Briefly summarize the hydrologic cycle

1. Briefly summarize the hydrologic cycle. List and define the three basic types of aquifers. Do a bit of research and name and tell the type of aquifer under where you live.

2. Write an article review on the “Focus On: The Bottled Water Boom” on page 273. Be sure to state your personal reaction to this article.

3. List and write one or two well-constructed sentences summarizing each of the seven categories of air pollution identified in chapter 16.

4. Discuss the causes and detrimental effects of ground-level ozone. Discuss the causes and detrimental effects of the depletion of the ozone found in the upper stratosphere.

5. Describe 6 technologies for the treatment and/or disposal of hazardous wastes.

6. List and briefly explain the 8 consequences of climate change.


In southern India people once made traps for monkeys by drilling holes in coconuts, foiling the shells with rice, and chaining them to trees. The success of this trap was based on a simple principle. The hole was large enough for a monkey to insert its empty hand, but too small for it to pull out a handful of rice. As the monkeys clung tenaciously to their rice, villagers threw nets over them. In essence, the monkeys were trapped by their own refusal to let go.
Consider this Monkey Trap Story. Explain your understanding of the story and your application of this story to present=day man and his environment.

The hydrologic cycle refers to the continuous process of water movement on Earth, in which water evaporates from oceans, lakes, and other water bodies, forms clouds, falls back to the ground as precipitation, and eventually runs off into rivers and streams to return to the oceans. There are three basic types of aquifers: unconfined, confined, and perched. Unconfined aquifers are those where the water table is at or near the land surface, and the water is not under significant pressure. Confined aquifers are those where the water is located in a layer of impermeable rock or sediment that sits between two layers of permeable rock or sediment. Perched aquifers are those where a layer of permeable material lies above an impermeable layer, creating a small, localized water table. The type of aquifer under where one lives varies depending on the geological characteristics of the area.

The article “Focus On: The Bottled Water Boom” discusses the environmental impacts and social implications of the growing demand for bottled water. The author explains the economic benefits for corporations selling bottled water, the negative consequences for the environment, and the ethical concerns related to the commodification of water. In my personal opinion, the article sheds light on an issue that is often overlooked and highlights the need for consumers to be more aware of the environmental impact of their consumption habits.

The seven categories of air pollution identified in chapter 16 are: particulate matter, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds, and air toxics. Particulate matter refers to small particles suspended in the air, which can cause respiratory problems. Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are produced by burning fossil fuels and can lead to acid rain. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed by the reaction of sunlight with nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, and it can cause respiratory problems. Volatile organic compounds are emitted by many sources, including cars and factories, and can contribute to the formation of ozone and smog. Air toxics are a group of pollutants that can cause cancer or other serious health problems.

Ground-level ozone is formed when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds react in the presence of sunlight. It can cause respiratory problems, especially in people with asthma or other lung conditions. Depletion of the ozone layer in the upper stratosphere is caused by human-made chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These chemicals break down ozone molecules, which can lead to increased levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. This can cause skin cancer, cataracts, and other health problems.

Six technologies for the treatment and/or disposal of hazardous wastes are: incineration, landfilling, biological treatment, physical and chemical treatment, deep well injection, and vitrification. Incineration involves burning hazardous waste at high temperatures to destroy it. Landfilling involves burying hazardous waste in a specially designed landfill. Biological treatment uses microorganisms to break down hazardous waste. Physical and chemical treatment involves using various processes, such as oxidation or precipitation, to remove hazardous substances from waste. Deep well injection involves injecting hazardous waste deep underground. Vitrification involves melting hazardous waste to create a stable, glass-like material.

The eight consequences of climate change are: rising temperatures, rising sea levels, more frequent and severe weather events, melting glaciers and sea ice, ocean acidification, changes in precipitation patterns, more frequent and severe wildfires, and changes in the distribution of plant and animal species. Rising temperatures can lead to heat waves, droughts, and other weather extremes. Rising sea levels can cause flooding and erosion.

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