Top ten takeaways

Top ten takeaways
The top 10 take aways will be
1.Discretion and criminal investigations
2.paradigms of law
3.canons of police ethics
4.misconduct responding to better training and supervision
5.judicial independence
6.first amendment
7.forensic evidence killings
9.moral stage theory (kohlberg)
10.task force on policing in the 21st century

Top ten takeaways
1.Discretion and criminal investigations
The discretion of criminal investigations takes the latitude and privilege granted to the investigation officer to act under a formal set of rules and public capacity (Beare, 2012). The set of rules are based on discretion by other factors in the criminal justice system, such as the legislature.
The discretional role in criminal investigations enables the investigators to be reasonable and rational decisions in different situations that they are presented with. This discretion enables the investigator to make decisions to eliminate barriers in the investigation operations.
2.Paradigms of law
The paradigm of law entails the intellectual views, opinions, and ideology accepted by a group of people or certain professions (Beare, 2012). The paradigm of law explains how things, theories, and models should behave in the world.
The paradigm of law explains the different judicial proceedings and processes as a matter of law rule. In this regard, the adherence to a certain process in a judicial proceeding is directed to ensure that justice, equality, and fairness is achieved.
3.Canons of police ethics
The cannons of police ethics explain the basic standard of principle and professional conduct to be upheld by the police in their operations and offer different duties and responsibilities (Beare, 2012).
The cannon of police ethics ensure that police observe their fundamental duty of protecting the innocent people, serving the community, respecting the rights, equality, and liberty as prescribed under the constitution. This approach to the police officer duties ensures that they carry their mandate with efficiency and effectiveness.
4.Misconduct responding to better training and supervision
The misconduct among the police is eliminated through effective training and supervision among the officers. Police are involved in indifferent misconducts such as corruption, brutality, perjury, bribery, or false presentation (Bruinsma and Weisburd, 2014). In this regard, police are subjected to training to ensure that ensure they prevent and avoid misconducts
Police misconduct negatively affects the police force’s reputation; thus, there is a need to curb the negative conduct by the police. In this regard, the police program and training ensure that the police maintain high professionalism.
5.Judicial independence
Judicial independence entails the freedom and liberty extended to the judges in exercising judicial power without interference from external parties such as the government, powerful entities, or media (Bruinsma and Weisburd, 2014).
Judicial independence is vital among the judges tasked with giving decisions on criminal and civil matters. This aspect is vital when judges are delivering controversial ruling on aspects such as gun controls. Therefore, judicial independence serves as the basis for the rule of law and democracy.

6.First Amendment
The First Amendment concept protects freedom of speech, religion, and press (Bruinsma and Weisburd, 2014). The First Amendment is vital in maintaining democracy by ensuring that the constitution protects people.
The First Amendment is the anchor upon which the Bill of Rights is established. The Amendment protects the fundamental rights of conscience and the freedom of expression in society. This approach ensures that people have freedom of legal, social, and economic matters.
7.Forensic evidence
Forensic evidence explains the evidence obtained through scientific approaches such as DNA tests, blood tests, fingerprints, or ballistics (Wilson, 2012). The forensic evidence is adopted in linking criminals to different crimes.
Forensic evidence presents itself as one of the most important aspects of criminal investigations as it enables law enforcement to positively identify suspects in a crime. Forensic evidence cannot be overstated that courts have a high preference for forensic evidence for its capability in identifying between the guilty and the innocent.
8.Legal killings
The concept of legal killing is used as a defense to culpable homicide. The defendant needs to provide sufficient evidence to disprove the standard for criminal charges (Wilson, 2012). Therefore, the burden of production of exculpatory evidence to prove their innocence is left with the defense.
The term legal killing is used to justify killing in self-defense. In this case, the defense indicates sufficient reason for the defense to believe the imminent and unavoidable danger of death. This concept ensures that people can take extrajudicial privileges to protect themselves in danger or an attack.
9.Moral stage theory (Kohlberg)
The moral stage theory by Lawrence Kohlberg explains the moral development of a child that occurs in different stages (Wilson, 2012). The Moral development of a child has three levels define by pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional.
The moral stage is a vital element in child development as it enhances the progressive sense that enables the children to differentiate between the proper and improper or the right and wrong.
10.Taskforce on policing in the 21st century
The task force on policing in the 21st century was established to ensure a proper relationship between the local police and members of the public (Lum et al., 2016). The composition of the task force included academics, civil rights activists, and law enforcement officials. And law enforcement officials.
American society and law enforcement have experienced conflicts at the expense of people’s relationships, community stability, democracy, integrity, and people’s safety. The task force is tasked with enhancing building trust and legitimacy, policy and oversight, technology and social media, community policy and crime reduction, and officer wellness and safety.

Beare, M. E. (2012). Encyclopedia of transnational crime and justice. Sage.
Bruinsma, G., & Weisburd, D. (2014). Encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice. Springer Reference.
Lum, C. M., Koper, C. S., Gill, C., Hibdon, J., Telep, C., & Robinson, L. (2016). An Evidence-assessment of the Recommendations of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing: Implementation and Research Priorities. Alexandria, VA: International Association of Chiefs of Police.
Wilson, S. H. (Ed.). (2012). The US Justice System: An Encyclopedia (Vol. 1). ABC-CLIO.

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