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Posted: May 2nd, 2023

History of Science to Newton

“History of Science to Newton” so the 500 words must be regarding scientist such a Galileo, Newton, Aristotle, Ptolemy, etc.

he project is as follows: Write a 500 word article on Wikipedia or edit 500 words worth of a pre existing Wikipedia article. I am in a class called “History of Science to Newton” so the 500 words must be regarding scientist such a Galileo, Newton, Aristotle, Ptolemy, etc.

Here is one thing that could help:

I have posted several suggestions of pages that you might add to on the Wikipedia dashboard for our course. Here are some general notes to help you, with a few resources.

Wikipedia forbids original opinions and original research. Rather it expects you to report on the best research by other people. So, to build or edit a Wikipedia page, what you need is a new, reliable source on a topic connected with the course. As you did when you wrote your research essay, you may find these by looking at to an external site., or JSTOR, which requires you to be logged in to your OU Library account, or any other general database.

A particularly useful journal for topics in this course is the Journal for the History of AstronomyLinks to an external site. .

Another valuable general source is:

Thomas Hockey, et al. (eds.) (2007) The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Berlin: Springer.

This is also available online when you are logged in to your OU Library account. This contains detailed articles about many figures in the period of the course; many of the details have yet to make it into Wikipedia.

Here are some books that are available online through your OU Library account.

Valeriani (2020) has mainly chapters about individual figures during the Scientific Revolution. Look up a figure, or read a chapter until you find something interesting mentioned, then look up the Wikipedia article for that person (if there is one) and compare the information on Wikipedia with the information you have found. Add 500 words of new material! Note also the sources used by the author of a chapter as other possible places to find new material, or sources to add to Wikipedia.

Matteo Valeriani (2020) De Sphaera of Johannes de Sacrobosco in the Early Modern Period: The Authors of the Commentaries, Springer: Berlin, is available free as an open source book, or through your OU library account.Links to an external site.

See also:
Links to an external site.Matteo Valeriani and Andrea Ottone (2020) Publishing Sacrobosco’s de Sphaera in Early Modern Europe: Modes of Material and Scientific Exchange, Springer: Berlin, is available free as an open source book, or through your OU library account.Links to an external site.

Women scientists tend to be underrepresented on Wikipedia. Another good source for finding information, also available online through OU library, is:

Marilyn Ogilvie and Joy Harvey (eds.) (2000) The biographical dictionary of women in science: pioneering lives from ancient times to the mid-20th century. New York: Routledge.

For our period, an especially good source is:

Meredith K. Ray (2015) Daughters of Alchemy: Women and Scientific Culture in Early Modern Italy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. This is available to you as an ebook through your OU library account. See the review by Jennifer Rampling HERE.

On women in medicine, see:

Sharon T. Strocchia (2019) Forgotten Healers: Women and the Pursuit of Health in Late Renaissance Italy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. This is available on JSTOR through your OU library account. See chapter 1 for Medici women.

Last, go to: to an external site.

for a series of outstanding articles on female philosophers, many of whom also count as scientists, and some of whom have no Wikipedia pages at all. These entries are professional standard – beware of plagiarism and note the citation instructions at: to an external site.

Here is my Wikipedia account with login: User: Pond00025, Pass: FlounderOU5 and here is the link.

Within my account there is training modules I already completed but you can go back through and do them to help with how Wikipedia wants it written.

Here is the Rubric:

LENGTH (500 words)

The history of science leading up to the contributions of Isaac Newton encompasses a diverse array of thinkers, including Galileo Galilei, Aristotle, Claudius Ptolemy, and Johannes Kepler. Each of these scientists made significant contributions to our understanding of the natural world, paving the way for Newton’s groundbreaking discoveries.

One of the most notable figures in the history of science is Galileo Galilei, who is often referred to as the “father of modern science.” Galileo was a pioneer in the field of physics, developing the concept of inertia and making important contributions to the study of motion. He also played a key role in the development of the telescope, which he used to make groundbreaking astronomical observations. Galileo’s discoveries challenged many of the prevailing beliefs of his time, particularly those of the Catholic Church, which placed him under house arrest for the final years of his life.

Another key figure in the history of science is Aristotle, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Aristotle made important contributions to the fields of physics, biology, and metaphysics, and his work had a profound impact on the development of Western thought. Aristotle’s emphasis on empirical observation and rational analysis laid the foundation for the scientific method, which would later become the cornerstone of scientific inquiry.

Claudius Ptolemy was another important figure in the history of science, particularly in the field of astronomy. Ptolemy’s geocentric model of the universe, which placed Earth at the center, was widely accepted for centuries, and his work on optics and the principles of light laid the groundwork for later discoveries in the field. Although Ptolemy’s theories have been largely discredited, his work was instrumental in the development of astronomy and laid the foundation for later breakthroughs.

Johannes Kepler was a contemporary of Galileo, and his work in the field of astronomy complemented Galileo’s discoveries. Kepler developed the laws of planetary motion, which described the elliptical orbits of the planets around the sun. These laws were a significant departure from the prevailing view of the universe, which held that the planets moved in perfect circles around the Earth. Kepler’s work was instrumental in the development of modern astronomy and played a key role in the scientific revolution.

The contributions of these scientists, along with many others, paved the way for the groundbreaking discoveries of Isaac Newton. Newton’s work on the laws of motion and universal gravitation revolutionized the field of physics, and his development of calculus laid the foundation for modern mathematics. Newton’s work was a turning point in the history of science, paving the way for further breakthroughs in fields ranging from physics to biology.

In conclusion, the history of science leading up to the contributions of Isaac Newton was a rich and diverse field, encompassing the work of many great thinkers. Galileo Galilei, Aristotle, Claudius Ptolemy, and Johannes Kepler were just a few of the key figures who laid the foundation for Newton’s groundbreaking discoveries. Their work paved the way for the scientific revolution, which transformed our understanding of the natural world and set the stage for centuries of further scientific inquiry.

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