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Posted: January 31st, 2023

Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

NUR 641E Topic 6: Gastrointestinal And Genitourinary Systems: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Max Points:206

Objectives:

Write a page paper – Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems.
Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
Write a page paper – Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

NUR 641E Topic 6 Discussions and Assignment – Topic 6 DQ 1
Apr 7-9, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION
Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis is an infection or inflammation of a diverticulum, which is usually in the lower part of the large intestine (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Diverticula are small pouches that can form in places where the digestive tract lining is weak, most often in the colon (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Diverticulitis happens when a diverticula is torn, and the inflammation or infection causes severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and a change in the way you go to the bathroom (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Treatments can include letting the bowels rest, making changes to your lifestyle (like your diet), and taking antibiotics. In some cases of diverticulitis that are very bad or keep coming back, surgery is needed. Diverticulitis is more likely to happen as you get older, if you don’t exercise, if you’re overweight, if you smoke, if you eat a lot of fat and not enough fiber, or if you take certain medications (NSAIDs, steroids, opioids).

References

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Diverticulitis. Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diverticulitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20371758

REPLY
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Topic 6 DQ 2
Apr 7-11, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

Metronidazole

Metronidazole (Flagyl) is a part of the antibiotic treatment that can be used with treating diverticulitis. It can be given orally or intravenously for this purpose. The mechanism of action of metronidazole is that it “diffuses into the organism, inhibits protein synthesis by interacting with DNA and causing a loss of helical DNA structure and strand breakage. Therefore, it causes cell death in susceptible organisms” (Weir & Le, 2021). While a patient is taking this medication for an extended period of time, labs such as a CBC w/differential should be monitored for changes (especially elderly or those with renal/hepatic issues), observe for new onset of neurological symptoms, severe or bloody diarrhea (possible C. Diff infection), and monitor for other possible adverse effects (Weir & Le, 2021). Some side effects that may occur are nausea, vomiting, metallic taste in the mouth, dry mouth, diarrhea, or headache. Some drug interactions that need to be discussed are the use of alcohol or alcohol containing medications, lithium, glucocorticoids, and warfarin. The alcohol will cause a serious disulfiram-like reaction, lithium excretion by the kidneys would be compromised, oxidative metabolism of the metronidazole is caused by the glucocorticoids, and the metabolism of warfarin is inhibited with metronidazole (Weir & Le, 2021).

References

Weir, C., & Le, J. (2021). Metronidazole. NCBI. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539728/

NUR 641E Topic 6 Discussions and Assignment — Topic 6 CLC – Staff Training
Points

176

Rubric

View Rubric

Status

Published

Assessment Traits

Group

Requires Lopeswrite

Assessment Description

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.

This assignment requires completion of two parts: a presentation and an educational resource.

Part 1: Presentation

Create a PowerPoint presentation (15-20 slides, with speaker notes) for a staff training meeting on the pathophysiology and pharmacologic agents for a select disease process.

Each CLC will choose one disease process from the following list and obtain instructor approval to avoid duplication:

Alzheimer’s Disease
Asthma
Diabetes Type 2
Epilepsy
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Hypertension
Hypothyroidism
Multiple Sclerosis
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Tuberculosis
Write a page paper – Describe the physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation (e.g., labs, imaging).

Write a page paper – Describe the pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring the drug therapy.

Part 2: Educational Resource

Using your selected disease process from Part 1, develop an educational resource that can assist staff in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance.

The vehicle for your educational resource could include pamphlets, handouts, or any other brief, concise medium to convey the information to staff.

General Requirements

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Topic 7 DQ 1
Apr 14-16, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the neurological, musculoskeletal, or integumentary system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.
Alopecia Areata

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease in which the body attacks its own hair follicles, causing hair loss anywhere on the body. Most of the time, the hair loss happens in circular patches that may overlap. It is important to teach the patient about what their diagnosis means and what treatments are available. It’s also important to teach people about the right way to eat (0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight) and stop taking medicines that might slow hair growth. You can also help people deal with hair loss by giving them support and counseling. You can also help people deal with thinning hair by suggesting different ways to style their hair and different hair colors.

References

Hair loss types: Alopecia areata overview. American Academy of Dermatology. (2022). Retrieved April 18, 2022, from http://www.aad.org/public/diseases/hair-loss/types/alopecia

Mims. (n.d.). Alopecia education for patients. MIMS Malaysia. Retrieved April 18, 2022, from http://specialty.mims.com/alopecia/patient%20education

Topic 7 DQ 2
Apr 14-18, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION
Minoxidil

A well-known treatment for alopecia areata is Rogaine, which is the brand name for the drug minoxidil. Minoxidil helps bring more blood and nutrients to the hair follicles. This makes the hair follicles stronger and makes new hair grow. Minoxidil can cause irritation, eczema, unusual hair growth on the body, redness and burning at the application site, and hair loss that gets worse. It is important to keep in mind that once minoxidil is used, it should be used indefinitely, and hair growth should be visible within at least four months. Once it is applied, it should not come into contact with the scalp because it can be easily rubbed off. The color of your hair may change, and it should not come into contact with your eyes or if you have heart problems.

Reference

Goren, A., Naccarato, T., Situm, M., Kovacevic, M., Lotti, T., & McCoy, J. (2017). The way minoxidil works to treat androgenetic alopecia is probably through the stimulation of stem cell differentiation by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1049–1053.

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Levodopa (L-Dopa)

Levodopa is a dopamine precursor; it is beneficial for controlling bradykinetic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and improving the quality of life in people with idiopathic PD (Gandhi KR, 2021). Levodopa may halt the course of Parkinson’s disease or provide further advantages long after the medicine is stopped.

Mechanism of Action

Levodopa is converted to dopamine in both the CNS and the periphery. Inhibitors of dopamine decarboxylase prevent Levodopa from being converted to dopamine in the periphery, allowing more Levodopa to penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier (Gandhi KR, 2021). Once converted to dopamine, it acts on postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors, compensating for the loss of endogenous dopamine.

Hints for monitoring

Individuals using Levodopa must regularly monitor their BUN, creatinine, and hepatic function (Gandhi KR, 2021). A healthy liver is critical for people on Levodopa since it is the site of decarboxylation. When a person has glaucoma, it is also essential to check their intraocular pressure to ensure it is safe. Before and while taking Levodopa, it is also vital to check for peripheral neuropathy to see if it will worsen. Patients should also have their dyskinesia checked regularly. Therefore, it is crucial to watch patients who take dopaminergic medications for psychotic behavior and hallucinations. Hallucinations can happen when people are confused or have many dreams.

Side effects

Taking Levodopa’s most common side effects are nausea, dizziness, headache, and sleepiness. Typical side effects for older people who take Levodopa are confusion, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis, and agitation.

Drug interactions

Levodopa is contraindicated when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are used concurrently, as this might result in a hypertensive crisis (Gandhi KR, 2021). However, when transitioning from Levodopa to an MAOI or vice versa, a 14-day washout period should be observed. Patients using D2 antagonists may decrease the effects of Levodopa, which may lessen the drug’s positive benefits (Gandhi KR, 2021).

Reference:

Gandhi KR, S. A. (2021, April 30). Levodopa (L-dopa) – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482140/

Topic 8 DQ 1
Apr 21-23, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the endocrine system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION
GOITER

Goiter is a growth on the thyroid gland at the base of the neck that is not normal. This can cause the thyroid to get bigger or cause cells to grow in an odd way, which can lead to lumps or nodules in the thyroid. Goiter can happen when the thyroid hormones change or when they don’t change at all. People often get goiters because they don’t get enough iodine in their diet. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hyperthyroidism may show up in a person with a goiter, depending on what caused it. Signs and symptoms of obstructive goiter include trouble swallowing, hard breathing, hoarseness, cough, and snoring. Treatment for goiter depends on what caused it, how bad the symptoms are, and if there are any complications. It is important to teach people with goiters about what causes their goiter, how much iodine they should get, how often they should get a physical exam and neck exam, and how often they should get blood work. For people who are getting medical treatment for a goiter, it is important to stress how important it is to take their medications as prescribed. Discussions on Topic 6 and the Assignment for NUR 641E

Reference

Can AS, Goiter Rehman A. [As of August 30, 2021]. In StatPearls (on the Internet). Treasure Island, Florida: StatPearls Publishing, January 2022. Available from:


Topic 8 DQ 2
Apr 21-25, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

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