# Assessment 1 Instructions: Descriptive Statistics

Assessment 1 Instructions: Descriptive Statistics
Use statistical software to create, interpret, and analyze two histograms in a Word document.
Introduction
Descriptive statistics are just what they sound like, statistics that allow you to describe or summarize the data with regard to such things as their distribution and their spread. Descriptive statistics provide you with a picture of your data while inferential statistics (which we will discuss in subsequent assessments) allow you to draw conclusions about relationships between variables or differences between groups.

A solid understanding of descriptive statistics is foundational to grasping the concepts presented in inferential statistics. This assessment measures your understanding of key elements of descriptive statistics.

Your first statistical software assessment includes two sections in which you will do the following:
1. Create two histograms.
2. Calculate measures of central tendency and dispersion.
This will give you some experience with the data set.

Key Details and Instructions
• Submit your assessment as a Word document.
• Refer to the JASP Step-by-Step: Histograms and Descriptive Statistics [PDF] document for additional help in completing this assessment.
• View JASP Speedrun: Descriptive Statistics [Video] for a brief tutorial on this assessment.
• As you work on this assessment, refer to the 7864 Data Set Instructions [PDF] file for information on variables used in this course.

Download the 7864 data set, grades.jasp, which is a sample data set, and save it to your computer. The data represent a teacher’s recording of student demographics and performance on quizzes and a final exam. For this assessment, you will create and describe two histograms and a descriptives table using these data.
Section 1: Histograms for Visual Interpretation
Using the final and lowup variables in your grades.jasp data set, create two histograms and paste them into your Word document:
Variable Definition
Lowup lower division =1; Upper division =2
Final Final exam: number of correct answers
Variables and Definitions
Create:
• A histogram for lower division.
• A histogram for upper division.

Briefly describe what a visual inspection of this output tells you about the shape of the distributions.
Section 2: Calculate Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion
Using the grades.jasp file, compute descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for gpa and quiz3.
Variable Definition
Quiz3 Quiz 3: number of correct answers
Variables and Definitions
Create a descriptives table and paste it into your Word document.

Under the table:
• Report the mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for GPA and quiz3.
• Briefly describe what skewness and kurtosis tell you about these data with regard to normality.

Submit both sections of your assessment as an attached Word document.

Software
The following statistical analysis software is required to complete your assessments in this course:
• Jeffreys’s Amazing Statistics Program (JASP).

Refer to the Tools and Software: JASP page on Campus for general information. Make sure that your statistical software is downloaded, installed, and running properly on your computer.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

• Competency 4: Interpret the results of statistical analyses.
o Below the output, provide an accurate interpretation of histograms for lower division students and upper division students.
o Below the output, report descriptive statistics and interpret skew and kurtosis values.
• Competency 5: Apply a statistical programs procedure to data.
o Provide histograms for lower division students and upper division students.
o Provide a descriptive statistics table.

7864 Data Set Instructions
The 7864 data set is fictional data. The data represents a teacher’s recording of student
demographics and academic performance across three sections of their course. Each course
section consists of about 35 students (N = 105).
assignments instructions area. It will then open in JASP.
There are 21 variables in the course data set. Refer to the table below.
Scale of
JASP variable Definition Values measurement
id Student identification number Nominal
lastname Student last name Nominal
firstname Student first name Nominal
1 = woman; 2 = man; 3 =
transgender; 4 = non- genderidentity Student gender identity Nominal binary/non-conforming; 5 =
prefer not to disclose
1 = Native American; 2 = Asian;
ethnicity Student ethnicity 3 = Black; 4 = White; 5 = Nominal
Hispanic
1 = freshman; 2 = sophomore;
year Class rank Ordinal 3 = junior; 4 = senior
lowup Lower or upper division 1 = lower; 2 = upper Nominal
section Class section
gpa Previous grade point average Scale
extcr Did extra credit project? 1 = no; 2 = yes Nominal
review Attended review sessions?
quiz1 Quiz 1: number of correct answers
quiz2 Quiz 2: number of correct answers Scale
Nominal
1 = no; 2 = yes Nominal
Scale
quiz3 Quiz 3: number of correct answers Scale
quiz4 Quiz 4: number of correct answers Scale
1

Scale of
JASP variable Definition Values measurement
quiz5 Quiz 5: number of correct answers Scale
Final exam: number of correct final Scale
total Total number of points earned Scale
percent Final percent Scale
Passed or failed the course? 1 = passfail Nominal pass; 0 = fail
2

__________________________________-

Section 1: Histograms for Visual Interpretation

Identify the variables “Lowup” and “Final” in the data set. “Lowup” represents the division (lower or upper), and “Final” represents the final exam scores.
Create a histogram for the “Lowup” variable to visualize the distribution of lower division and upper division students. The histogram will display the frequency of each division.
Create a separate histogram for the “Final” variable to visualize the distribution of the final exam scores.
Take screenshots or export the histograms and paste them into your Word document.
Describe what the shape of the distributions tells you based on your visual inspection of the histograms. Look for information such as whether the distributions are symmetrical, skewed to the left or right, or bimodal.
Section 2: Calculate Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion

Use the “grades.jasp” data set in JASP.
Identify the variables “GPA” and “Quiz3” in the data set. “GPA” represents the previous grade point average, and “Quiz3” represents the number of correct answers on Quiz 3.
Calculate the mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for both the “GPA” and “Quiz3” variables.
Create a descriptives table that includes the calculated statistics for “GPA” and “Quiz3”.
Take a screenshot or export the descriptives table and paste it into your Word document.
Report the mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for both “GPA” and “Quiz3” in your Word document.
Briefly describe what skewness and kurtosis tell you about the data with regard to normality. Skewness measures the asymmetry of the distribution, and kurtosis measures the peakedness of the distribution. Interpret these values in terms of whether the distributions are approximately normal or exhibit deviations from normality.