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Posted: January 31st, 2023

Five Factor Model (OCEAN) of personality

Discussion Prompt

How do you think the Five Factor Model (OCEAN) of personality describes your behavior? Support your answers with material from Chapter 11 in your textbook.

Chapter 11 link is given

What Does the Big Five Personality Model Entail?
The Big Five personality model is based on a psychological theory that identifies five basic personality dimensions:

receptivity to new experiences
Psychologists refer to the Big Five model as the Five Factor Model (FFM). Many people, however, find it easier to remember the characteristics by using the acronyms ‘OCEAN’ or ‘CANOE.’

For the purposes of this definitive guide, I’ll refer to it as either the Big Five model or the OCEAN model.

But, before I delve deeper into each of them in Chapter 2, let’s take a look at the model’s origins and why it’s still popular among psychologists and coaches alike.

The Model’s Origins and History
The OCEAN model is based on the psychological concept of trait theory, which states that a person’s personality is composed of five distinct identifiable characteristics (or traits).

Surprisingly, the Big Five personality model as we know it today was not created by a single person. The model is based on the work of numerous researchers from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Allport and Odbert, psychologists, identified 18,000 potential personality traits in 1936, and their successors have since narrowed them down to five prominent ones.

Multiple groups of psychologists from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have independently argued that there are five key personality traits.

While they all assigned different labels to each of the characteristics, it was psychologists Paul Costa and Robert McCrae who coined the five factors we now know.

Costa and McCrae developed the Five Factor Model in 2003, building on the work of psychologist Lewis Goldberg, who popularized the term “Big Five” in 1993.

They also created the NEO Personality Inventory (or NEO-PI) and the Revised NEO-PI (NEO-PI-R) personality assessments, the latter of which measures all of a person’s Big Five traits.

In Chapter 3, I’ll go into much greater detail about this.

Before we get there, let’s look at why the Big Five model has remained popular over the years.

What Is the Purpose of the Big Five Personality Model?
The Big Five Model rose to prominence in the early 2000s and has since become a standard in most corporate settings. Many businesses use it for recruiting and onboarding new employees.

The model is still widely used because scientific evidence suggests that it can predict job satisfaction, leadership performance, and even career success.

Have you ever wondered why different people react to the same situation differently? What causes some people to believe that their job does not “align” with their personality? Or, despite possessing all of the necessary skills, you have been unable to excel in your role. Experts have been attempting to answer these questions for centuries.

According to them, certain environmental and natural factors shape our personalities and cause us to behave the way we do.

Personality research has also yielded hundreds of theories in the hope of precisely measuring and defining personality. One of the most well-known of these theories is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Researchers have also attempted to determine the actual number of personality traits that a person can possess. For example, Gordon Allport proposed that there are over 4000 personality traits. Similarly, Hans Eysenck’s and Raymond Cattell’s theories contain only three and sixteen traits, respectively.

However, the Big Five Personality Traits Model, also known as the Five Factor Model of Personality or the OCEAN Model, has gained enormous popularity in the last 20 years or so. The OCEAN Model identifies only five major components of personality. Openness, Consciousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism are the five components. As you can see, OCEAN is an acronym for the model’s five main characteristics.

There also appears to be remarkable agreement among psychologists and other personality experts regarding the validity and utility of the Big Five Personality Traits Model. However, they never seem to agree on the precise labels for these characteristics. To understand the model, you can use another acronym, CANOE, which stands for Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness, and Extraversion.

It is worth noting that this particular model is the result of hundreds of studies. Many different researchers contributed to the development of The OCEAN Model. In fact, several independent research teams used data-driven, empirical research to discover or determine these five personality traits. Although this particular personality traits model gained popularity in the 1990s, its history dates back to the mid-20th century.

In 1949, D.W. Fisk conducted the first study on the five personality traits. In the early 1950s, the United States Air Force’s Research Laboratory presented a similar model. Later on, other researchers such as Raymond Crystal, Earnest Tupes, Smith, Norman, and Lewis Goldberg worked on the model. Similarly, in 1990, J.M. Digman presented his own five personality trait model. However, it was Lewis Goldberg who refined the concept and implemented it in all types of organizations, large and small, in 1993.


It is worth noting that each personality trait in the model represents a midpoint between two extremes. Extraversion, for example, may represent a spectrum between extreme introversion and extreme extraversion. In real life, most people fall somewhere between the two extremes of a trait or dimension.

The Big Five Personality Traits Model is explained in detail below, along with how it can help you better understand people and their behaviors.

In the OCEAN model of personality assessment, this is the first and most important trait. This trait’s major characteristics include insight and imagination. This trait is usually associated with a dynamic personality and a diverse set of interests. You are always eager to discover new things. You are interested in other things and want to learn more about other people. Similarly, you are eager to try new things and learn new things.

People with this trait are also more creative and daring. People who are high on the open continuum are typically imaginative and creative, whereas those who are low on the open continuum are typically conventional and down-to-earth. Similarly, “open” people are prone to unusual beliefs, are sensitive to beauty, and are logically curious. They, too, enjoy taking on new challenges.

If you have a low level of this trait, you may find it difficult to think abstractly and tend to be more traditional. You dislike change and are unwilling to learn new things. You lack imagination and, as a result, are resistant to new ideas. You mock theoretical or abstract ideas. You usually prefer familiarity over novelty. If you are not an open person, you may have no desire to change and be content with your current lifestyle.

Someone who spontaneously decides to visit new places is an example of an open person. It indicates that he is open to new ideas and experiences. A reserve example would be a person who is preoccupied with his daily routines and does not want to try new things.

You are a goal-oriented person if you score high on this critical personality trait. You have exceptional pulse control and are extremely thoughtful. Similarly, attention to detail and exceptional organizational skills are key characteristics of highly conscientious individuals. They are extremely conscientious of deadlines and constantly consider how their behaviors and actions affect others. Likewise, they plan everything ahead of time and organize their lives accordingly.

A person who is highly contentious is also highly disciplined, deliberate, and careful. Contentiousness is also a predictor of productivity, particularly among lower-level employees in organizations. These people are better planners than open people who prefer to live their lives more freely. They are responsible and self-disciplined. In fact, they devote a significant amount of time to planning and preparing for their upcoming tasks. They prefer to stick to a schedule and complete important tasks as soon as possible.

People who score low on this trait frequently exhibit diametrically opposed behaviors. They are more impulsive and, as a result, mock schedules, planes, and structures. They usually don’t care about most things and are prone to making messes. They find it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to correct their errors. They fail to return items to their proper places. They are adept at procrastinating and rarely complete important tasks on time, in contrast to highly conscientious people. Furthermore, they rarely do anything in life that is expected or expected of them.

A highly conscientious person is one who always plans his morning meeting in advance and sticks to the agenda during the meeting. A typical procrastinator, on the other hand, does not plan and has no idea what to do during the day, both at work and at home. Such people lack conscientiousness and consistently make a mess of even the most basic aspects of their lives.

An extravert or extrovert is someone who is emotionally expressive and likes to impose his ideas on others. These people are also known to be very talkative, social, and excitable. Being in social situations gives them more energy and courage to carry on with their work. Extraverts, as expected, are outgoing individuals who gain energy and excitement from conversing with others and sharing their ideas with them.

Extroverts are energetic, enthusiastic, and easily noticeable to those around them. They want to act and see results no matter what it takes. They are often the topic of conversation at social gatherings and enjoy being the center of attention. As a result, they have a large network of friends and acquaintances. Similarly, they make new friends quickly. However, they frequently do not think before speaking, which can be detrimental to their personality. Extraverts are also more likely to be good leaders.

Introversion is the polar opposite of extraversion. Introverts prefer to remain alone. They dislike being a part of the social world. They prefer solitude, are reserved, and become bored and exhausted when forced to socialize. Similarly, they are not good conversation starters and rarely participate in any discussion. They, on the other hand, think carefully before saying anything and dislike small talk. Most importantly, they do not want to be the center of attention at any social gathering.

It was widely assumed that introverts do not make good leaders, but recent research indicates that they can perform just as well as extraverts when it comes to leadership.

A typical extravert would be someone who enjoys partying and hanging out with friends. Someone who feels less energetic and exhausted just thinking about social engagements is an example of the inverse. He would rather be immersed in a stack of books in a locked room than attend a party or office meeting.

People who are agreeable are some of the most wonderful people you will ever meet. They are affectionate, kind, compassionate, and extremely trustworthy. They are extremely helpful, generous, and thoughtful. They will even put their own interests aside to ensure that you get what you want. Another important characteristic of agreeable people is altruism. These are the people who are most helpful in both your personal and professional lives. They get along and interact well with others, making them an indispensable member of any team.

People who score high on this important personality trait frequently volunteer and engage in pro-social activities. Similarly, such people are keenly interested in the lives of others. They make significant contributions to their happiness and well-being. They never hesitate to assist those in need.

Agreeable people make every effort to avoid negative thoughts and behaviors and, as a result, live a happier life. One of the most intriguing personality trait studies also suggests that people with a looser gate are less conscientious and more agreeable.

People with low agreeableness prioritize their own self-interest above all else. They have no regard for others and always try to keep to themselves. They are normally unfriendly and will never put their own interests ahead of the welfare of others. They are uninterested in solving other people’s problems and have little regard for their feelings. They frequently look down on people in distress. They manipulate others in the same way that people with narcissistic personality disorder do. They also have no qualms about bullying and insulting others.

A person is agreeable, for example, if he takes time out of his extremely busy schedule to attend a friend’s wedding. Sherlock Homes, on the other hand, is a classic example of someone who doesn’t care about being agreeable. They are uninterested in the problems of others. They are even offended if someone calls them for assistance because they never want to jeopardize their own interests.

Neuroticism is the Big Five Personality Traits Model’s final and most important trait. Emotional instability, sulkiness, and unhappiness are all important characteristics of neuroticism. People with high levels of neuroticism are easily irritable and suffer from anxiety, sadness, and mood swings. As a result, neuroticism is a person’s ability to deal with stress in complex or difficult situations.

Neuroticism can also lead to a variety of psychological issues, including a high level of stress. You start worrying about a lot of things, most of which are unimportant. You are always anxious and easily agitated by trivial matters. People with extreme neuroticism also have a difficult time recovering from periods of high stress and anxiety.

If you have a high neuroticism score, you are more likely to suffer from depression, anger, frustration, and a variety of other negative behaviors. A high score also indicates that you are temperamental, self-centered, and have a wide range of emotions and feelings. You may also have a constant sense of insecurity. Some people link Freudianism to neuroticism. They share many similarities but are not identical in any way.

As you might expect, emotional stability is the polar opposite of neuroticism. People with high levels of emotional stability are emotionally stable and cope well with stress. They are always calm in any situation and rarely feel depressed or sad. They are not overly concerned and always see the bright side of things.

In everyday life, there are examples of people with high neuroticism scores. For example, if a person yells at a waitress for putting too much sugar in his coffee or not getting his order in on time, he is likely to be neurotic. On the other hand, a person is low in neuroticism if he handles even the harshest criticisms in the workplace or elsewhere.

Various studies and research on the big five personality traits show that they are remarkably universal. According to a study of people from over 50 different cultures, we can use the OCEAN Model to describe and measure personality all over the world, regardless of your upbringing or culture.

Some scientists have refined the previously mentioned study. They also arrive at the startling conclusion that the big five personality traits have biological roots. According to David Buss, a prominent psychologist, these traits evolved from some of the most important features of any given culture of society.

The five personality traits typically influence how people behave in a variety of situations. Although situational variables influence your behavior, the underlying personality traits are primarily responsible for your responses to specific situations.

You should also keep in mind that humans can have any or all of these characteristics at the same time. For example, a person with a high level of openness may exhibit no signs of conscientiousness. Most people, however, have a mix of these traits, with some being more powerful than others.


The OCEAN model is most commonly seen in offices or workplaces. The big five personality traits are used in most studies to predict a person’s performance and workplace social behaviors. Get research paper samples and course-specific study resources under   homework for you course hero writing service – Manage rs and coworkers can develop better workplace cultures, improve relationships, and build trust by learning more about all five OCEAN model traits.

Most psychologists believe that measuring someone’s conscientiousness can predict their job performance. People who are highly conscientious are naturally curious and want to learn more. As a result, they typically have more job-related knowledge than other team members. Similarly, they are more effective leaders.

One disadvantage of conscientious people is that they frequently prioritize work over everything else. They also vigorously oppose changes and new ideas. For example, they may find it difficult to learn a new skill at first because they are too focused on their current role and performance. Similarly, they are not particularly inventive.

Neuroticism, on the other hand, is commonly associated with high levels of employee burnout. People who score high on neuroticism are frequently extremely emotional, which leads to employee dissatisfaction and burnout. To have low stress levels and high job and life satisfaction, you actually need to have high emotional stability. Similarly, people with high neuroticism scores struggle to keep up with ever-increasing workplace demands, especially in fast-paced environments.

Extroverts are better at assuming leadership and taking charge of a situation. Remember that high extraversion scores are directly proportional to high leadership abilities. Their ability to act impulsively, on the other hand, usually reduces their chances of becoming a leader. Introverts are more composed in this regard and rarely react impulsively to any situation.

Open people are the most adaptable employees in any organization. They are more adaptable and welcome workplace changes with open arms. They can maintain the same level of performance for an extended period of time without showing signs of deterioration. Most importantly, open people are the most effective leaders.

Finally, agreeable people are those who strictly adhere to the rules. They are also the administration’s favorite. They are well-liked by everyone in the workplace. They are rarely involved in workplace accidents or scuffles. They are usually very happy with their jobs.

People with low agreeableness tend to be counterproductive and behave in ways that cause problems for coworkers and higher-ups. As a result, they are never satisfied with their jobs and have a lower rate of career success than more agreeable people.

The OCEAN Model, also known as the Big Five Personality Traits, is one of the most popular models for defining and measuring someone’s personality. Keep in mind, however, that the model only provides a general assessment of your personality.

Organizations that want to use the model to hire new employees should keep in mind that it only indicates which role best fits a candidate’s personality.

Even if you are attempting to assess someone’s personality, you must consider a variety of information and factors and should never rely solely on the results of personality tests.

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