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Posted: May 7th, 2023

# Flip-flops are also commonly used in sequential logic circuits

Discuss the difference between latches and flip-flops.

Latches and flip-flops are both bistable devices used for temporary data storage. Both devices can have active low or active high inputs. A latch determines its output from its input signals only, while a flip-flop is triggered by a timing or enable input. The timing input on a flip-flop is edge triggered, either rising edge (0®1) or falling edge (1®0). A flip-flop can also be either synchronous (triggered by only the clock) or asynchronous (having inputs that override the clock).

A latch has a truth table with an invalid condition when both inputs are activated simultaneously since the output is unpredictable when they return to inactive at about the same time.

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The flip-flop does not have this invalid output. When both inputs are activated on a flip-flop, the output is toggled.

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The asynchronous flip-flop inputs, preset and clear, override the device. These inputs change the output independently when they are activated regardless of inputs or the clock.

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Discuss the applications of flip-flops.

Flip-flops are commonly used for data storage, frequency division, and counters. The data storage would use multiple flip-flops in groups depending on the number of bits required. The frequency division and counters work the same dividing the clock frequency by 2 with each device, except that for the frequency divider, you would only be worried about the output of the last device at the required frequency. For the counter, you need the output of every flip-flop.

Floyd, T. L. (2014). Digital Fundamentals (11th ed.). Pearson Education (US).

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Flip-flops are also commonly used in sequential logic circuits, such as shift registers, state machines, and control circuits. In shift registers, flip-flops are connected in series to store and shift data. State machines use flip-flops to store the current state and transition to the next state based on input and timing signals. Control circuits use flip-flops to synchronize and control the operation of other devices or circuits.

Another important application of flip-flops is in digital communications. In communication systems, flip-flops are used to synchronize the transmission and reception of digital data between devices. For example, in a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) communication protocol, a flip-flop is used to sample the incoming data at the correct time and synchronize it with the clock signal.

Flip-flops also play a critical role in digital memory devices, such as RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (Read-Only Memory). In RAM, flip-flops are used to store the digital data temporarily, while in ROM, they are used to store the permanent data. The speed and capacity of these memory devices depend on the number and type of flip-flops used.

Overall, flip-flops are essential building blocks in digital electronics and find applications in a wide range of electronic devices, from simple calculators to complex computer systems.

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