PHARM M5 For this written assignment, use a concept map to describe the Immune System. The concept map is a method to teach critical thinking skills and prepare you to apply nursing theory to the clinical setting.
Concept Map for the Immune System:
Central Node: Immune System
Innate Immune System
Physical Barriers (Skin, Mucous Membranes)
Phagocytic Cells (Neutrophils, Macrophages)
Inflammatory Response (Chemicals, Histamine)
Adaptive Immune System
Antigen Recognition (B Cells, T Cells)
Humoral Response (Antibodies, Complement System)
Cell-Mediated Response (Cytotoxic T Cells, Helper T Cells)
Organs and Tissues
Primary Lymphoid Organs (Bone Marrow, Thymus)
Secondary Lymphoid Organs (Lymph Nodes, Spleen)
Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)
Type I (Immediate)
Type II (Cytotoxic)
Type III (Immune Complex-Mediated)
Type IV (Delayed)
The central node of the concept map is the immune system, which is divided into two main branches: the innate and adaptive immune systems. The innate immune system includes physical barriers such as the skin and mucous membranes, phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, and an inflammatory response involving various chemicals and histamine.
The adaptive immune system involves antigen recognition by B cells and T cells, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of the complement system in the humoral response. The cell-mediated response involves cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells.
Organs and tissues that play important roles in the immune system include primary lymphoid organs such as the bone marrow and thymus, secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes and spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).
Immunodeficiency disorders can be primary (congenital) or secondary (acquired), and hypersensitivity reactions can be classified into four types: type I (immediate), type II (cytotoxic), type III (immune complex-mediated), and type IV (delayed).
The concept map helps to visualize the interconnected components of the immune system and provides a framework for understanding its functions and dysfunctions. In the clinical setting, nurses can use this map to assess and intervene in patients with immune-related conditions.