advantages of backward integration for packages

Introduction:

Each time we discuss administration, the very first thing that is available in thoughts is standard definition as to handle is to forecast, to plan, to prepare and to regulate or getting work performed via others however after we discuss technique three factor got here in thoughts which is aggressive, linked with exterior setting and sustainability. Technique is a aggressive strikes and enterprise approaches to supply profitable efficiency. By administration targets could be achieved however not effectively. Combining each the strategic and administration, we discover a new mixture i.e Strategic Administration which is the set of managerial choices and actions that determines the long term efficiency of an organization. It's the sport plan for working the enterprise, strengthening agency’s aggressive positions, satisfying clients and attaining efficiency targets.

Specifically college students like we recent people who find themselves about to finish MBA each time thinks of a enterprise we at all times thought of these theoretical ideas which helps us not just for the survival and development however to have a sustainable aggressive benefit. On this course of strategic administration, the examine of various methods which might be developed in keeping with imaginative and prescient and mission assertion of various firms helps us to return nearer of mind behind company dynamics and permit us to suppose precisely comparable as in skilled company world thinks to have a sustainable aggressive benefit over rivals. The subject that has been assigned to us is all about backward integration which is part of vertical integration that's often performed due to extra management, lower dependency, value edge and confidence on high quality assurance. This mission helps us to get information of company sector by which we're about to enter.

Background:

World is globalized and globalization means barrier much less market as sitting in a single a part of world one can order and buy a product from one other a part of world. On this quick and nice technological period the competitors turns into increasingly more robust. For this each eager enterprise man and technique maker must take a transfer which must be sensible.

As not one of the trade can work in isolation, for working a profitable enterprise there may be at all times a necessity of understanding exterior and inside state of affairs and after having a radical evaluation, one must set technique for managing a enterprise for not solely survival but in addition for development. In an effort to perceive backward integration we have to perceive vertical integration first.

Vertical Integration:

In vertical integration both firm turns into its personal provider or distributor and measure taken in between provide of uncooked materials and gross sales as to have a extra management, much less dependability which helps in aggressive benefit. There are three varieties of Vertical Integration are mentioned under:

Backward Integration

Ahead Integration

Horizontal Integration

Backward Integration:

It's the type of vertical integration by which an organization turns into its personal provider and having a extra management of the provision of uncooked materials of its merchandise to have a aggressive benefit. It's try of lowering provider energy and thus lowering enter prices and decrease its dependability on suppliers.

Instance:

P & G’s Tide displayed in Wall Mart however later Wall Mart produce its personal detergent via backward integration that forces P & G’s Tide to scale back costs by 20 % to 25 %.

Ahead Integration:

It's the type of vertical integration by which an organization grow to be its personal vendor and having a extra management of the direct distribution of its merchandise to have a aggressive benefit.

Instance:

Beforehand Gul Ahmed produces Cloths and now Gul Ahmed open its personal shops with the identify of Gul Ahmed Concept and promote on to shoppers.

Horizontal Integration:

Horizontal integration refers to addition of identical type of enterprise within the current enterprise with the intention to improve manufacturing, market share and to scale back competitors. It's typically performed by acquisition of rivals, merger with current corporations or by establishing new vegetation.

Instance:

If your organization is working two shifts a day and third is empty, your competitor of producing identical product have deficit of producing in keeping with his demand and also you permit your competitor to make use of your facility for his or her manufacturing to fill their want and in opposition to that you just cost lease to your competitor accordingly, it's horizontal integration. The opposite instance is that you just give your warehouse to competitor. Instance of dying machine use in textile sector could be one other instance of horizontal integration.

Benefits:

1. If we take from provider perspective, often is the high quality isn't guarantee in keeping with your requirements however after vertical integration, one is guarantee of high quality for what he's delivering to clients.

Reduces the dependency on suppliers and be extra handy.

Value discount as examine to rivals.

Disadvantages:

The principle drawback is experience spreads thinly i.e consideration divides from core competency. Vertical Integration requires an funding, time and power for both utilization of backward or ahead integration, on this approach the eye must be divided and for this competitor would possibly take benefit.

Enhance enterprise threat as with involvement into one other enterprise, threat issue can be elevated.

Literature Evaluate:

In accordance with Writer Thompson and Strickland in Strategic Administration (thirteenth version), vertical integration will increase the corporations aggressive functionality inside identical trade. It will increase the worth chain potential of an organization as ranging from procurement until its distribution and promoting, the extent of actions and management will increase. The principle benefit in keeping with creator is strengthening of a agency’s aggressive place. As an organization beforehand outsourcing its actions now having a in home manufacturing facility via backward integration will increase the higher high quality merchandise. It additionally displays the lower in dependency as beforehand provider will increase its costs in any alternative, however after integration dependency is lowered to higher extent. The principle drawback of backward integration is its lock of a agency’s deeper into trade and later discover out that outsourcing was extra cheaper and higher . With the growth of a agency and capital funding, threat publicity of enterprise additionally will increase. It additionally distorts from core competency of a agency.

In accordance with supply of Writer Friedrich Kessler and Richard H. Stern, the primary purpose for backward integration is value saving as in numerous processes ranging from procurement to promoting and distribution due to integration not solely the price is lowered but in addition the management will increase on costs in order that of saving or revenue. Backward integration additionally helps to have a confidence on high quality as after getting extra on our provides via backward integration the extent of high quality uniformity can be elevated. It additionally helps in higher stage of flexibility in operations.

Paper and Packaging Trade Evaluation:

When Pakistan got here into being there was not any paper and board manufacturing unit was fashioned at the moment the one place the place the demand is fulfilled was importing from different nations. In 1952 the primary paper unit was fashioned with the capability of 400 to 500 tons every year as with the passage of time different manufacturing items of paper and board had been fashioned in numerous elements of Pakistan which Sindh and Punjab. A lot of the mills have the capability of 1500-88000 tons on annual foundation.

If we see at the moment extra 100 of paper mills are in operational capability of greater than 600 thousand tons every year, and it not solely provide a easy bundle paper but in addition vast number of boards and printing materials.

It's the truth that Punjab is having a largest variety of paper mills and contributes greater than 65 % of all paper manufacturing unit as Punjab is taken into account as having extra availability of wheat straw and river grass which is used as uncooked materials for paper manufacturing whereas Sindh is having 15 to 20 % of paper mills.

As capability of paper manufacturing will increase which extremely have an effect on the import of paper from fall of 64,000 tons every year to 17,000 tons. It has been additionally discovered that the responsibility on paer is elevated from PKR 17,000/= per ton to PKR 26,000/= per ton.

Few recognized firms that operates in Pakistan are as follows.

Packages Restricted

Century paper mill Pakistan

Premier Paper mill

Lasani Paper and Board Mills.

West Pakistan P.I.D.C idea mill. Rahwali

Textile Trade Evaluation

Pakistan is an agricultural nation and the primary crops embrace wheat, rice and cotton. The manufacturing of cotton on a significant scale was the driving pressure for emergence of textile sector because the essential a part of manufacturing sector. Textile is now thought of because the again bone of the nation’s exports. There are lots of challenges confronted by the sector by way of electrical energy shortages, gasoline load shedding and uncooked materials and labor prices. Progressing within the manufacturing trade and to realize sustainable aggressive benefit textile sector has to provide you with some environment friendly expertise, expert labor pressure, high quality uncooked materials and easy circulate of operations. The necessity for vertical integration arises from the truth that the uncooked materials wanted for manufacturing isn't of the required high quality and specs.

The continual development in textile sector and rising demand within the overseas market has made the sector to type methods that may result in a sustainable aggressive benefit over the opposite nations merchandise. In the course of the present fiscal 12 months the exports of textile has elevated by 26%. The rising value of cotton has made a exponential improve within the income of the textile sector with a development 183% as in contrast final 12 months. Garment industries have additionally contributed and the expansion within the exports has been 23% within the present fiscal 12 months.

Textile sector is especially divided into following segments

Spinning: 1.55 billion KGs of yarn

Weaving: Four.368 billion.metre2 of Material

Ending: Four billion.meter2

Along with this textile sector additionally includes of garment, knitwear and towel items which produce 670, 400 and 53 million KGs respectively.

Contribution of textile sector within the manufacturing trade is significant as there are round 1225 items of ginning, 442 items of spinning are in operation. The weaving section includes of 570 small and enormous items and 20600energy looms. There are round 2550, 600and 400 items of clothes, knitwear and towel manufacturing respectively.

Exports:

Textile sector being the biggest contributor to exports holds 54% of the overall exports of Pakistan which is the same as 5.16 billion US dollars.

Manufacturing:

Textile trade as a part of manufacturing sector contributes round 46% of the overall manufacturing within the nation.

Employment:

Employment is a really vital situation within the growing nations like Pakistan. The contribution of textile sector in making the folks of Pakistan employed is 38% of the labor pressure

GDP:

Gross home product is the financial measure for efficiency of a rustic’s development. Textile sector contributes eight.5% of the overall GDP of Pakistan which is a vital within the development of Pakistan.

The rising demand of Pakistani textile merchandise is a aggressive edge over different rivals and to manage up with it textile sector has to develop methods of successfully obtain the standard and product specs. Vertical integration is a crucial area to be pursued with the intention to create uniformity within the merchandise, discount of the price and comfort of method.

Packages Restricted:

Firm Profile:

Packages Restricted is established is a three way partnership between the Ali Group of Pakistan and Akerlund and Rausing of Sweden and is established in 1956. It has gross sales of over US $ 100 million in 2004. Its buyer contains large large firms equivalent to Unilever and Pakistan Tobacco Firm. It's listed on all three inventory exchanges in Pakistan, Packages Restricted has maintained a long-time credit standing of AA. Initially packages works for cigarette, tea, cleaning soap and pharmaceutical trade merchandise however its high quality was solely passable however with the time packages not solely will increase and increasing its facility but in addition will increase the standard of their product and at the moment packages can be thought of as monopolistic in Packaging trade and fulfill a significant share of packaging firm wants.

Packages can be famend in its subject and now exporting its managerial abilities and experience to nations like Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Somalia, Nigeria, Kuwait, Indonesia & Russia.

It has additionally began the export of tissues to Maldives, Iran, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates and Bangladesh. Packages Restricted has a workshop which works on massive scale and is able to not solely making but in addition repairing elements. Its plant can be furnished with Analysis and Improvement division which guarantee and preserve its high quality. Presently about 2500 workers are working within the firm. Right now packaging is taken into account as a pacesetter the place number of product’s Packaging facility is operational underneath one roof.

Packages at all times tries its finest to work for brand new progressive packaging analysis and likewise pioneered a number of improvements, together with the usage of wheat straw as a uncooked materials for paper and board manufacture. Its on-site paper and board mill, established in 1968, has continuously elevated its manufacturing capability.

Product Line:

Packages Restricted manufacturing items are divided into 5 classes, are as follows.

Paper & Board

Carton Enterprise Unit

Corruwal Enterprise unit

Versatile Enterprise Unit

Client merchandise

Paper & Board:

Packages are producing paper and board of excellent high quality from 1956 and at all times took care of

Atmosphere pleasant manufacturing processes. Packages concentrate on making quite a lot of duplex boards and paper. Its merchandise are recognized for prime efficiency by way of sturdiness and gloss.

Paper:

Firm produces:

• Excessive gloss writing paper

• Wooden-free writing/printing paper

• Machine glazed / particular poster paper

• Liner for delivery cartons

• Corrugating medium paper

• Fluting paper

Board:

Packages manufacture a number of varieties of board. Tetra Pak Restricted is manufacturing meals board since 1979 which is used as a uncooked materials in liquid packaging.

A few of Packages board merchandise are:

• Liquid packaging board

• Liner board

• Duplex board / chipboard

• Bleached board

• Tobacco board and cardboard

• Meals grade board

Carton Enterprise Unit:

Carton enterprise unit is taken into account as one of many very important a part of manufacturing and operations at Packages. With the assistance of steady up gradation in expertise, packages management on each step of producing course of. Firm’s consideration on superior high quality items is confirmed by its clients.

The full board consumption of the carton line is round 18 – 20 thousand tons every year. The robust backward integration throughout the Packages worth chain has given the aggressive edge by way of value, comfort and low threat publicity. With the assistance of backward integration not solely guarantee materials availability but in addition save turnaround time and promised supply.

Three. Corruwal Enterprise Items:

Since 1974, Packages is manufacturing corrugated cartons and produces in numerous sizes with additionally a price addition of robust distribution community and exporting to different nations additionally. Packages at all times inspired product growth and spent loads on R & D.

Corrugated cartons is among the essential portfolio for the packages and its manufacturing facility is producing with a functionality of seven million corrugated cartons to fulfill its buyer’s demand.

Four.Versatile Enterprise Items:

Packages additionally thought of the demand of versatile packaging with altering developments and wishes. It presents versatile line makes top quality packaging movies and laminates, and presents different specialised companies equivalent to rotogravure printing and sleeve-making.

Versatile packaging provide with totally different plastic movie, aluminum foil and paper to supply laminates of two or extra layers for offering layered safety in opposition to moisture, gases and odors. These sort of packaging is taken into account as essential in meals and pharmaceutical industries.

5. Client Merchandise:

Packages additionally thought of and handle routine life issues and wishes, provide number of merchandise like under and make life straightforward.

1. Tissue Merchandise

2. Private Hygiene

Three. Paper Product

Our manufacturers of Rose Petal and Tulip holds greater than 75% of market share in tissue trade of Pakistan. Packages together with providing tissues, additionally provided custom-printed bins, desk napkins, coasters and paper cups to establishments equivalent to resorts, quick meals chains, eating places, companies and the airline trade. As Packages at all times thought of and provide you with progressive concepts and on buyer expectations.

Backward Integration Perspective:

In 1968, Packages fashioned its personal paper mill with manufacturing capability of 24,000 tonnes as paper mill produced paper from waste paper and agricultural by-products like wheat straw and river grass. With rising demand, packages thought of and elevated its capability from 24,000 to 100,000 in 2003.

Packages Restricted setup a brand new pulp and paper mill mission in 2005 at Kasur situated, 50 km south of Lahore. The inexperienced subject web site unfold on 42 hectares is called Bulleh Shah Paper Mill coined after a well-known Pakistani poet from this area. 

The inexperienced subject web site includes of two fashionable paper machines PM6 and PM7 that can allow us to extend our paper and paperboard manufacturing from 100,000 to 300,000 tones per 12 months. Due to Bulleh Shah Paper mill it helps in rising functionality.

Benefits of Backward Integration for Packages:

It helps to scale back the dependency of suppliers and will increase comfort as if the provider didn't provide on time which is a standard drawback than not solely lack of revenue but in addition firm’s picture is affected.

It helps to have a aggressive edge due to their scale back manufacturing value, low pricing technique and in order that extra revenue.

It helps to have a confidence on high quality uniformity and assurance as a result of beforehand it was taking materials from totally different provider with variation in high quality however now since they themselves is working, this will increase the boldness on high quality.

Disadvantages of Backward Integration for Packages:

Supervision and experience harassed as now after backward integration consideration is split.

Enhance Enterprise Danger of a change of expertise so it must be up to date with correct upkeep.

The chance value for investing in Bulleh Shah Undertaking is that they may put money into new product line and struct up in large funding

Secret of Success:

Packages have large market share in Pakistan and have monopoly by way of packaging, new entrant would possibly want to speculate loads to compete. Packages however it should take time to determine the identify as Packages function from 1956 and off track its backward integration helps loads by way of value saving, comfort and high quality assurance. There isn't a competitor which gives precisely comparable product line as Packages provide however some rivals are there with particular merchandise as Metatex (in versatile packaging), Ehtisham brother (in carton and corruwal), Saima Co. (in versatile product line). As this agency presents all kinds of packaging to their shoppers underneath one roof in order that it will increase comfort.

Benefit Packaging Ltd.

Firm Profile:

As we all know that there are such a lot of printing and packaging industries in Pakistan however Benefit Packaging Ltd. is a really well-known and high class printing and packaging firm in Pakistan which is efficiently working since final three many years. Benefit Packaging Ltd. is underneath umbrella of Lakson group of firms which is a really famend enterprise group in Pakistan. Mr. Iqbal Ali Lakhani is Chief Govt Officer (CEO) of Benefit Packaging Ltd. The corporate is catering offset printing and versatile printing necessities of the shoppers and likewise gives POS materials. It's an ISO licensed and a public restricted firm which have greater than 200 workers who aren't solely skilled and expert but in addition devoted to their work.

At preliminary stage Benefit Packaging Ltd. purchase all of the uncooked supplies from totally different suppliers and merchants. However after few years when their demand will increase and suppliers weren't capable of fulfill their want then they deliberate to do backward integration for manufacturing paper which is extremely consumable in packaging trade. They began manufacturing of paper in 1984 with the identify of “Century Paper and Board Mills” which is the biggest paper and board mill in Pakistan.

Mission:

To use our experience in printing and packaging and creating worth for our clients and on the identical time upholding the best requirements of high quality.

Imaginative and prescient:

Our imaginative and prescient is to grow to be the popular firm of selection with regards to offset and Versatile printing and packaging options.

Companies:

Pre Printing:

Benefit Packaging gives pre-printing service amenities to its consumer. This division is supplied with Macintosh and superior computer systems which have excessive class and updated skilled designing software program operated by skilled and skilled workers. This division works on making inventive designs, enhancements of current designs and making designs in keeping with the client’s specs and necessities. Pre-printing press division additionally put together remaining CD for manufacturing course of.

Printing:

Benefit Packaging Ltd. has printing machines for offset printing and gravure printing in multicolor. Offset printing machines are used to fabricate POS supplies and folding cartons in six totally different colours and coating choices in keeping with the client necessities.

Rotogravure printing machines are used within the manufacturing of bigger orders for paper and movie. This machine has amenities to print as much as eight totally different colours in a single stage.

Publish Printing:

Benefit Packaging Ltd. has excessive velocity automated reducing and creasing machines that are used for folding cartons and in addition to for POS materials. Stamping amenities on carton can be obtainable within the firm. Flat printed cartons are manufactured on filling machines supplied by the shoppers for cigarettes and tea whereas gluing cartons are manufactured on excessive velocity and electronically managed gluing machines.

Laboratory:

Benefit Packaging Ltd. has a laboratory which is properly outfitted with all of the equipment required for testing. The laboratory is used to check the uncooked supplies to make sure the consistency and high quality of printing. Paper, board, inks and chemical compounds all are examined in keeping with the set requirements earlier than manufacturing course of so they can't create any drawback throughout manufacturing course of. Laboratory and high quality management division not solely check the supplies earlier than manufacturing but in addition repeatedly verify throughout manufacturing course of.

Certification:

Benefit Packaging Ltd. has ISO 9000 certification which is a logo of high quality for merchandise manufacturing by the corporate. The corporate can be working to get “Hazard Evaluation and Crucial Management Level” (HACCP) certification which can add extra worth to the corporate. Benefit’s high quality coverage completely focuses on buyer’s satisfaction and enchancment of high quality.

Our Clientele:

The Lakson household:

Benefit Packaging Ltd. is underneath umbrella of Lakson Group of firms. This group began its operations in 1954. Until now Lakson group has began so many companies in Pakistan and is among the main enterprise group of the nation. Lakson has $1 billion asset base and have greater than 3000 workers. Following are firms headed by Lakson group in Pakistan.

Client Items:

Colgate Palmolive

Titan

Tetley

Clover

Eating places:

McDonald’s

Monetary companies:

Lakson Investments

Insurance coverage:

Century Insurance coverage Firm Restricted

Paper & Packaging:

Benefit Packaging

Century Paper & Board Mill

Data Know-how:

Cybernet

Sybrid

Lakson enterprise options

Ice Animations

Journey Companies

Princeton travels

Surgical Devices:

Accuray Surgical

Textile:

Tritex Cotton Mills Ltd.

Media:

Tribune

Specific 24/7

Specific Information

Day by day Specific newspaper

Century Paper & Board Mills Restricted

Century Paper and Board Mills Restricted is among the largest paper and board mill in Pakistan based by Lakson group in 1984 because of backward integration for Benefit Packaging Restricted. Firm isn't solely catering Benefit Packaging Ltd. but in addition promoting its merchandise to many different respected shoppers attributable to excessive productiveness and properly outfitted manufacturing amenities. The corporate is devoted to supply high quality paper and board to its clients.

Century Paper and Board Mills Restricted has a crew of extremely skilled and skilled workers by which 60 engineers are devoted for various departments. Presently greater than 1600 expert, skilled and properly educated workers are working within the firm to supply wonderful and high quality merchandise to the shoppers.

The corporate has seven machines for making paper and board. During which PM-1, PM-Four & PM-7 machines are used within the manufacturing of board whereas PM-Three & PM-6 are used within the manufacturing of paper. These machines have 230000 tons/12 months rated capability to fabricate board and paper. PM-7 is cutting-edge newest machine put in in 2008 to supply board which has capability of 130000 tons per 12 months. This machine is predicated on recycling of fibers which is setting pleasant.

Century Paper & Board mills Ltd. additionally producing sheets that are utilized in manufacturing of corrugated bins. Firm has cutting-edge machines which have capability of manufacturing 30 million sq. meter sheets per 12 months. Additionally firm is producing varied sizes of corrugated containers with a capability of 60 million per 12 months. The corporate is prepared to double the manufacturing of corrugated containers.

 

Century paper & board mills restricted have ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14001: 2004 certifications and likewise prepared to get OHSAS 18000: 2008 certification

Secrets and techniques of success of Benefit Packages:

The next are secrets and techniques of success of Benefit Packages.

The corporate setup “Century Paper & Board Mills Restricted” because of backward integration which is among the principal causes of their success. Because of this integration the worth of uncooked materials is decreases and profitability will increase.

Easy provide of uncooked materials, higher management on high quality and simply in time supply attributable to backward integration are additionally secret of their success.

Additionally this integration reduces the dependency on suppliers.

Benefit Packages is headed by Lakson group which is among the largest enterprise group in Pakistan.

Because of its manufacturing capability and properly outfitted machines it's largest printing and packaging firm in Pakistan.

Benefit Packages gives pre-printing amenities to the shoppers which is considered one of their secret of success.

A lot of the famend firms are shoppers of Benefit Packages.

The corporate has ISO 9000 certification which can be successful issue.

Yunus Textile Mills Restricted

Firm Profile:

Yunus Brothers began their enterprise in 1962 from a small buying and selling enterprise of cloth and is now grow to be one of many main enterprise group in Pakistan. This group has invested in cement, power, textile and building industries which has greater than $750 million annual turnover.

Yunus Textile Mills is a part of this group which was based in 1998 in Karachi and in a really brief time frame it's now Pakistan’s largest textile exporter. Initially Yunus textile mills began manufacturing of bedding merchandise and now it's also manufacturing dwelling textile merchandise. YTM is exporting its merchandise to famend retailers in Europe, France, USA, Canada, UK and Spain. The corporate

In an effort to fulfill the necessity of uncooked materials and scale back dependency on suppliers, Yunus Textile mills just lately setup a spinning mill which is an instance of backward integration. This spinning mill was setup with an funding of $15 million.

Yunus Brothers Group has following industries moreover Yunus Textile Mills Ltd.

Fortunate Textile Mills

Fortunate textile mills was based in 1983 by Yunus Brothers which have cutting-edge weaving and stitching machines. Weaving unit has a cloth manufacturing capability of 3400000 meters/ month. Whereas stitching unit have capability to sew as much as 1500000 meters/ 12 months.

Fazal Textile Mills Restricted

Fazal textile mills was based in 1987 which is the biggest spinning mill in Pakistan. This firm has ISO – 9001:2000 certifications.

Gadoon Textile Mills Restricted

Gadoon Textile Mills was based in 1998 by Yunus Brothers Group. This firm is producing core spun yarn which has 194392 spindles.

Fortunate Vitality (PVT) Restricted

Fortunate power Restricted was based in 1993 which have 17.Four MW era capability. This firm is used to supply electrical energy to Fortunate and Fazal Textile mills.

Fortunate Cement – Established in 1996

Fortunate cement was based in 1996 which isn't solely largest producer but in addition largest exporter of cement in Pakistan. This firm has manufacturing capability of 25000 tons of cement per day.

Merchandise:

Yunus Textile Mills is having following product vary:

Beds & Comforters

Curtain & Draperies

Cushions & Pillows

Youngsters zone

Cover Cowl units

Sheet units

Backward integration

Yunus textile mill has just lately invested $15 million in establishing a plant of spinning with the intention to fulfill the provision wants. The explanation for investing such an immense capital is to realize aggressive benefit over the others in the identical trade. Strengthening agency’s aggressive place could be very vital with the intention to obtain long run sustainability and to function on aggressive edge.

Backward integration is the supply to realize differentiated aggressive benefit with the intention to carry out actions that might yield in a greater product, high quality of uncooked materials, reduces inconvenience of provides and desired specs of uncooked materials that when bought could be a lot costly.

The explanation for which Yunus textile went into backward integration is to realize economies of scale and to make its provides easy. By doing this it might have the ability to scale back the suppliers bargaining energy and management over the provides that are required for the manufacturing of ultimate product.

Benefits of backward integration

Decreased value by way of provides