NRS430V Topic 3: Nursing History, Theories, And Conceptual Models

NRS430V Topic 3: Nursing History, Theories, And Conceptual Models


Describe how historical events and nursing leaders have influenced the practice of nursing.
Evaluate the use of nursing theory in nursing practice.
Evaluate the use of conceptual models in nursing practice.

Topic 3 DQ 1

Assessment Description

How has nursing practice evolved over time? Discuss the key leaders and historical events that have influenced the advancement of nursing, nursing education, and nursing roles that are now part of the contemporary nursing profession. NRS430V Topic 3: Nursing History, Theories, And Conceptual Models

The Nursing Practice has evolved significantly over the years. I remember learning about Florence Nightingale during my first semester of nursing school. I thought it was amazing that a woman in the late 1830’s was called, by God, into service and had the ability to make such a huge impact on the profession and nursing as we know it to this day. According to Dynamics in Nursing, “at the time, British hospitals for soldiers did not employ female nurses, she was assigned to be the chief nurse of the hospital in Turkey” (Whitney, S.). Something as simple as handwashing and keeping sanitary conditions, hugely impacted care and outcomes of soldiers. Technology has impacted nursing. Paper charts made it very difficult for healthcare teams to get on the same level because only one person could view the chart at a time. It would take longer for doctors to see labs. Medications that were not compatible were not easily flagged on a computer screen. IV poles could not monitor the flow of medication administration. Medicine will continue to evolve and in 10 years from now we will have unimaginable advances in healthcare.

Whitney, S. Dynamics in Nursing Art & Science of Professional Practice. Chapter 2. Retrieved from

Topic 3 DQ 2 – NRS430V Topic 3: Nursing History, Theories, And Conceptual Models

Assessment Description

Discuss the difference between a nursing conceptual model and a nursing theory.

Select a nursing theory and provide a concise summary of it. Provide an example in nursing practice where the nursing theory you selected would be effective in managing patient care.

In the article, “Using a conceptual model in nursing research-mitigating fatigue in cancer patients” it talks about how these two terms may be used interchangeably, however, a nursing theory will use part of a specific theory to use as the basis of the study. It includes statements where recommendations are made and it shows how the theory is proved or relevant, more so than a conceptual model would. A conceptual model would be considered more so of the organization for the framework of the actual research.

The nursing theory I would like to summarize is the Self-care theory by Dorothea E. Orem. This theory speaks of helping a patient preserve their autonomy when this becomes difficult after having a sickness or being affected by other life changing events. This is meant to help a patient continue having a good quality of life, stability and function on their own. I believe a good example would be with a patient that lost a limb. This patient would most likely want to initially depend on others to help with tasks because they are either scared or simply unfamiliar with what it would entail to live with, say, just one arm. Providing assistance and teaching these patients how to do these tasks one handed, how to get dressed, do self-care such as brushing their teeth or taking a shower, little things that will help them commence their independence are all effective.


Kim, H. S. P. R., & Kollak, I. P. R. (2005). Nursing theories : Conceptual and philosophical foundations, second edition. Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved from

Mock, V., St Ours, C., Hall, S., Bositis, A., Tillery, M., Belcher, A., Krumm, S., & McCorkle, R. (2007). Using a conceptual model in nursing research–mitigating fatigue in cancer patients. Journal of advanced nursing, 58(5), 503–512. Retrieved from

CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

Assessment Traits


Requires Lopeswrite

Assessment Description

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.

This assignment is to be completed in a group, which will be assigned by your instructor. The presentation will be submitted and graded as a group assignment.

Nursing theories are tested and systematic ways to implement nursing practice. Select a nursing theory and its conceptual model. Prepare a 10‐15 slide PowerPoint in which you describe the nursing theory and its conceptual model and demonstrate its application in nursing practice. Include the following:

Present an overview of the nursing theory. Provide evidence that demonstrates support for the model’s efficacy in nursing practice. Explain how the theory proves the conceptual model.
Explain how the nursing theory incorporates the four metaparadigm concepts.
Provide three evidence‐based examples that demonstrate how the nursing theory supports nursing practice. Provide support and rationale for each.
You are required to cite a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be appropriate for the assignment and relevant to nursing practice.

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

Evolution of Nursing Practice: The Impact of Leaders, History and Technology
Nursing as a profession has undergone tremendous evolution over the past two centuries, shaped by visionary leaders, significant historical events, and advancing technologies. One of the most influential figures was Florence Nightingale, who is rightly considered the founder of modern nursing. Through her exemplary leadership during the Crimean War in the 1850s, Nightingale transformed nursing into a respected profession. Prior to Nightingale, nursing was not viewed as a skilled role and hospitals lacked sanitation leading to high mortality rates. However, Nightingale established evidence-based practices focusing on hygiene, nutrition, and minimizing overcrowding that drastically reduced mortality (Smith, 2019). Her published notes, “Notes on Nursing”, outlined her philosophies and insights that served to professionalize and reform nursing standards globally. Nightingale is still revered today for her pioneering patient-centered approach and emphasis on data-driven care.
Advancements in medical technologies have also driven changes in nursing practice. The transition from paper to electronic health records in the late 20th century streamlined documentation and information sharing between providers (Wager et al., 2017). Electronic records allow for real-time monitoring of patient vitals, drug administration, and lab results that enhance safety. Technology has since evolved to include capabilities like barcode medication administration, intravenous pumps that regulate drug dosages, and telehealth for remote patient monitoring (Huryk, 2010). While technology has changed how care is delivered, the humanistic foundations of the nursing role in providing compassionate, holistic care remain essential.
In addition to external influences, nursing knowledge has grown through the development of conceptual models and theories. Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory from the 1950s theorized that individuals need to care for themselves but may face limitations requiring nursing assistance (Orem, 2001). The theory emphasizes supporting patients’ autonomy and independence through addressing barriers to self-care. It has guided nursing practice in areas like rehabilitation to help patients adapt after events like limb loss. Conceptual models provide frameworks for organizing concepts within a field and guiding further theory development, while theories like Orem’s are testable frameworks for describing and predicting phenomena in nursing. Both conceptual models and theories continue to advance the scientific basis and standards of professional nursing practice.
In summary, visionary leaders, significant historical events, and evolving technologies have all contributed to the tremendous evolution of nursing as a respected profession. Leaders like Florence Nightingale established its foundations, while advances in healthcare and technology have changed how care is delivered. At the same time, the humanistic core of nursing has endured to focus on compassionate, holistic care. The ongoing development of conceptual models and theories has also strengthened nursing as a science through systematic frameworks to organize knowledge and guide evidence-based practice. Nursing will undoubtedly continue to adapt to future changes while upholding its commitment to improving patient outcomes.
Huryk, L. A. (2010). Factors influencing nurses’ attitudes towards healthcare information technology. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(5), 606-612.
Orem, D. E. (2001). Nursing: Concepts of practice. Mosby Incorporated.
Smith, M. (2019). Florence Nightingale: Founder of modern nursing. Nursing made Incredibly Easy, 17(3), 4-7.
Wager, K. A., Lee, F. W., & Glaser, J. P. (2017). Health care information systems: A practical approach for health care management. John Wiley & Sons.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation – Rubric
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Overview of Nursing Theory and Evidence for Efficacy of Model in Practice
22.5 points

Criteria Description

Overview of Nursing Theory and Evidence for Efficacy of Model in Practice
Study Notes
Nursing History, Theories, and Conceptual Models

Nursing is a profession that has a long and rich history, as well as a variety of theories and conceptual models that guide its practice. In this blog post, we will explore some of the major milestones in nursing history, the development and classification of nursing theories, and the role of conceptual models in nursing.

Nursing History

Nursing history can be traced back to ancient times, when people cared for the sick and injured in their families and communities. However, nursing as a formal profession emerged in the 19th century, largely influenced by the work of Florence Nightingale. Nightingale was a British nurse who served in the Crimean War and revolutionized nursing by introducing sanitary practices, systematic data collection, and environmental improvements. She also established the first nursing school in London and wrote influential books on nursing education and administration. Nightingale is considered the founder of modern nursing and the first nursing theorist.

Nightingale’s legacy inspired many other nurses to advance the profession and improve health care. Some notable examples are:

– Clara Barton, who founded the American Red Cross and provided humanitarian aid during wars and disasters.
– Mary Seacole, who was a Jamaican nurse who also served in the Crimean War and established a hotel for wounded soldiers.
– Dorothea Dix, who advocated for the rights and care of mentally ill patients and reformed the asylum system in the United States.
– Mary Breckinridge, who founded the Frontier Nursing Service and brought midwifery and public health services to rural areas.
– Lillian Wald, who founded the Henry Street Settlement and pioneered community health nursing and social work.
– Virginia Henderson, who defined nursing as “the unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge” (Henderson, 1966).
– Margaret Sanger, who advocated for birth control and women’s reproductive rights and founded Planned Parenthood.

These are just some of the many nurses who made significant contributions to nursing history. Nursing history is important because it shows how nursing has evolved over time, how it has responded to social and scientific changes, and how it has shaped health care policies and practices.

Nursing Theories

Nursing theories are organized bodies of knowledge that describe what nursing is, what nurses do, and why they do it. Nursing theories provide a framework for understanding, explaining, predicting, and controlling nursing phenomena. Nursing theories also guide nursing practice by providing goals, outcomes, interventions, and evaluation criteria.

Nursing theories can be classified by their level of abstraction or their goal orientation. By abstraction, nursing theories can be divided into:

– Grand nursing theories: These are broad and abstract theories that provide a general perspective on nursing phenomena. They are not directly testable or applicable to practice. Examples of grand nursing theories are Nightingale’s Environmental Theory, Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings, Orem’s Self-Care Theory, Roy’s Adaptation Model, Neuman’s Systems Model, Watson’s Theory of Human Caring, Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming, etc.
– Middle-range nursing theories: These are more specific and concrete theories that address a particular phenomenon or concept in nursing. They are testable and applicable to practice. Examples of middle-range nursing theories are Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations, Orlando’s Theory of Deliberative Nursing Process,
Levine’s Conservation Model,
King’s Theory of Goal Attainment,
Benner’s From Novice to Expert,
Pender’s Health Promotion Model,
Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality,
Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory,
Reed’s Self-Transcendence Theory,
– Practice-level nursing theories: These are narrow and focused theories that guide specific aspects of clinical practice. They are derived from practice situations or research findings. Examples of practice-level nursing theories are Abdellah’s 21 Nursing Problems,
Wiedenbach’s Prescriptive Theory,
Travelbee’s Human-to-Human Relationship Model,
Barnard’s Parent-Child Interaction Model,
Erickson-Tomlin-Swain’s Modeling and Role Modeling Theory,

By goal orientation, nursing theories can be divided into:

– Descriptive theories: These are theories that describe or explain phenomena without directing actions or interventions. They answer questions such as what, how, or why. Examples of descriptive theories are Factor-Isolating Theory,
Explanatory Theory,
– Prescriptive theories: These are theories that prescribe actions or interventions to achieve desired outcomes. They answer questions such as what to do or how to do it. Examples of prescriptive theories are Prescriptive Theory,
Normative Theory,

Nursing theories are important because they provide a scientific basis for nursing practice, education, research, and administration. They also help nurses to develop a professional identity, communicate with other disciplines, and advance the nursing knowledge.

Nursing Conceptual Models

Nursing conceptual models are qualitative tools that provide a blueprint for the interaction between selected variables and concepts leading to the expected outcome. Nursing conceptual models are derived from nursing theories or other disciplines and represent a simplified view of reality. Nursing conceptual models help nurses to organize their thinking, analyze data, plan interventions, and evaluate outcomes.

Nursing conceptual models can be classified by their source or their focus. By source, nursing conceptual models can be divided into:

– Inductive models: These are models that are developed from empirical data or observations. They are based on facts and evidence. Examples of inductive models are Johnson’s Behavioral System Model,
Roper-Logan-Tierney’s Model for Nursing Based on a Model of Living,
– Deductive models: These are models that are derived from existing theories or principles. They are based on logic and reasoning. Examples of deductive models are Adam’s Conceptual Model for Nursing,
Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing,

By focus, nursing conceptual models can be divided into:

– Client-centered models: These are models that emphasize the client as the central focus of nursing care. They consider the client’s needs, preferences, values, beliefs, culture, etc. Examples of client-centered models are Watson’s Theory of Human Caring,
Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality,
Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming,
– Environment-centered models: These are models that emphasize the environment as the central focus of nursing care. They consider the physical, social, cultural, political, economic, etc. factors that affect the client’s health and well-being. Examples of environment-centered models are Nightingale’s Environmental Theory,
Neuman’s Systems Model,
Roy’s Adaptation Model,
– Interaction-centered models: These are models that emphasize the interaction between the client and the nurse or other health care providers as the central focus of nursing care. They consider the communication, relationship, collaboration, etc. aspects of nursing care. Examples of interaction-centered models are Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations,
Orlando’s Theory of Deliberative Nursing Process,
King’s Theory of Goal Attainment,
– Outcome-centered models: These are models that emphasize the outcome or the goal of nursing care as the central focus of nursing care. They consider the desired or expected results of nursing interventions. Examples of outcome-centered models are Abdellah’s 21 Nursing Problems,
Wiedenbach’s Prescriptive Theory,
Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing,

Nursing conceptual models are important because they provide a visual representation of nursing phenomena, concepts, and relationships. They also help nurses to apply nursing theories to practice situations and guide their decision making.


Nursing history, theories, and conceptual models are interrelated and interdependent aspects of nursing knowledge. They reflect the evolution and development of nursing as a profession and a discipline. They also inform and influence nursing practice, education, research, and administration. By understanding and applying nursing history, theories, and conceptual models, nurses can enhance their professional competence and quality of care.

Works Cited

Henderson, V. (1966). The nature of nursing: A definition and its implications for practice, research, and education: Reflections after 25 years. National League for Nursing.

Mastal M.F., Matlock A.M., Start R., eds (2018). Introduction to Healthcare Quality Management (3rd ed.). Health Administration Press.

Wayne G., BSN RN (2023). Nursing Theories & Theorists: The Definitive Guide for Nurses – Nurseslabs. Retrieved from

Gaines K., MSN RN CBC (2023). Top Nursing Theories & Theorists Explained – Retrieved from

Assignology (2023). Nursing Conceptual Model vs. Nursing Theory | Healthcare Essay Example. Retrieved from

Graduateway (2023). The Difference Between a Nursing Conceptual Model and a Nursing Theory | Graduateway. Retrieved from

NurseTheory study bay (2023). What is Nursing Theory | Concepts, Models and Theories – Retrieved from

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