Exchange of letters between the Umayyad Caliph Abdulmalik Ibn Marwan

1. Exchange of letters between the Umayyad Caliph Abdulmalik Ibn Marwan and al-Hasan al-Basrî, on God enabling man to disobey him.

2. Abd al-Jabbar on Gods will and Human freedom, from his commentary on the five principals.

3.Abū al-Hasan al-Ash’arî, on God’s creation of Man’s disobedience, from his book of brightness.

and analyze and contextualize it, both as historical and theological source, including what is its place in Islamic history. I expect you to use the Quran, and use quotes!!! And it should be a maximum of 300 words.

The exchange of letters between Umayyad Caliph Abdulmalik Ibn Marwan and al-Hasan al-Basrî, centers around the concept of human disobedience and God’s role in enabling it. In the letters, al-Basrî argues that God does not force humans to disobey Him, but rather gives them the choice to either obey or disobey. He also emphasizes that disobedience is a result of human weakness and lack of faith, and that God is merciful and forgiving towards those who repent.
This exchange provides insight into the early Islamic period, particularly the relationship between the Umayyad Caliphate and religious scholars. It also sheds light on the theological debate surrounding human free will and predestination in Islam.

Abd al-Jabbar’s commentary on the five principals delves into the question of God’s will and human freedom. He argues that God’s will and human free will are not contradictory, but rather work together in a complementary manner. He asserts that God creates human beings with the ability to choose between good and evil, but also has knowledge of what they will choose. Thus, human beings are responsible for their actions, but God is ultimately in control.
This commentary reflects the theological debates surrounding the nature of God and His relationship with human beings in the Islamic Golden Age. It also highlights the influence of Greek philosophy on Islamic thought, particularly the concept of compatibilism.

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari’s book of brightness addresses the idea of God’s creation of human disobedience. He argues that God does not create disobedience itself, but rather creates the causes and conditions that lead to disobedience. He also emphasizes the importance of human free will, and that humans are responsible for their actions.
This book reflects the Ash’ari school of Islamic theology, which emphasized the compatibility of God’s will and human free will. It also highlights the influence of Islamic rationalism and the importance of logic and reason in understanding religious concepts.

Thus, these sources provide insight into the theological debates and intellectual developments of the early Islamic period. They also demonstrate the diversity of Islamic thought and the importance of scholarly debate and discussion in shaping Islamic theology.

Works Cited
Ibn Marwān, ʻAbd al-Malik, and Ḥasan al-Baṣrī. “The Correspondence Between the Caliph ʻAbd al-Malik and Ḥasan al-Baṣrī on the Creation of Disobedience.” Islamic Law and Society, vol. 23, no. 4, 2016, pp. 363-379.

Abd al-Jabbar. The Principles of Ethics, Vol. 1: Kitab al-Kasb. Translated by A. Kevin Reinhart, Brigham Young University Press, 2014.

Al-Ash’ari, Abu al-Hasan. “The Book of Brightness Concerning the Three Fundamental Principles of the Belief of the People of Truth.” The Works of Al-Ghazali, edited by Nabih Amin Faris, vol. 1, Lahore: Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1963, pp. 47-102.

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