Analysis of Open Source Content Management Systems

Chapter 1



Though most of us take info as a right, good info is straightforward to come back by. Let’s examine the distinction between information and knowledge, the traits of excellent info and the method of remodeling information into helpful info. To make sound selections managers want dependable, correct information that may be reworked into info. Organisations use many strategies to gather information , together with survey ,interviews, paperwork studying and even brain-wave monitoring. Refined voice activated expertise is accessible that permits folks to retailer information merely by talking into a pc. At present it's widely known that info methods data is important for managers as a result of most organisations want info methods to outlive and prosper. Data methods may also help firms to increase attain to faraway location, provide new product and companies, reshape jobs and work flows, and maybe profoundly change the way in which they conduct enterprise.

The previous decade has seen a rigorous change in the way in which we perceive and use Data Know-how inside a enterprise context. Developments within the discipline of analysis and improvement has led to applied sciences comparable to; distributed computing, content material administration, information mining and processing, all of which fulfil a spread of enterprise wants. The transfer from localised computing platforms to distributed internet applied sciences has been brought on by, amongst different elements, the take-up of commodity pc and community elements primarily based on quicker hardware and complex software program.

About The Challenge

The target of this report is to analyse and examine a particular class of open supply content material administration methods, inside the context of small to medium companies; this particular class is about internet portals. The mission goals to create a complete comparability which offers with the particular necessities of small to medium companies solely. Thus, offering a transparent understanding of the present tendencies inside the industrial sector and the open supply neighborhood.

This report includes a comparability between current open supply, internet portal content material administration methods. The comparability relies on a set of enterprise necessities which characterize the wants of small to medium companies, which goals to seek out an open supply answer as an alternative choice to industrial options.

Because of the nature of this topic, this report assumes that the reader has some understanding about Data Know-how.

Chapter 2

Content material Administration

Content material From A Enterprise Perspective

Computer systems the place initially created to carry out time-consuming or complicated mathematical computations and in some ways change human labour. Boiko (2001) describes the pc mannequin as follows: “In the event you can scale back an issue to a collection of easy mechanical operations on numbers and logical entities (entities which are both true of false), it's amenable to answer by a pc”.

At their lowest stage, computer systems course of information. The information processed by computer systems at a low stage just isn't instantly readable or comprehensible, as a result of it's made to be understood by the pc solely. This information is used to carry out a set of operations as described above.

The truth that computer systems are data-processing machines makes it exhausting to course of content material, which by definition isn't just information. Know-how has developed over time and computer systems at the moment are required to carry out computations on content material whereas retaining their human that means.

Digital Commerce ,Digital Enterprise, And Digital Relationship

The modifications we have now simply described characterize new methods of conducting enterprise electronically each inside and out of doors the farm that may finally end result within the creation of digital companies. More and more, the web is offering the underlying expertise for these modifications. The web can hyperlink 1000's of organisations right into a single community creating the muse for an unlimited digital market. A digital market is an info system that hyperlinks collectively many patrons and sellers to change info, merchandise, companies and funds. By way of computer systems and networks, these methods operate like digital intermediaries, with lowered value for typical market transactions comparable to matching patrons and sellers establishing costs ordering items and paying payments. Patrons sellers can full buy and sale transactions digitally no matter their location.

New Alternatives With Know-how

Though info methods are creating many thrilling alternatives for each companies and people, they're additionally a supply of latest issues, points and challenges for managers. On this course we'll find out about each the challenges and alternatives info methods pose and we will use info expertise to counterpoint our studying expertise. New applied sciences open up much more prospects for reproducing beforehand revealed work on-line than we are able to afford to pursue, so we have now to select and select essentially the most helpful ones for you, our viewers. The Journal want to collect and profit from all the concepts, strategies, and exhausting work that readers are prepared to offer. Constructive expertise evaluation (CTA) differs from different expertise evaluation strategies by emphasizing implementation and improvement of latest applied sciences over a easy evaluation of these applied sciences’ potential affect. CTA, which was developed in Denmark and the Netherlands, seeks to reasonable the affect of probably damaging applied sciences whereas taking full benefit of useful applied sciences. These days, the event of built-in circuit (IC) business and scientific researchers rely an increasing number of on the nanofabrication applied sciences. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has been included on the ITRS lithography roadmap for 32nm, 22nm and 16nm nodes. Nonetheless, there are quite a few different purposes for NIL. This patterning approach exhibits nice potential in fabrication of nanostructures in any respect.

Metadata – Encapsulation Of Content material

Processing such content material will produce the required outcomes for the human person.

These outcomes will include an summary that means that may solely be interpreted by a human person.

Defining information with info and making it into content material is a course of much like the operations carried out in day by day conditions. For instance, trying to find a e book in a library or discovering a film in a video retailer. Each operations have the similarity of offering details about different info. A library, presents a computerised search engine that searches via classes of “writer” and “title”, whereas the video retailer could seek for “actor” and “yr of launch”. Subsequently, a room filled with books could also be seen as a pile of knowledge, whereas the identical room with a categorised search engine could also be seen as actual content material. The books develop into extra than simply information, as a result of they've been given an outline.

The tactic of content material description is named metadata. Metadata is information about information, which defines the human facet of content material. Metadata first appeared on the net when the immense quantity of knowledge over the web grew to become unattainable to course of or to even perceive. Among the main applied sciences and requirements on metadata are seen.

Metadata applied sciences are themselves primarily based on revealed web requirements.

This technique of making a brand new customary primarily based on one other current customary could be very helpful inside companies with the intention to make the change of content material as clean as potential. The main customary applied sciences are eXtensible Markup Language (XML), which defines the Useful resource Description Framework (RDF) syntax as really useful by the W3C. Constructing on high of metadata and XML, are a lot of superior applied sciences and mission.

Concurrent Adjustments Administration

Challenge completion skew happens as soon as the crew has grown into a considerable variety of builders, at which level they're all engaged on completely different components of the mission, presumably in small teams. These small teams often work on various actions separated from one another or typically in conjunction. In consequence, every group will probably be growing, integrating and testing their work individually, earlier than committing their work into the whole mission. These teams may even be working underneath completely different schedules. This suggests that a group could also be beginning its work whereas one other is on the brink of commit theirs .

Construction Of The Comparability

Every enterprise has its personal set of necessities for a CMS answer, which depend upon numerous parameters comparable to; the scale of the enterprise, discipline of operation, sort of managed information and goal prospects. It's extremely unlikely that a single product could have all of the required performance. In consequence, this report tries to establish potential merchandise that are scalable and expandable.

  • Functions
  • Information repository
  • Deployment
  • Integration
  • Revision management
  • Person interface
  • Person administration
  • Workflow

Functions are about normal performance which praise your complete CMS answer. Availability of the event API permits builders to broaden the present performance and add customized processes per enterprise necessities. Advertising and promoting options permit the web site to show banner promoting or provide opt-in permission advertising varieties. Localisation and multi-language help for all paperwork and processes. Time-based occasion capabilities, like scheduling. Website-wide looking engine which permits clear searches over completely different content material. Lastly, e-commerce performance which permits the system to carry out on-line transactions.

Information repository is about flexibility in content material storage. Data is an asset to each enterprise, correct administration of the info storage might be a bonus. A CMS answer could use a number of storage strategies, together with a Relational DataBase Administration System (RDBMS) and Community File System (NFS) or different file system primarily based storage. Other than the storage medium, it's also essential to make use of a requirements compliant storage format comparable to XML. Particularly, XML offers transformation companies and content material validation together with the break up between content material, format and enterprise logic.

Deployment might be one of the vital essential options from a enterprise per-spective. Medium to giant scale methods use a number of servers for fault tolerance and improved availability. A CMS product’s means to scale via a number of servers offers the additional benefit for reliability. Replication can be a difficulty, the move of updates that go from testing into manufacturing ought to be capable of replicate reliably and with roll again help, as mentioned in part

Lastly, a number of output codecs can improve the target market, for instance; by offering cell phone entry by way of SMS or WAP.

Integration offers with the day by day administration of the system. Metadata administration by way of content material classification methods which allow arbitrary information to develop into helpful info property for the enterprise. Data can be utilized together with third celebration internet purposes, comparable to log analysers and spam filters. Information conversion, permits customers to publish or submit information in numerous format from the one used to publish their information, for instance PDF to HTML conversion.

Integration can be about compliance with the web requirements revealed by the W3C comparable to; HTML Four.01 and XHTML Based mostly on these requirements are the necessities for compliance with the Incapacity Discrimination Act 1995 chapter 50 (HMSO 1995) which got here into impact in the UK. This Act enforces new guidelines for web sites to create content material which is accessible by disabled folks. Requirements compliance signifies that a CMS product should be capable of generate code that's compliant with the Net Accessibility Initiative tips.

Revision management, as seen in part 2.three.1, is about administration of modifications, whereas conserving observe of identified milestones and dealing variations of your complete website online improvement and content material. Revision management permits customers to maintain observe of modifications, whereas defending them towards overlapping modifications by different customers.

Roll again performance offers the person an opportunity to return to a identified working copy of knowledge, which additionally makes it straightforward to check modifications over time.

Person interface isn't just concerning the shopper “visible” interface. The person interface is a set of interface options which assist the person or administrator to successfully handle the system. Interface instruments improve the management of processes, a few of these instruments are; HTML varieties, WYSIWYG content material editor and doc linking. The person interface ought to present the selection between excessive and low stage enhancing, both edit the code instantly, or present an appropriate interface which generates the required code.

Person administration is about entry and management of the system. The system ought to permit for third celebration authentication, comparable to; SQL database, LDAP, NIS/YP, PAM. As well as, the interface ought to present sufficient person administration management, for instance; system-wide person modification.

Workflow is a collaboration course of for the event and upkeep of enterprise property which contain steps comparable to; diverse info sorts, cross departmental employees and capabilities primarily based on a submit/overview/approve steps.

As seen in part 2.three.Four, workflow is essential to obviously outline processes which carry out particular capabilities, with numerous dependencies between them.

These capabilities automate routing of knowledge, overview and eventually approve modifications.

Chapter three

Open Supply Software program

Free Software program

This report offers with sure sorts of free software program; open supply content material administration methods. Subsequently, it is rather essential to outline the time period free software program, as a result of the idea itself is ambiguous. A variety of software program is distributed as “free” as a result of it doesn't value something to obtain or use.

Nonetheless the supply code just isn't made accessible or the software program is distributed with a restrictive license. Binary or supply code distributions may very well be copyrighted and coated by a license settlement, which may maintain a spread of few to excessive restrictions, like a disclaimer of reliability.

“Free software program” is a matter of liberty, not worth.

The Open Supply Mannequin

  • The liberty to run this system, for any function.
  • The liberty to review how this system works, and adapt it to your

wants. Entry to the supply code is a precondition for this.

  • The liberty to redistribute copies so you'll be able to assist your neighbour.
  • The liberty to enhance this system, and launch your enhancements

to the general public, in order that the entire neighborhood advantages. Entry to the supply code is a precondition for this.

Necessities of free software program

Restrictions on these ‘free’ software program include licenses which; prohibit its use or require a payment for industrial person, prohibit or restrict redistribution, together with redistributing modified variations. Some licenses additionally require redistribution of derived works to make use of the identical license as the unique product and even launch the modified supply code. Just a few licenses additionally discriminate towards people or teams.

The time period free software program is broadly used within the Data Know-how business.

Nonetheless, its ambiguity hampers communication because of arguments over whether or not a selected piece of software program is ‘free’ or not (OSI 2004). lists the principles which outline the time period “free software program” as revealed by the FSF (2004).

Banner Promoting

Banner promoting is on a “pay-per-view” foundation, in keeping with the next charges:


House Web page

Different Pages

Variety of Views

Value ($US)

Value ($US)



















  • Both a big (468×60 pixels) banner commercial strategically positioned on the high of each web page on the positioning (or a collection of pages, at your alternative), or a 120×600 pixel “skyscraper” banner advert within the left hand column of each web page on the positioning (or a collection of pages, at your alternative). We are able to additionally organize “textual content solely” ads.
  • A hotlink to your website online (or e mail deal with) when potential patrons click on on the advert
  • Full on-line statistical info, by day and general, on the variety of advert exposures, and the click-through ratio in your advert

We are able to customise a banner promoting program that targets these guests that you just want to be uncovered to by solely displaying your commercial on these chosen pages on the positioning that most closely fits your services or products. We even have the aptitude to “goal” adverts by geographical location or by key phrases.

We are able to settle for banner adverts in most graphic codecs, together with wealthy media codecs comparable to Flash.

On all pages, (besides the place an unique promoting association is in place, topic to negotiation) banner adverts are positioned “on rotation” with different banner ads. Present web site statistics point out that every customer to the positioning visits roughly 5 pages per go to, so promoting is proscribed to a most of 5 advertisers on every web page – every with equal likelihood of publicity on the web page.

E-newsletter Sponsorship/Promoting

Promoting and Sponsorship alternatives our free month-to-month e-newsletter on matters of curiosity to Upkeep professionals across the globe. This text is issued by way of plain textual content e-mail to an opt-in subscriber base numbering within the 1000's, with an internet model additionally revealed. Two promoting slots are presently permitted inside every e-newsletter, and the commercial consists of:

  • 4 strains of textual content within the e-mail model of the e-newsletter, and
  • 4 strains of textual content plus a banner commercial within the web-based model of the e-newsletter

The banner commercial comes with full on-line, real-time statistical reporting, as for web site banner ads (detailed above)

Promoting charges depend upon the variety of subscribers to the e-newsletter. For extra info on present charges, subscribers and the provision of area in future newsletters.

Direct Mail To Our Decide-In Mailing Listing

Along with our opt-in subscriber base for the M-Information e-newsletter, we have now an extra opt-in record of contacts who've expressed curiosity in receiving occasional e-mails containing details about maintenance-related services. We are able to subject an e mail to members of this record in your behalf selling your services or products. As soon as once more, promoting charges depend upon the variety of subscribers to the opt-in mailing record. For extra info on present charges and the variety of subscribers.

Common Phrases And Situations

  • We are going to sometimes bill you in your promoting program both shortly earlier than completion of your promoting run, or quarterly.
  • Cost phrases are strictly 30 days on subject of bill
  • We are able to settle for your cost both by test or by main bank card. We're primarily based in Australia, and so cost in Australian is most well-liked (and is required when paying by bank card).
  • We are going to advise you of the precise Australian greenback equal earlier than receiving cost from you. On the whole, we use the Forex Calculator /for making foreign money conversion calculations.
  • The place we have now considerations about your credit score worthiness, we reserve the fitting to obtain cost earlier than commencing your promoting program.

Free Redistribution

“The license shall not prohibit any celebration from promoting or freely giving the software program as a part of an combination software program distribution containing applications from a number of completely different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or different payment for such sale” (OSI 2004).

By making certain free redistribution, open supply software program just isn't hampered by short-term good points which might have an effect on actual long-term gross sales from customised variations of the software program or contracted help and upkeep. Thus, a provider could generate copies of the software program and promote them or give them away with out paying anybody for that privilege. In consequence, many open supply software program might be purchased on CD or DVD by paying for the price of the medium solely, for the reason that provider just isn't including any additional prices.

“This system should embrace supply code, and should permit distribution in supply code in addition to compiled kind. The place some type of a product is


not distributed with supply code, there have to be a well-publicised technique of acquiring the supply code for not more than an inexpensive copy costpreferably, downloading by way of the Web with out cost. The supply code have to be the popular kind through which a programmer would modify this system.

Intentionally obfuscated supply code just isn't allowed. Intermediate varieties such because the output of a preprocessor or translator usually are not allowed” (OSI 2004).

To evolve and broaden open supply software program, the supply code have to be accessible and in a modifiable state. The unique or modified supply code is then supplied together with the software program and any derived works, with the intention to guarantee future restore or modifications.

“The license should permit modifications and derived works, and should permit them to be distributed underneath the identical phrases because the license of the unique software program” (OSI 2004).

Future software program updates and upkeep of the distributed supply code, as seen in part three.2.2, has no actual use if the modified software program can't be distributed. Subsequently, the flexibility to easily modify the supply code just isn't sufficient to help impartial peer overview and speedy evolutionary choice.

As an alternative, it must be potential to redistribute the modified software program together with the modified supply code.

Redistributed software program can use the identical license phrases as the unique software program. Though this isn't a requirement to take action however an possibility by the hands of the distributor. This requirement means; a license could not permit re-licensing or modification of its phrases, or could permit re-licensing and sub-licensing of derived works.

Chapter Four

Content material Administration Methods

CMS Classes

Content material Administration Methods (CMS) usually are not only a product or a expertise.

CMS is a generic time period which defines a variety of processes which underpin the “next-generation” of medium to large-scale web sites (Browning & Lowndes 2001). A content material administration course of; creates, shops, modifies, retrieves and shows information, or content material, as seen in chapter 2.

The purposes of CMS can't be clearly outlined. Although a CMS is vary of processes and managed software program, the boundaries of the CMS area are blurred. The realm coated by CMS overlaps with a variety of conventional software program methods, as seen in determine Four.1. On account of this overlap of performance, an intranet groupware system or digital studying system can simply be carried out by way of the identical CMS (Browning & Lowndes 2001).

CMS haven't any single interface or implementation, they're successfully designed on the necessities of every enterprise. The implementations of CMS differ from internet primarily based to built-in server-side purposes.

Necessities & Stipulations

  • Doc administration methods
  • Information administration methods
  • Enterprise utility integration methods
  • E-commerce options
  • Net portals

CMS classes

implementations range from PHP, Perl and Python. Built-in utility server implementations use fashionable languages like Java 2 Enterprise Version and C++. Determine Four.2 exhibits a visible interpretation of the construction of a typical CMS.

This report doesn't cope with the applying or use of CMS, for instance; doc administration or digital studying. As an alternative, this report takes a comparative method to internet portals solely, primarily based on their performance from a enterprise perspective. Net portals are web sites which act as a foremost “level of entry” for customers. They provide a spread of companies, for instance; information part, search engine and internet catalogue. Net portals are CMS options which provide content material over the online, thus they could appear restricted in performance over conventional purposes. On the contrary, because of the pervasive nature of the web, the online has develop into the popular technique for content material supply (Browning & Lowndes 2001).

Necessities & Stipulations

Though necessities on software program packages range between companies, they nonetheless have sure widespread necessities. The target of this report is to check the widest potential collection of open supply content material administration methods, which can be utilized by companies. Essentially the most appropriate CMS options

Necessities & Stipulations






Content material





Integration &

Authentication Providers

Syndication Administration




Information Repository


are chosen primarily based on a set of clearly outlined necessities, all others have been rejected. Determine Four.three lists these necessities.

All of the methods in contrast inside this report are required to be licensed by an OSI-approved open supply license, as outlined in chapter three. Open supply software program is broadly recognised for its requirements compliance, which is significant for companies. For instance, creating a web site which makes use of proprietary information constructions will hinder future enlargement to new methods or applied sciences because of incompatibilities. Open supply software program usually tend to comply with requirements just like the W3C Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) or XML specs whereas making certain they'll work together with one another. Industrial software program are typically incompatible with one another with the intention to maintain the client hooked to a particular expertise or provider.

Compatibility with the Apache HTTP server is significant. The Apache HTTP server is essentially the most broadly used internet server on the web. Netcraft (2004) studies that greater than 67% of the web sites on the web are utilizing Apache, with Four million new hostnames progress within the first half of 2004.

Chapter 5

Planning to implement MIS within the organisation:

Data System

An info system is a set of interrelated elements that acquire, course of, retailer and distribute info to help determination making and management in an organisation. Along with help determination making, coordination, and management, info system can also assist managers and staff analyze issues and visualize complicated topics and create new merchandise. Data methods include details about vital folks, place and issues inside the organisation or within the surroundings surrounding its. By info we imply information which have been formed right into a kind that's significant and helpful to human beings. Information is distinction are streams of uncooked info representing occasions occurring in organisation or bodily surroundings earlier than they've been organised and organized right into a kind that individuals can perceive and use.

There’s extra progress and innovation in computing and ICT than in some other space of enterprise. The people and organisations greatest geared up to answer the problem of quickly altering applied sciences are these with the imaginative and prescient to make sure that their abilities and data are stored present and set in a broad instructional context. Computing and ICT professionals with a powerful ability set are a lot in demand at present, and enrolling on a postgraduate computing course with the OU will maintain you on the forefront of this influential self-discipline. Our Postgraduate Computing and ICT programs give you the vary of modern, practice-based programs and qualifications that you want to develop your profession. We provide a number of certificates, diplomas and masters levels in computing and ICT, and you may select to review matters comparable to software program improvement and administration, mission administration, pc forensics, info safety, communication applied sciences and networks. You don’t have to have a primary diploma to register for a course, however you do want both earlier examine to the equal of HND stage within the UK, or sensible expertise, which is able to allow examine at postgraduate stage.

Administration Information Assets

Implementing a database requires widespread organisation change within the function of knowledge, the allocation of energy at senior ranges, the possession and sharing of knowledge, patterns of organisational settlement. A database administration system challenges the present energy preparations in an organisation and for that cause typically generates political resistance. In a standard file surroundings every division constructed recordsdata and applications to meet its particular wants. Now with a database recordsdata and applications have to be constructed that bear in mind the total organisation’s curiosity in information. Transferring database surroundings is usually a expensive long run course of,.

Digital Enterprise, Digital Commerce

All through this version we emphasize the advantages of integrating info throughout the enterprise, creating an info expertise infrastructure through which info might be move seamlessly from one a part of the organisation to a different and from the organisation to its prospects, suppliers, and enterprise companions. The rising digital agency require this stage of knowledge integration and corporations more and more depend upon such an infrastructure at present to stay environment friendly and aggressive. Web expertise has emerged as the important thing enabling expertise for this digital integration.

Chapter 6


The web has been launched main modifications in the way in which firms conduct enterprise.

It has created a dramatic drop in the price of growing, sending and storing info whereas making that info extra broadly accessible. Thousands and thousands of individuals can change huge quantities of knowledge instantly, immediately, without spending a dime. These necessities apply to the modified work as an entire. If identifiable sections of that work usually are not derived from the Program, and might be moderately thought of impartial and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its phrases, don't apply to these sections once you distribute them as separate works. However once you distribute the identical sections as half of a complete which is a piece primarily based on the Program, the distribution of the entire have to be on the phrases of this License, whose permissions for different licensees prolong to your complete complete, and thus to each half no matter who wrote it.


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