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Posted: January 31st, 2023

Methanol Reactors

Could you please write about health and safety for methanol reactor one page? My project about methanol reactor in methanol plant. In the attachment example of my project. Could you please write in this area (methanol reactor)? and could you please write one page in copper and zinc oxide and an aluminium oxide catalyst in methanol reactor about the costing in pound per kg and shape of the catalyst? Thanks.
Methanol Reactors
Safety and Health of Methanol Reactors
The people handling methanol are exposed to either low or high levels of it during production. Moreover, end-users, storage handlers, and those using methanol-containing products also handle the product. Methanol is hazardous if not maintained within prescribed exposure limits and may cause health problems. Human responses to methanol vary considerably (Gallucci & Basile, 2007).
Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection
Methanol is a toxic and highly flammable liquid. It can burn or explode when ignited (Wagialla & Elnashaie, 2004). All precautions to mitigate the dangers likely to occur can be to ensure no leaks of dangerous vapors of methanol, prevent leak spillage, reduce chances of ignition. In achieving safety, companies will need to zone flammable and record the likely extent (Liu, Lu, Yan & Beltramini, 2003).
Methanol solutions and vapor irritate skin and eyes. Prolonged and repetitive contact to dermis causes skin cracking, dryness, and dermatitis. Moreover, when inhaled, the substance affects percutaneous and oral routes, and can lead to damage to central nervous system, liver, retina, and optic nerve, and cause metabolic acidosis (Yang, White & Liu, 2011).
Following health and safety precautions during experiments and occupational activities related to methanol reactors is crucial in hazard elimination. Operators should wear the Physical Protective Equipment (PPE) which includes gloves, safety glasses, tyvek coveralls or lab coats, and booties or closed-toed shoes (English, Brown, Rovner & Davies, 2005).
In case of contact, skin must be vigorously washed with a lot of water to minimize absorption. Moreover, in case of oral contamination, gastric decontamination, within an hour after ingestion, eliminates the contaminant. Lastly, in most fields, methanol handling requires the following protective measures and special provisions: First, methanol use must follow ISO 9001:2000 standards. Second, users must utilize hazard operability safety considerations. Lastly, company must follow OSHA CFR 49 1910.119 as well as other regulations concerning hazard materials (Koller, Fischer & Hungerbühler, 2000).
Copper and Zinc Oxide and an Aluminum Oxide Catalyst in Methanol Reactor
Copper, Zinc Oxide and Aluminum Oxide catalyst have the ability to enhance the conversion of synthesis gas into methanol, between 50 and 100 atmospheric pressures. The catalyst in methanol reactors has the Cu/Zn atomic ratio of <2.8. The aluminum oxide component is obtained from an aluminum hydroxide solution (Liu, Lu, Yan & Beltramini, 2003).
Copper, zinc and aluminum oxide methanol catalysts are satisfactory in their cost. By weight, the catalyst range from 30% to 70% for cupper, 20 to 70% for zinc, and up to 15% by weight for aluminum. By ordinary process, methanol reactors can only perform in an ordinary process. However, better property of catalysts is presumed that the activity of even the catalysts having the most effective composition for the industrial processes and include catalysts which comprise of copper, zinc, and aluminum oxides and are currently used for methanol synthesis. Catalysts that are composed of the stated ranges perform highly, and may not be realized unless a particular special production process is used (Liu, Lu, Yan & Beltramini, 2003).

References
English, A., Brown, E. C., Rovner, J., & Davies, S. (2005). Methanol. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.
Gallucci, F., & Basile, A. (2007). A theoretical analysis of methanol synthesis from CO 2 and H 2 in a ceramic membrane reactor. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 32(18), 5050-5058.
Koller, G., Fischer, U., & Hungerbühler, K. (2000). Assessing safety, health, and environmental impact early during process development. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 39(4), 960-972.
Liu, X. M., Lu, G. Q., Yan, Z. F., & Beltramini, J. (2003). Recent advances in catalysts for methanol synthesis via hydrogenation of CO and CO2. Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 42(25), 6518-6530.
Wagialla, K. M., & Elnashaie, S. S. E. H. (2004). Fluidized-bed reactor for methanol synthesis: a theoretical investigation. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 30(10), 2298-2308.
Yang, Y., White, M. G., & Liu, P. (2011). Theoretical study of methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on metal-doped Cu (111) surfaces. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116(1), 248-256.

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