As part of this course, we have been expanding our knowledge of the physiologic
systems we are studying by learning about drugs that are available to treat the disease
processes. The goal of this assignment is to focus on each organ system and the set of
drug categories associated with it.
For the week 13 assignment, you are responsible for researching these drug categories
by filling out the table. For the table you will need to research one drug class per body
system, which will give you a total of 12 drugs for the table. The list of drug classes
according to body system can be found within the Pharmacology Drug Table document.
Below are tips on how to get started:
Please complete the table for each drug selected (please see the attached document to
use as a template for filling in). Provide references in APA format.
Pharmacodynamics – Discuss each of these categories: biochemical and physiologic
drug effects, and the mechanisms of drug action per the pharmacology lecture.
Biochemical effects – what does the drug do to molecules and biochemical processes in
the body? For example, antimetabolic drugs prevent DNA synthesis.
Physiologic drug effects – how does the drug affect the body? For example,
antimetabolites prevent tumor growth and the reproduction of certain body tissues with
fast division rates such as gastrointestinal lining, hematopoietic cells and hair follicles.
Under mechanisms of drug action, answer questions such as these: does it block an
enzyme (which most drugs do!), does it prevent a chemical reaction by competition?
does it prevent the entry of something needed into the cell, etc. For example, a specific
antimetabolite drug inhibits the enzyme such and such that is necessary for DNA
replication. Sometimes a drug has 2 or more actions (an anticancer drug can also be an
antibiotic). In this case, choose the action that is related to the category you are
discussing. If it has more than one mechanism of action (for example, it blocks an
enzyme and also prevents entry of nucleotides into the cell), discuss the ones that are
relevant to your main biochemical effect.
Pharmacokinetics – Discuss the following: drug absorption, distribution, metabolism,
and excretion. How much of the drug is absorbed in the body in a specific time frame,
where does it go in terms of organs, how is it changed inside the body (activated or
deactivated, in liver or kidneys, etc), and how much is excreted in a specific time frame?
Administration route – Discuss specific ways by which the drug is introduced into the
body. Please specify whether it is IP (intraperitoneal injection), IV (intravenous
injection), IM (intramuscular injection), SQ (subcutaneous injection), etc.
Adverse Reactions/Contraindications – adverse reactions are all side effects, no
matter if primary or secondary, short- or long-term, reversible or irreversible. You may
discuss undesirable side effects and their relative probability (common, rare, etc.) and
level of danger (fatal, serious, mild, etc.). Contraindications are circumstances in which
prescribing the medication is not advisable or recommended as well as specific
situations in which that drug should be used with caution. Toxicity is associated with
adverse reactions and contraindications.
Patient Management Issues/Patient Care Considerations – Describe possible
interactions with other drugs or foods, medical conditions or advice that does not fit into
any of the other categories such as warnings, precautions, special storage and handling
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The best source would be a drug handbook. Check the DU library, your local library, or
even borrow it from another student who took pharmacology.
A very good online source is PubChem, which is also from the National Library of
Medicine and it only cites information that has been peer reviewed. This resource is
similar to PubMed, but it covers specific chemical substances and most of the
information you need to fill out your table is in one location. Your keyword should be a
specific drug name, not a drug category. For example, say captopril instead of ACE
inhibitor. After you put in your specific drug as keyword and hit search, you may get
several headings, most of which will be very similar.
Usually it works best (more complete info) if you click on the first one, or one that shows
a generic name instead of a brand name for that drug or an associated pharmaceutical
company. The specific drug variations may have limited information available whereas
the generics will have more studies done on them. This is the link:
You can also check out http://www.rxlist.com/ and www.cdc.gov. For the pharmacology assignment, please research and identify the following information and complete the table:
Drug name, drug class, indications, Pharmacodynamics (biochemical and physiologic drug effects, and the mechanisms
of drug action), Pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), Administration Routes,
Adverse Reactions /Contraindications, and Patient Management Issues/Patient Care Considerations.
Please provide references in APA format.
Note: YOU CAN ADD ROWS as needed depending on how many drug classes we are doing each week (right click, insert, rows).
To find view the list of drug classes, please see page 2 of this document.
Drug Name (generic or trade name + generic) Drug Class (based on chemical structure and how it works) Indications (diseases & conditions for which the drug is prescribed) Pharmacodynamics (drug effects and mechanism of action) Pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) Administration Routes (how is the drug given to the patient) Adverse Reactions (side effects) & Contra-indications (when not to prescribe) Patient Management
Drug classes listed according to body system.
Please research 1 drug class per body system, for a total of 12 drugs for the table.
• Antitumor antibiotics
• Alkylating agents
• Topoisomerase inhibitors
• Other agents
• Anti-inflammatory drugs
o NRTIs (nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors)
o NNRTs (non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors)
o Protease inhibitors
o Fusion inhibitors
o Integrase inhibitors
• Antitubercular drugs
o Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
o Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs)
o Calcium channel blockers
o Beta blockers
o Alpha blockers
o Alpha-beta blockers
o Centrally-acting adrenergic agents
o Direct vasodilators
• Cardiac glycosides
• Positive inotropes
• Potassium and Magnesium supplements
o Drugs for Tachydysrhythmias
Class I – sodium channel blockers
Class II – Beta-blockers
Class III – potassium channel blockers
Class IV – calcium channel blockers
o Statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors)
o Bile acids sequestrants
o Cholesterol absorption inhibitors
o Nicotinic acid agents
o Thrombin inhibitors
o Clotting factor synthesis inhibitors
• Antiplatelet drugs
• Colony-stimulating factors
• Leukotriene inhibitors
o Short-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists (SABA)
o Long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists (LABA)
o Cholinergic antagonists
• Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)
• Mast cell stabilizers
o 5HT3 receptor antagonists
o Emollient/stool softeners
o Osmotic laxatives
o Antimotility drugs
o Adsorbent/absorbent drugs
o Antisecretory drugs
• Histamine H2 blockers
• Proton pump inhibitors
• Cytoprotective drugs
• Promotility drugs
o Thiazide diuretics
o Loop diuretics
o Potassium-sparing diuretics
• Urinary antispasmodics
• DHT inhibitors
• Selective alpha-1 blockers
• Perimenopausal hormone replacement drugs
• Birth control
• Fertility drugs
• Topical anti-inflammatory drugs
• Topical anesthetics
• Topical antibiotics
• NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
o Cox 1 inhibitors
o Cox 2 inhibitors
• Opiods (narcotics)
• Skeletal muscle relaxants
Nervous system/Mental health
• Antianxiety drugs
• Dopaminergic/dopamine agonists
• COMT inhibitors
• MAO-B inhibitors
• Topical antibiotics
• Prostaglandin agonists
• Beta-adrenergic blockers
• Adrenergic agonists
• Cholinergic drugs
• Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
• Thyroid hormone replacement drugs
• Thyroid-suppressing drugs
• Oral anti-diabetic agents
o Alpha-glucodiase inhibitors
o Incretins and Amylin