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Posted: January 31st, 2023

Obesity: Behaviors, Habits, and Practices:

Obesity: Behaviors, Habits, and Practices: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in populations whose environments encourage physical inactivity and increased consumption of high-calorie foods in recent decades, according to studies. However, not everyone who lives in such environments will become obese, nor will all obese people have the same body fat distribution or experience the same health problems. These differences can be seen among people of the same racial or ethnic background, as well as within families. Human population genetic changes happen too slowly to be responsible for the obesity epidemic. Nonetheless, the fact that people react differently to the same environment suggests that genes do play a role in the development of obesity. Obesity in some cases was caused by a combination of inherited, physiological, and environmental factors, as well as diet, physical activity, and exercise choices. Weight loss can be aided by a healthier diet, increased physical activity, and behavioral changes.

What should be done to improve obesity indicators? Children aged 6 to 11 who are obese may be encouraged to change their eating habits in order to lose no more than one pound per month gradually. Obese or severely obese older children and adolescents may be encouraged to change their eating habits in order to lose up to 2 pounds per week. The methods for keeping a child’s current weight or losing weight are essentially the same. Every child should eat a healthy diet in terms of both type and quantity of food, as well as increase physical activity. The commitment to assisting children in making these changes is critical to success. To promote “Healthy Eating Habits,” Parents play a critical role in providing food for the family, particularly for children. Every household should prioritize fruits and vegetables in their diet and reduce their consumption of convenience foods such as cookies, crackers, and prepared meals, which are frequently high in sugar, fat, and calories. Fruit juice-sweetened beverages should be consumed in moderation. In exchange for their high calorie content, these drinks offer little nutritional value. These sugary drinks can also make children feel too full to eat healthier foods. Furthermore, avoid fast food. The majority of the menu items are high in fat and calories. Families are encouraged to make family meals an event by sitting down together and sharing news and stories. Avoid eating in front of a TV, computer, or video game screen, which can lead to fast eating and a lack of awareness of how much you’re eating. Serve proper portion sizes. Children do not require as much food as adults. Begin with a small portion and allow your child to request more if they are still hungry. Physical activity is an important part of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, especially for children. It burns calories, strengthens bones and muscles, and aids children’s sleep and alertness during the day. Childhood habits help adolescents maintain healthy weights, and active children are more likely to become fit adults (US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services, 2020). Parents should limit TV time, which includes recreational screen time in front of a TV, computer, tablet, or smart phone, to no more than two hours per day for children over the age of two. Children under the age of two should have no screen time at all. Encourage children to prioritize activity over exercise. Children should be active for at least an hour per day, ranging from moderate to vigorous. The activity of children does not have to be a structured exercise program. The goal is to get them to move. Free-play activities like hide-and-seek, tag, and jump-rope can help you burn calories and improve your fitness. Medications: Some children and adolescents may be prescribed medications as part of an overall weight-loss plan. Weight loss surgery: For adolescents with severe obesity who have been unable to lose weight through lifestyle changes, weight loss surgery may be an option. However, as with any surgery, there are risks and long-term complications.

Obesity and Comorbid Conditions: Since ancient times, Hippocrates has written that obesity is not only a disease but also an indicator of other conditions.

Being overweight or obese has a significant impact on an individual’s physical, mental, and social health, as well as having a negative impact on society in the form of increased healthcare costs. Obesity is a systemic problem that affects many different organ systems. Obesity has a negative impact on the organ systems listed below. Obesity can cause hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and venous thromboembolism in the cardiovascular system. Obesity reduces lung capacity and reserve in the respiratory system, making ventilation more difficult. They may also show signs of obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, and hypoventilation syndrome. Endocrinology System diseases in obesity may also result in type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and vitamin D deficiency. Alwarawrah and colleagues (2018) Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension can occur in Neurology. Obesity in the Musculoskeletal System can result in Osteoarthritis. Obese patients have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, gallstones, urinary tract infections, and chronic kidney disease. Obese patients may experience irregular menstrual cycles, an increased risk of miscarriage, and polycystic ovary syndrome in the reproductive system. Obese people are more likely to suffer from depression in Psychiatric Disorders. Obese people have poor wound healing in the integumentary system, and infection and neoplasm have a higher risk of developing cancer. The diseases mentioned above are common co-morbid conditions in obese patients seen in a healthcare setting. Given the significant comorbidities associated with obesity, an emphasis on prevention and weight management should be placed because weight loss has been shown to reduce the associated risks.

Stakeholders and their roles in achieving the objectives:

To make significant progress, however, positive change must come from all sectors of society, including governments and schools, businesses and non-profit organizations, neighborhoods and communities, and individuals and families. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides grants to states, universities, and communities in order to advance the nation’s chronic disease prevention and health promotion efforts. These stakeholders provide information about funding and recipient programs aimed at increasing healthy eating and physical activity as well as preventing adult and childhood obesity. One of these programs is the State Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN), which implements evidence-based strategies to improve nutrition and physical activity at the state and local levels. Another program, the High Obesity Program (HOP), funds land grant universities to collaborate with community extension services in counties where more than 40% of adults are obese. The Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Reach (REACH) program addresses racial and ethnic health disparities through local, culturally appropriate projects. There are additional programs that support obesity prevention, and the Early Care and Education Program (ECE) also plays a role in obesity prevention. Because of the large number of children in Early Care and Education (ECE) settings, it is one of the best places to help young children lay the groundwork for healthy living. High-quality early childhood education can improve a child’s social-emotional well-being, educational achievement, health, and socioeconomic outcomes later in life. ECE practices and programs can promote healthy eating and physical activity in children when they are young, and possibly for the rest of their lives. A fundamental principle of public health is that everyone should be able to reach their full health potential. The CDC works to eliminate health disparities based on race or ethnicity, education, income, location, or other social factors. Obesity has been successfully addressed using the Stakeholder-Driven Community Diffusion (SDCD) theory. The SDCD-informed intervention was used to engage a small group of multisector stakeholders drawn from an existing coalition to prioritize obesity prevention action steps and collaborate on their implementation. Obesity is a public health issue that is complicated because it is caused by multiple factors that interact over time.


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