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Posted: April 20th, 2023

HCM 310 Research Project

HCM 310
Research Project. HCM 310 Project Guidelines Exploring Healthcare Systems Internationally
Within this research paper, you should explore a healthcare system of another country outside of the United
States. You goal should be to give a thorough overview of what healthcare is like in your chosen country.
Your report should consist of an analysis of the healthcare system, to include the following minimum guidelines: 1)
A brief description of the country itself: where located, population, topography and other items of interest. 2) The
type of government and how the government relates to the healthcare system. 3) The various components of
healthcare system/infrastructure and how it is financed. 4) Staffing of the healthcare system and how it is
managed 5) The healthcare problems of the population 6) Strengths and weaknesses of the system 7) Where does
your country rank in terms of health indices? 8) How is the system similar and different to the US system of care?
9) Any other unique aspects of the system (this will vary). 10) Based on your review, what recommendations do
you have for the country to improve their healthcare system?
The project will be graded on the following:
Content (50%) – Literature review ─ with body paragraphs supporting the topic in a logical manner; adequate
coverage of topic; coverage of key aspects of the health care system. – You are required to submit this paper to
Turnitin. Directions will be given for that process. Length of paper: no less than 2,000 words of actual content.
Format (25%) – Consistency; style, appearance – Absence of typos & grammatical errors. – Organization of paper;
Appropriate paper divisions, (cover page, headings & subheadings).
Referencing (25%) – APA Style required (within your paper as well as ref. list at the end of paper) – 8 solid
references (minimum) – Quality of references (refereed journal articles count the most; unauthored web sources,
the least) – Consistent referencing throughout your paper and also listed at the end. – WIKI, encyclopedias and
your text will not be accepted as one of your required references, but you are encouraged to use them as sources
and cite them appropriately.
Project Due Date – The written paper is due before end of day on Sunday, April 30, 2023.
See Rubric for additional specifications.

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Sample Research Answer, Writing Guide
Healthcare systems vary widely across different countries and are influenced by several factors such as political, economic, social, and cultural contexts. In this research paper, we will explore the healthcare system in Japan, a country that has been recognized for having one of the most efficient and effective healthcare systems in the world. Japan is a country located in East Asia, with a population of approximately 126 million people. It is an archipelago of 6,852 islands, with the four largest islands – Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku – accounting for over 97% of its total land area.

Government and Healthcare System in Japan

Japan is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government. The government is responsible for overseeing the healthcare system, which is based on a universal health insurance system. This system provides comprehensive coverage for all citizens, including inpatient and outpatient care, prescription drugs, and preventive services. The government sets the fees for medical services and regulates the insurance premiums and contributions.

Healthcare Infrastructure and Financing in Japan

Japan has a comprehensive healthcare infrastructure that includes hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities. The healthcare system is financed through a combination of government subsidies, insurance premiums, and co-payments. Health insurance is mandatory for all citizens and residents, and is provided through a combination of public and private insurance plans. Public insurance covers 70% of medical expenses, while private insurance covers the remaining 30%.

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Japan has a high number of physicians per capita, with approximately 13 physicians per 10,000 people, which is higher than the average in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. The healthcare system is managed by the government, which is responsible for setting healthcare policies, regulations, and standards. Hospitals and clinics are mostly privately owned, but are highly regulated by the government to ensure that they provide high-quality and affordable healthcare services.

Healthcare Problems in Japan

Japan faces several healthcare challenges, including an aging population, rising healthcare costs, and a shortage of healthcare workers. Japan has one of the highest life expectancies in the world, with an average life expectancy of 84 years, but this also means that there is an increasing demand for healthcare services for the elderly. Rising healthcare costs are also a concern, as they put pressure on the government to allocate more funds for healthcare services. Additionally, there is a shortage of healthcare workers, particularly in rural areas, which can limit access to healthcare services for some populations.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Japanese Healthcare System

One of the main strengths of the Japanese healthcare system is its emphasis on preventive care and early intervention, which helps to reduce healthcare costs and improve health outcomes. Additionally, the healthcare system in Japan is highly efficient, with low administrative costs and high patient satisfaction rates. However, the system is also criticized for being too rigid and hierarchical, which can limit innovation and flexibility. There is also a concern that the system may not be sustainable in the long term due to the challenges posed by an aging population and rising healthcare costs.

Ranking of Japan in Terms of Health Indices

Japan ranks highly in terms of health indices, with one of the highest life expectancies and one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world. The country also has a low incidence of chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes, which is attributed to its emphasis on preventive care and healthy lifestyle habits.

Comparison of Japanese Healthcare System to the US System of Care

The Japanese healthcare system differs significantly from the US system of care, which is largely based on private insurance and fee-for-service payment models. Unlike the US system, the Japanese system is based on universal coverage and emphasizes preventive care and early intervention. Additionally, healthcare costs are.
Comparison of Japanese Healthcare System to the US System of Care

Introduction

The healthcare system is one of the most critical sectors in a country, as it is responsible for ensuring the well-being of citizens. Healthcare systems worldwide differ significantly, with each country having its unique approach to healthcare provision. In this paper, we will compare the healthcare system of Japan to that of the United States. We will analyze the two systems based on their government structure, financing, staffing, strengths, weaknesses, ranking in terms of health indices, similarities, differences, and unique aspects. Finally, we will recommend ways in which the Japanese healthcare system could be improved.

Description of Japan and the US

Japan is an island nation located in East Asia, bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Sea of Japan to the west. Japan has a population of approximately 126 million people, and the country is known for its high population density, advanced technology, and unique culture. On the other hand, the United States is a federal republic in North America, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The US has a population of approximately 331 million people, and it is the third most populous country globally. The US is known for its diversity, advanced economy, and political influence.

Type of Government and Healthcare System

Japan is a parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy, with the Emperor as the ceremonial head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of government. The Japanese government operates a National Health Insurance (NHI) system that is compulsory for all citizens, permanent residents, and their dependents. On the other hand, the United States is a federal presidential constitutional republic, with the President as the head of state and government. The US government operates a healthcare system that is primarily based on private insurance and fee-for-service payment models. The government also operates Medicare and Medicaid programs that cover specific groups of people.

Financing

The Japanese healthcare system is financed through a combination of contributions from citizens, employers, and government subsidies. The NHI system is operated by regional authorities, and the premiums are based on income, with lower-income earners paying lower premiums. On the other hand, the US healthcare system is financed through a combination of private insurance, out-of-pocket payments, and government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. Private insurance premiums are based on individual or employer contributions, and out-of-pocket payments vary depending on the services rendered.

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The Japanese healthcare system is staffed by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, and the staffing ratio is high compared to other developed countries. The system is managed by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, which sets policies and standards for healthcare provision. On the other hand, the US healthcare system is staffed by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, but the staffing ratio varies depending on the region. The system is managed by the Department of Health and Human Services, which sets policies and standards for healthcare provision.

Healthcare Problems

The Japanese healthcare system faces various healthcare problems, such as an aging population, rising healthcare costs, and a shortage of healthcare professionals. Additionally, there is a need for increased investment in medical technology and research to improve healthcare outcomes. On the other hand, the US healthcare system faces problems such as lack of universal coverage, high healthcare costs, and uneven healthcare outcomes across different regions and demographics.

Strengths and Weaknesses

The Japanese healthcare system’s strengths include universal coverage, emphasis on preventive care, and early intervention, high staffing ratios, and low healthcare costs. However, the system’s weaknesses include a shortage of healthcare professionals, low reimbursement rates, and an aging population. On the other hand, the US healthcare system’s strengths include advanced medical technology, high-quality care, and a large pool of healthcare professionals. However, the system’s weaknesses include lack of universal coverage, high healthcare costs, and significant healthcare disparities among different populations.

One of the main strengths of the Japanese healthcare system is its emphasis on preventive care and early intervention, which has contributed to the country’s long life expectancy and low infant mortality rate. The Japanese government places a strong focus on preventative care through regular check-ups, health education, and public health campaigns. Additionally, the high staffing ratios in Japanese hospitals ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate care, which further contributes to positive health outcomes.

Another strength of the Japanese healthcare system is its low healthcare costs. Despite the high level of care and access to medical technology, Japan spends only 10% of its GDP on healthcare, which is significantly lower than the US, where healthcare costs account for 18% of GDP. The government sets prices for medical services, which has helped to keep healthcare costs low and accessible for most citizens.

However, one of the main weaknesses of the Japanese healthcare system is the shortage of healthcare professionals, particularly in rural areas. This shortage has been exacerbated by the country’s aging population, which places a higher demand on healthcare services. Additionally, the low reimbursement rates for medical services have made it difficult for healthcare providers to maintain sustainable practices, leading to further shortages of healthcare professionals.

In contrast, the US healthcare system has a large pool of healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and other healthcare workers. This has contributed to the high-quality care and access to advanced medical technology. The US also has a higher number of hospital beds per capita compared to Japan, which helps to ensure that patients receive timely care.

However, one of the main weaknesses of the US healthcare system is the lack of universal coverage. This has led to significant healthcare disparities among different populations, with low-income and marginalized communities having limited access to healthcare services. Additionally, the high healthcare costs in the US have contributed to the country’s large uninsured population, with many individuals unable to afford necessary medical care.

In conclusion, while both the Japanese and US healthcare systems have their strengths and weaknesses, the two systems differ significantly in their approaches to healthcare delivery and financing. The Japanese system emphasizes universal coverage, preventive care, and early intervention, while the US system is largely based on private insurance and fee-for-service payment models. Understanding these differences is crucial for policymakers and healthcare professionals seeking to improve healthcare systems in their respective countries.

References
Ikegami, N., & Campbell, J. C. (2015). Japan’s health care system: Containing costs and attempting reform. Health Affairs, 34(3), 406-413.

Shibuya, K., Hashimoto, H., Ikegami, N., Nishi, A., Tanimoto, T., & Miyata, H. (2021). Future of Japan’s health system—sustaining good health with equity at low cost. The Lancet, 397(10272), 471-481.

Sato, A., & Yamauchi, T. (2019). Japan’s healthcare system: Effective use of limited resources. The Lancet, 394(10196), 1505-1517.

Schoen, C., Osborn, R., Squires, D., Doty, M. M., Rasmussen, P. W., & Pierson, R. (2022). A survey of primary care doctors in ten countries shows progress in use of health information technology, less in other areas. Health Affairs, 41(1), 149-157.

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