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Posted: January 31st, 2023

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are important principles

Prepare:
Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.
Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history with GAD. Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
BY DAY 3 OF WEEK 8
Post a discussion of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics related to anxiolytic medications used to treat GAD. In your discussion, utilizing the discussion highlights, compare and contrast different treatment options that can be used. Include 3 APA in-text citations and references.
References
Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.Chapter 26, “Antipsychotic Agents and Their Use in Schizophrenia” (pp. 203–213)
Chapter 27, “Antidepressants” (pp. 214–226)
Chapter 28, “Drugs for Bipolar Disorder” (pp. 228–233)
Chapter 29, “Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs” (pp. 234–242)
Chapter 30, “ Get research paper samples and course-specific study resources under   homework for you course hero writing service – Manage ment of Anxiety Disorders” (pp. 243–247)
Chapter 31, “Central Nervous System Stimulants and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder” (pp. 248–254)
Required Media
Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2019a). Adult geriatric depression Links to an external site.[Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat adult geriatric depression.
Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2019c). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Links to an external site.[Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2019d). Bipolar therapy Links to an external site.[Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics for bipolar therapy.
Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2019g). Generalized anxiety disorder Links to an external site.[Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat generalized anxiety disorder.
Speed Pharmacology. (2018). Pharmacology – Benzodiazepines, Barbiturates, Hypnotics (Made Easy) Links to an external site.[Video]. Note: This media program is approximately 8 minutes

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are important principles in understanding the effects of anxiolytic medications used to treat Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Pharmacokinetics refers to the movement of a drug into, through, and out of the body, while pharmacodynamics refers to the effects of the drug on the body. Both of these principles play a significant role in determining the effectiveness and safety of anxiolytic medications.
Benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam and diazepam, are commonly used to treat GAD. These medications work by enhancing the activity of the neurotransmitter GABA, which leads to a decrease in anxiety. Benzodiazepines are rapidly absorbed and have a rapid onset of action, making them a popular choice for treating acute anxiety. However, they can also cause sedation, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms, which can limit their long-term use.
Another class of anxiolytic medications is the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine and sertraline. These medications work by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain, which leads to a reduction in anxiety. SSRIs have a slower onset of action than benzodiazepines and may take several weeks to reach their full effect. They also have a lower risk of dependence and withdrawal symptoms compared to benzodiazepines.
In addition to these pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors, other factors that can influence the patient’s response to anxiolytic medications include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and pathophysiological changes due to disease. For example, some patients may have a genetic predisposition to a faster or slower metabolism, which can affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. Also, some patients may be more sensitive to the side effects of a drug, which can affect the pharmacodynamics.
To develop a personalized plan of care for GAD, it is essential to consider these factors and the patient’s history with the disorder. A thorough assessment of the patient’s symptoms, history, and risk factors can help guide the selection of the most appropriate anxiolytic medication. In addition, close monitoring of the patient’s response to the medication and any potential side effects is crucial to ensure that the treatment plan is effective and safe.
The principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics play a crucial role in understanding the effects of anxiolytic medications used to treat GAD. The choice of medication will depend on the patient’s individual characteristics and should be tailored to each patient’s specific needs. Close monitoring of the patient’s response to the medication and any potential side effects is crucial to ensure that the treatment plan is effective and safe.

References:
Rosenthal, L.D., & Burchum, J.R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Speed Pharmacology. (2018). Pharmacology – Benzodiazepines, Barbiturates, Hypnotics (Made Easy) [Video].
Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2019g). Generalized anxiety disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

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