2000; Hickman 2003; Maxwell et al. 2002; Piquero et al. 2006). Second, since empirical proof means that assaults on officers at home calls, and officer survival charges from these assaults, have remained secure for greater than 30 years (Johnson 2007, 2008), there may be little chance that any attainable adjustments in police techniques for the reason that 1980s has occurred with respect to dealing with home calls. Lastly, the emphasis of this investigation rested on offender traits to foretell offender conduct, regarding innate human behavioral traits which might be unlikely to have developed considerably over just a few many years. Knowledge assortment technique utilized in all three of those research was similar. The info about the home assault incident got here from official experiences by law enforcement officials and from interviews with the home abuse victims carried out by the analysis workforce inside per week after the incident. Details about the batterer’s behaviors earlier than the arrival of the police was additionally obtained within the abuse sufferer interviews. Lastly, knowledge concerning the batterer’s prior prison file was obtained from the state crime laptop database (Pate et al. 1991; Sherman and Rogan 1984; Sherman et al. 1991). After merging the three,078 circumstances from these three research it was found that 98 circumstances (three.2%) concerned a feminine batterer, none of whom had assaulted an officer. Due to this lack of variation within the dependent variable for feminine batterers within the pattern, the choice was made to restrict this evaluation to solely male batterers. In one other 33.three% of the circumstances the batterer had fled the scene previous to the arrival of the police, thus eliminating the opportunity of an assault on the officers. These 1,Zero26 circumstances had been subsequently eradicated from the evaluation, as had been three further circumstances that concerned an assault on officers by the abuse sufferer somewhat than the batterer.2 The ultimate dataset for the current examine consisted of information on 1,951 incidents of home assault that had been investigated by the police. The truth that so many circumstances had been eradicated from the pattern for this evaluation might increase questions of validity, particularly if the batterers excluded from the evaluation differed considerably from those who remained. It order to find out the extent of this potential weak spot, fundamental demographic traits obtainable for the batterers who remained within the pattern had been in contrast with those that had been excluded from the pattern. These demographic traits are displayed in Desk 1 and counsel that there have been surprisingly few variations between the circumstances that had been excluded and those who remained within the pattern. On the whole, these batterers that had been excluded from the analyses had been barely extra more likely to be male, had been barely youthful, and fewer more likely to be married. Process The dependent variable on this evaluation was whether or not or not the official report indicated the suspect had bodily assaulted the officers dealing with the home assault name. As a result of the knowledge collected was centered totally on the batterer and the abuse sufferer, particulars weren't obtainable on whether or not or not the officers sustained accidents, the seriousness of the accidents, whether or not or not the assailant used a weapon, or when through the encounter this assault took place. Whereas having this info would have permitted a richer evaluation, the emphasis of this examine, nevertheless was the prediction of assaults, irrespective of how minor. Simply as with victims of abuse, assaults of any sort are against the law and place law enforcement officials susceptible to harm and elevated stress. Knowledge had been obtainable on 12 descriptive traits concerning the batterers within the home assaults that served because the unbiased variables on this evaluation. These variables and their descriptive statistics are displayed in Desk 2. The primary unbiased variable thought of was the batterer’s age, and it was hypothesized that youthful batterers can be extra more likely to assault officers than older batterers. Second, whether or not the batterer was married to the abuse sufferer was Desk 1 Comparability between pattern and excluded circumstances Pattern Circumstances Excluded Circumstances N 1,951 1,127 P.c male 100% 91% Imply age 33.four 30.four P.c married 51% 47% P.c consuming alcohol 51% 49% P.c utilizing medicine 22% 23% P.c broken property 18% 16% P.c struck abuse sufferer 94% 91% Web page 166 Desk 2 Variable descriptive statistics (N=1,951) Dependent Variable N % N % % Batterer bodily assaulted officers 117 6% Impartial Variables Batterer’s age Min 18 Max 79 Imply 33.four SD 9.01 Min 18 Max 79 Imply 33.four SD 9.01 Batterer married to abuse sufferer 995 51% Batterer’s prior DV arrests Min Zero Max 10 Imply Zero.89 SD 1.08 Batterer unemployed 702 36% Batterer has HS/GED 1,093 56% 56% Batterer residing with abuse sufferer 741 38% Batterer consuming alcohol 429 22% Batterer utilizing medicine 429 22% Batterer broken property 351 18% Batterer struck abuse sufferer 1,834 94% Batterer knew police had been responding 1,Zero34 53% Batterer displayed hostile demeanor 1,073 55% thought of, below the belief that married batterers could maintain stronger views of privilege to manage their spouses and defend in opposition to exterior interference by the police. Equally, the third unbiased variable was whether or not or not the batterer and abuse sufferer resided collectively. It was hypothesized that batterers who reside with their abuse victims can be extra defensive of this territory being invaded by the arrival of an out of doors authority, such because the police. The fourth and fifth unbiased variables handled substance use points, whether or not or not the batterer had consumed alcohol previous to the arrival of the police, and whether or not the batterer had used an unlawful drug earlier than the arrival of the police. Every of those variables was anticipated to have a constructive relationship with assaulting law enforcement officials. The subsequent three unbiased variables had been believed to be measures of the batterer’s stage of aggression on the time of the incident. It was reasoned that whether or not or not the batterer had broken property as a part of the home assault incident, and whether or not or not the abuse sufferer had been struck by the batterer as a part of the incident, would counsel how violently aggressive the batterer was on the time of the incident. Whether or not or not the batterer displayed a hostile demeanor towards the officers upon their arrival on the scene was additionally included within the mannequin to measure if the batterer’s stage of aggression was nonetheless excessive when the officers lastly arrived. Whether or not or not the batterer had been advised the police had been summoned was additionally thought of as a attainable predictor. When offenders are shocked by the looks of the police they could be extra probably to withstand or be antagonistic towards the officers. It was subsequently hypothesized that the batterer can be extra more likely to assault the officers if their arrival on the scene was surprising, permitting him much less time to compose him, flee the scene, or formulate a plan for the way to reply to the officers. The final three predictors within the mannequin associated to the batterer’s background, particularly his prior historical past of home assault arrests, his employment standing, and his training stage. Concerning the batterer’s prior file, all three datasets used for this evaluation recorded the variety of prior home assault arrests the batterer had acquired. Sadly, not all of the datasets included info on every batterer’s complete variety of prior prison offense arrests, (which can have been a greater predictor of previous criminality), or all prior violent offenses (which can have been a greater predictor of violent propensity). Whether or not or not the batterer was employed was included within the mannequin, as was whether or not or not the batterer had attained a highschool diploma or normal training growth (GED) diploma. It was hypothesized that batterers with prior home assault arrests, those that had been unemployed, and people who had lower than a highschool training can be at larger threat for assaulting an officer. Outcomes Solely 117 circumstances concerned an assault on officers, thus supporting the earlier literature that home assault calls aren't essentially frequent occasions (Hirschel et al. 1994; Konstantin 1984; Garner and Clemmer 1986). As a result of the dependent variable was a dichotomous nominal stage measure, binary logistic regression was utilized to find out the importance of the affect the unbiased variables had on the chance of whether or not or not the batterer assaulted the law enforcement officials on the scene. The logistic regression approach additionally permitted the willpower of the percentages every predictor had of accelerating the chance of assault, whereas controlling for the affect of the entire different predictors within the mannequin. The outcomes of this logistic regression evaluation are offered in Desk three. As can been seen in Desk three, the mannequin chi-square was extremely vital (p<.001), indicating that the mixed predictors within the mannequin did a good job of predicting whether or not or not the batterer would assault the officers. The Nagelkerke pseudo R2 means that the unbiased variables within the mannequin defined greater than 1 / 4 of the variation between circumstances within the odds of the batterer bodily attacking the police. Throughout the mannequin, nevertheless, Web page 167 Desk three Logistic regression of batterer traits on officer assault (N=1,951) Variable Coefficient SE Odds Ratio Batterer age −Zero.016 .020 Zero.984 Batterer married Zero.Zero70 .327 1.073 Prior DV arrests −Zero.126 .219 Zero.882 Batterer unemployed Zero.542* .308 1.582 Highschool/GED Zero.Zero47 .308 three.165 Resides with abuse sufferer 1.152** .342 three.165 Utilizing alcohol 1.706*** .431 5.507 Utilizing medicine −Zero.562 .459 Zero.570 Property broken Zero.652* .307 1.919 Abuse sufferer struck −Zero.656 .582 Zero.519 Hostile demeanor 2.530*** .480 12.555 Knew Police had been coming −Zero.161 .298 Zero.852 (Fixed) −5.792*** 1.Zero29 Zero.003 Mannequin Chi-square 122.843*** Nagelkerke Pseudo R2 .276 Significance Ranges: * p<.05; ** p<.01; *** p<.001 solely 5 of the 12 unbiased variables had been vital in predicting the percentages of an assault occurring. The strongest predictor was whether or not or not the batterer displayed a hostile demeanor on the arrival of the police. When the suspect displayed a hostile demeanor towards the police, the batterer was nearly 13 instances extra more likely to assault the officers than if he didn't show a hostile demeanor. The subsequent vital predictor in energy was whether or not or not the batterer had been consuming alcohol previous to the arrival of the police. Batterers who had been consuming alcohol had been five-and-a-half instances extra more likely to assault officers than those that had not. If the batterer shared a residence with the sufferer he was greater than 3 times extra probably to bodily assault the police. Batterers who had reportedly broken property through the home incident had been nearly twice as more likely to assault officers as those that had not broken property. These batterers who had been unemployed had been about one-and-a-half instances extra probably to assault the police as batters who had been employed. Lastly, the entire unbiased variables that exposed vital relationships to the dependent variable displayed relationships within the predicted instructions. To disclose the substantive significance these 5 variables had on predicting whether or not or not an assault on the police would happen, the circumstances that bore all 5 predictors had been in contrast with the circumstances that lacked all 5 vital predictors. A complete of 43 circumstances concerned a batterer who displayed a hostile demeanor, had been consuming alcohol, resided along with his abuse sufferer, had broken property within the incident, and was unemployed. Of those circumstances, 25.6% (n=11) resulted in an assault on the police. Alternatively, 263 incidents within the pattern did not have any of the 5 vital predictor traits, and none of those incidents resulted in an officer assault. Subsequently, it seems that simultaneous presence of all 5 of those predictors will increase the possibilities of an officer being assaulted to raised than one in 4, whereas the absence of all of those predictors reduces the possibilities of assault to lower than one in 263. Dialogue and Conclusion The aim of this examine was to aim to determine home batterer traits that helped predict whether or not or not batterers would assault law enforcement officials who responded to their acts of home abuse. It was hoped that this exploratory evaluation would reveal traits that had predictive worth in an effort to assist law enforcement officials determine when they're at elevated threat of being assaulted by a male home batterer. It seems that this examine took a major first step in figuring out such threat issue traits. As hostile demeanor and alcohol consumption had been vital predictors of an officer assault. Prior analysis has prompt that home batterers often act composed when officers arrive and have a tendency to behave as if the abuse sufferer is the one who's appearing irrationally (Buzawa and Buzawa 2003; Walker 1989). Subsequently, batterers who stay hostile of their demeanor even after the police arrive seem more likely to let their hostility flip to bodily violence in opposition to the officers. Thus encountering a batterer who nonetheless shows a hostile demeanor when the officers arrive is an unusual occasion and seems extremely predictive of an impending assault. As for batterer alcohol consumption, the prior analysis on police officer assaults prompt that alcohol consumption is correlated with assaults on officers (Brown 1994; Meyer et al. 1979; Moxey and McKenzie 1993; Noaks and Christopher 1990; Pinizzotto et al. 1998), and the identical was discovered right here. Alcohol serves as a depressant, contributing to the batterer’s destructive temper, and will scale back the batterer’s inhibitions about utilizing drive in opposition to the police. Alcohol consumption often coexists with home violence (Buzawa and Buzawa 2003; Saunders 1995; Straus et al. 1980), and seems to extend chance of the batterer assaulting the responding law enforcement officials. Batterers who reside with their abuse sufferer usually tend to assault officers than those that dwell other than their sufferer. This can be as a result of impressions of territorial management. Prior analysis has prompt that many batterers have heightened wants for dominance and management of their relationships and their residence (Buzawa and Buzawa 2003; Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart 1994; Walker 1989). They Web page 168 are threatened once they can not efficiently management the conduct of their intimate companions, and seem like much more threatened when the police enter their residence and interject themselves into the scenario. In essence, the batterer has misplaced all affect over what he views as his human and bodily property when the police intervene. Whereas this police interference could also be tough for the batterer to simply accept at any location, it seems to be a fair stronger insult when it happens in his personal residence. It could even be this emphasis on dominance, energy, and management that ends in unemployed batterers being extra more likely to assault officers than batterers who're employed. Unemployed batterers could also be already struggling to take care of dominance of their residence. Being unable to supply for his or her households, they now not have the choice of utilizing financial means to management their abuse victims. Some abuse victims are prepared to tolerate their abuse due to the financial rewards afforded to her and her kids if she stays within the relationship (Buzawa and Buzawa 2003; Straus et al. 1980), but when there are only a few monetary rewards because of the batterer’s unemployment, there are fewer incentives to remain. The batterer begins to lose some of his energy and management within the relationship. This case might be aggravated additional for the batterer if it ends in his abuse sufferer in search of employment to assist the household, thus gaining some financial independence that additional threatens that batterer’s management. This case could make the batterer extra unstable than regular when the police arrive to interject themselves into that scenario, and restrict the batterer’s management to a fair larger extent. Destruction of property by the batterer previous to the arrival of the police was one other vital predictor of officer assaults. This can be an indicator of the diploma of the batterer’s rage. Whereas whether or not or not the sufferer was struck was not a major predictor, it is very important bear in mind what number of batterers view their use of drive. Their abusive conduct is used to management their sufferer. When the abuse sufferer is totally compliant the abuse is normally very minor, usually solely restricted to insults and innuendo. When the abuse sufferer’s conduct is perceived as much less compliant, the severity of the abuse will increase proportionally (Buzawa and Buzawa 2003; Saunders 1995; Walker 1989). When the batterer damages property, particularly his personal possessions, it's not a management approach as a lot as it's an expression of rage. This rage is then turned on the police once they arrive. These 5 vital predictors might be utilized by regulation enforcement companies to display home assault calls for his or her stage of hazard. In lots of conditions, police dispatchers can acquire particulars about 4 of those components from the sufferer or witness who experiences the crime. Even when the caller is a neighbor, the dispatcher can usually confirm from the caller if the suspect resides with the sufferer, if he has been consuming, and if he has broken any property. If the caller is a buddy or member of the family, he/she also needs to have the ability to reveal if the batterer is unemployed. The dispatcher might then warn the responding officers if these 4 assault predictors are already current on the scene. The dispatcher may also assign further items when these components are current. When the officers arrive, they'll decide for themselves if the fifth component, a hostile demeanor towards them, is current. In that case, the officers can take defensive measures to isolate the batterer and place him able of drawback (similar to on his knees along with his fingers interlaced on his head) earlier than questioning him. Lastly, it is very important notice for police coaching functions that feminine victims and feminine batterers in home assault conditions assault the police solely very hardly ever. Of the three,078 home assault calls within the authentic sampling body, solely 98 (three.2%) concerned a feminine batterer, illustrating how hardly ever regulation enforcement officers encounter feminine perpetrators of home assault. Of those 98 incidents of feminine perpetrated home assault, none of them resulted in an assault on an officer. Three of the male perpetrated home assault calls did lead to a feminine abuse sufferer assaulting an officer. Of the two,980 incidents of male perpetrated home assault calls within the authentic sampling body, lower than Zero.1% concerned a sufferer assault on an officer. On this dataset, just one in 1,Zero26 home assault calls dealt with by the police resulted in a feminine sufferer assault on an officer. A number of inferences might be drawn from the findings on this examine. First, assaults on law enforcement officials whereas they're dealing with home assault calls don't happen very frequent- ly. Within the current examine, officers had been assaulted in solely 6% of circumstances within the pattern. Nonetheless, because of the sheer quantity of home assault calls dealt with by the police within the U.S., there nonetheless is a major threat of assault. For instance, if the percentages of assault are really just one in 33 (three%), and a patrol officer in an city space responds to not less than two home assault calls per week, the officer is more likely to be assaulted not less than twice per yr. Clearly different components are additionally at work right here, nevertheless, as the variables within the current examine left greater than 70% of the variation unexplained. Whereas an defined variance of 30% is frequent amongst social science research of human conduct (Loeber 1990; Rosenthal 2001), extra work must be completed. Sure officer traits (similar to expertise in interpersonal communication), or situational traits (such because the variety of backup officers current) could assist additional scale back the percentages of being assaulted. Prospects needs to be pursued in future analysis. One other inference to be drawn from this examine is that the 5 predictors that had been considerably correlated with assaulting an officer could also be dependable threat components that officers could use to foretell their threat of assault. Whether or not or not the batterer at a home assault incident has most of these 5 traits might simply be decided by a Web page 169 expert police 911 dispatcher, offered that the caller has firsthand data concerning the incident and is being cooperative. If the batterer seems to have any of those 5 traits, the responding officers might presumably be warned of this reality previous to their arrival. Insurance policies may be developed to ship extra backup items than usually can be despatched whether it is decided that the batterer has most of those traits. Nevertheless, earlier than these traits might be reliably established as threat components, replication of those findings can be needed. As with all research, this one had its limitations. First, due to the age of the information it might not have accounted for any adjustments in police techniques which will have occurred over the previous few many years. Second, the information lacked info on the seriousness of the assaults on the officers. It was unknown, subsequently, if the sufferer officers sustained any accidents from these assaults, and if the predictors various by the seriousness of the assault. Lastly, the information lacked info on the interpersonal interactions between the officers and the batterer upon their arrival. What the officers did and stated on the scene could have had an aggravating of mitigating affect on the potential for assault. These weaknesses must be addressed in future analysis relating to assaults on officers attending home assault calls. References R. R. Johnson 43606 Division of Legal Justice, College of Toledo, 2801 W. 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