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Posted: January 31st, 2023

Employment and Re-entry Programs

Employment and Re-entry Programs
The term paper should be at least 10 pages long, and should include the following sections: Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Discussion and Conclusion. Your paper must be typewritten, using 1.5 line spacing, and must be properly referenced using the APA referencing style. Ensure that your work conforms to proper use of grammar, spelling and sentence structure. Your paper should read like a very well written journal article.

I encourage you to discuss the research project with each other. You must however, submit a work that is truly yours. In other words, while two or more people can write on the same topic, the paper you submit must reflect individual enterprise, that is, you are not allowed to collaborate on the actual writing of the assignment.
The following are suggested outlines for your term paper:
a. Introduction (Problem statement)
b. Literature Review (Review of extant literature on the subject).
c. Research Design (Methods applied to obtain materials for the study)
d. Research Findings
e. Discussion of Research Findings
f. Implications of Study/Research Findings for policy/solving of real life problem.

The following are good sources for data for your term paper: (The University Library will be your best place to start your inquiry. Do not also forget that I remain your other source for guidance, and I am available to assist you when you call on me. To complete a good research paper, you must give yourself time. Start now to put your materials and thoughts together. It is not possible to write a good research paper within 24 hours).
a. Refereed Academic/ Professional Journals
b. Books published by Academic Presses
c. Magazines or Newspapers that are highly regarded
d. The Mainstream Popular Press
e. Internet sources (etc).
Instructions from the teacher

Employment and Re-entry Programs
Introduction
Criminals are arrested due to various crimes and charged accordingly but some benefit from various privileges according to their progress. Repetitive criminals are not open to changes compared to those who commit crimes and change completely after going through various corrective measures. Second chances are given to promising criminals including employment and re-entry programs designed by judicial reforms and employment and labor service according to National Reentry Resource Ctr, & United States of America (2019). Work programs in prison go through various challenges which are complex to handle where the employment and re-entry program involves aspect such as, vocational training in prison, jobs in prison and lastly employment of the released as well as job search. The paper discusses problems around employment and re-entry programs.
Literature review
According to various reports, about ten million people in America reform and return back home from prison with the largest number of prisoners. The reports show an opportunity for improvement especially in cases of crime prevention as well as re-entry behavior. For instance, the American administration established a council of crime prevention which enhanced improvement in re-entry in 2018. The council of crime prevention and improvement, comprise of various participants which assist in the process of reform, for example, education, justice system as well as the employment department.
The primary aim of the program is to minimize crime activities and facilitate effective re-entry behavior though training and counseling programs. Employment and re-entry initiative enables the released acquire jobs and provide corrective resources such as guidance and proper re-entry behavior as well as how to cope and fit in the society. The reform project informs the public and private sectors about the qualifications and criminal records of the released before hiring which is important especially in knowing how to relate with the released.
USA governs employment and re-entry programs through the council of state government known as the CSG and the project is supported by the public and private department of justice and employment administration. The re-entry program concentrates on two criminological aspects which include; intervention policies involved in altering inmate’s behaviors to avoid future delinquencies. The intervention strategies allow many children, youths, and adults to reform and change from their previous behavior. Second the community surveillance over criminals in the community for instance through urine testing to determine narcotics levels, use of electronic technology in monitoring behaviors together with curfews and house arrests. The community restraints assist reforming individuals stay away from trouble and reduce chances of future criminality.
Re-entry programs come in different forms, for instance, mentoring management, therapeutic communities as well as cognitive-behavioural which concentrates more on mental health. Mentoring is an effective re-entry program that concentrates more on reducing violence and aggression among criminals (Mooney, and Bala, 2018). Mentoring is conducted through conducting interviews to determine the problem where through the information collected the mentor’s advice and create a good relationship with the criminals. For instance in youths and juvenile prisons where youths share out problems enabling mentors to offer guidance.
Therapeutic communities or programs aimed at the recovery journey of drugs-related criminals who need mentorship and sobriety programs (Killian,et, al.,2018). Therapeutic communities focus on recovery through the change of environment and lifestyle. The approach used in therapy includes the social learning approach involved with empowering a healthy relationship between peers through training on how to avoid peer pressure, involvement in exercise and educative projects as well as developing the right attitude towards life. Most criminals are used to communities with high accessibility of drugs making it hard for individuals to avoid drugs, changing the environment and development of training concerning the effect of drugs allows the individual to understand the impact of drugs.
Case management is essential especially for criminals returning back to communities. The management program identifies risk factors around the individual. Risk factors are addressed by the use of an effective response framework for future benefit. The response framework takes into consideration the criminological needs that are required to reduce risks for instance motivation and treatment project (Amico, and Kim, 2018). Criminals differ with the level of risks therefore individuals with high risks receive high attention, individuals released to the community are assisted by matching their needs with the services in the community. For instance, inmates with mental disabilities and disabilities receive high attention through counseling or other initiatives such as offering special resources such as sanitary towels to women as well as wheelchairs for the disabled.
Trauma events are among the prioritized programs in both entry and employment through the trauma-informed approach, trauma-specific services and trauma-informed system of care (Killian, et, al.,2018). Trauma-informed approach emphasis on application of policies in various departments such as in leadership and training of staff through creating awareness and education all participants of the prison service on trauma. The specific trauma services involve responding to traumatic events, for instance, offering treatments to patients going through post-traumatic stress disorder which handles mental disabilities especially in released fathers and every released person especially those searching for employment. The trauma-informed approach involves services such as employment, relationships and parenting as well as substance abuse and mental health problems.

Research Design
Published and unpublished articles are used to get information concerning the re-entry and employment programs. Primary and secondary sources are used in this study where primary sources involve hand searching process which involves going to prison. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used especially the evaluation method of the criminal population as well as the number of prisoners released to the community by use of the gold standard evaluation method (Hart, 2019). Since the year 1970 reports about the work programs have reduced tremendously due to limitations behind the practice. Research methods target the employment rate and the general aspect of re-entry.
Secondary sources used includes the government reports used to evaluate population of prisoners, electronic database, published journals such as the Journal of Experimental Criminology and the National re-entry resource centre nine million people are released from prison every year which includes 404,638 from thirty state prisons which involve ninety-five percent of persons jailed expected to be released into the community to acquire employment. Youths incarcerated have decreased due to in-house programs which include children and youths corrected from their homes (Hart, 2019). One hundred thousand youths were released from prison and put under strict surveillance and in-house restrictions where youths take the largest percentage of above seventy percent.
Articles published in the past of about eight to nine years are used to compare the reports on re-entry and employment programs in children, adults, and youths (Killian,et, al.,2018). .Administering questionnaires in prisons as well as tracking the progress of the released individuals is an effective method especially in acquiring information about the state of employment and re-entry services offered in prison.
According to information collected below, half of the people secure jobs after being released from prison. Youths incarcerated acquire various levels of education, for instance, half of the youths have a high school degree while the other half have learning disabilities and mental health problems. Some of the sources include internet sources, newspapers and magazines on criminal records as well as popular press on prison education, employment analysis and vocational training in prisons.

Research Findings
According to the analysis inmates involved in the re-entry and employment programs do not recidivist compared to individuals who do not. The treatment program assists criminals in various aspects where participants are highly employed than the ignorant and non-participants (Hernandez, 2019). The treatment program enhances a high level of standards and discipline which allows the prisoners to live a healthy life after release. Statistically, a difference between the active participants and the dormant participant is twenty percent which makes a big difference, especially on employment.
Articles and journals are required as well as theories about re-entry and employment which would produce enough evidence about the situation. The findings provide an understanding of the effectiveness of the work programs in mending behaviors and offering cognitive therapy especially post-trauma disorder which offers treatment to men who are mostly affected. The situation in prison through the re-entry and employment program can be evaluated by the use of the information through various conclusions.
Inmates experience chronic diseases, contagious diseases as well as mental instability according to the findings. For instance, half of the persons in prison suffer from mental problems led by depression and the use of narcotic drugs (Hart, 2019). According to re-entry information, approximately twenty thousand adults in prison have a serious mental illness and require urgent intervention. Parents with children or rather fathers in prison consume almost fifty-four percent of the whole population with more men than women.
Parents in prison as well as those released face challenges in getting jobs especially those with big families. Women in probation are more as well as those incarcerated for crimes such as drugs and properties are more in prison compared to men who are more arrested for violence. According to the analysis individuals who commit violent crimes especially men are more assisted by the re-entry program through the responsive framework which enables the person to speak out the problem compared to other criminals.
The program is not given much attention especially through investing in mentorship which is the most important part of the initiative in developing an individual’s right state of mind and attitude (Tharshini,et,al.,2018). The project lacks stability especially in situations where different gender and age of prisoners are given much or less attention compared to others which are unfair especially opportunities given to adults and those given to youths. The program does not provide special treatment for the sick which puts the prisoners at a high risk of death or contracting other diseases. Lastly, the work program is given much emphasis compared to motivational and cognitive therapeutically therapy which is dangerous t individuals with medical issues or psychological problems.
Discussion of Research Findings
Incarcerated individuals lose their jobs due to entry in prison which is discouraging to many persons especially those locked for a short period of time. Inmates hold low levels of education and have low experiences and skills in various jobs (Tharshini,et,al.,2018). According to reports from the United States, two-thirds of persons in prison were employed in the last month before being arrested where the type of work involves low payments and short period jobs. Most criminals originate from low privileged communities that have low opportunities and chances to get jobs. More so the released persons are not guaranteed to get jobs even with the help of work programs because of low experience in the past and criminal records.
Post-release programs go through various challenges such as delay and reluctant in assisting individuals released from prison and anxiety due to employment and substance abuse issues (Berghuis, 2018). The employment programs have as well assisted individuals acquire employment and income-earning activities for instance support of business projects especially to participants of prison education and training programs. Some of the vocational courses learned to involve carpentry, business management, welding as well as construction.
Preleased prisoners are likely to engage in criminality due to various factors such as inadequate job opportunities, lack of strict surveillance and mental health issues brought about by pressure caused in the society especially parents (Ndrecka, 2014). The employment and re-entry program offers the released individual with social work in the community known as the community programs such as remedial education and treatment projects. More so the released individuals go through therapy sessions after arrest to reduce cases of re-arrest which goes for twelve weeks.
The process of release involves pre-release activities which include addressing issues such as transport, housing as well as a job-coach (Edwards, and Cunningham, 2016). The challenge comes in where the inmates are not encouraged or emphasized to join and register the groups which are not helpful; especially to the ignorant and procrastinators. The released individuals in the treatment program get employment of about eighty percent. The primary aim of the employment and re-entry programs is to reduce crimes and embrace legal income-generating activities. Poverty is reduced through the program regardless of the challenges faced.
Work programs are ambiguous in most prisons meaning that programs compared to the re-entry programs such as mentoring and rehabilitation especially the mentally unstable individuals as well as the drug affected persons (Ndrecka, 2014). Preparing individuals for work after release is important such as providing work inside a prison that would enable prisoners to stand for themselves and pay bills and debts after release. Work programs have concentrated more on work after prison but which also require work experience and skills to handle employment in the community. For instance, inmates should be provided opportunities in the prison such as preparing food for other inmates, construction and farming projects inside the prison which would enhance quality skills and improve the work experience.
Enhancing work experience is expensive although programs in prison are developed which include educating inmates especially in people who are fewer privileges and from privileges communities (Tharshini,et,al.,2018). Through the training and employment service, youths especially the male individuals are trained and prepared for work after release although the programs are quite expensive especially in purchasing resources required inclusive of trainers. The government and prison services are expected to invest huge on the project, for instance, the Texas program known as project Rio which includes activities such as preparing individuals for interviews and referring them to the job market.
Motivation is a requirement in every employment and re-arrest program which is not routinely conducted especially in men who go through mental issues and aggression in prison. Mentor programs are not balanced between adults and youths which may work well for youths for instance vocational training offered to adults is not the same offered to youths. Mental health is currently a global problem experienced all over especially between the youths.
Creating more concern on mental health counseling and team building programs would enhance mental stability and reduce cases of insanity and suicide in prisons as well as after release (Berghuis, 2018). Investing more in counseling programs enhance the right attitude and perspective towards life. More so developing a change program would be assistive rather than concentrating more on job skills and other forms of training because mental health comes first before anything else.
The effectiveness of the program is measured through the outcomes and level of crimes in the society which has not reduced especially in the United States. The United States holds a large population of inmates and the released individuals from the prison (Newton,et,al.,2018). Most prisoners do not participate in re-entry programs and employment programs in prison and out of prison due to negative attitudes and mental instability. Cultivating on the wellbeing of inmates and appreciation of inmates is essential and acts as a motivation in the process of reform.
In real life before taking any form of projects individuals should first invest more time and resources into their mental wellbeing as well as physical to reduce failure and underperformance during the project. Reducing all terms of active and recovered individuals would encourage most prisoners especially the long term inmates (Newton,et,al.,2018). The situation with employment and re-entry programs encourages investment in persons who seem to give up with life as well as in organizations for a better outcome. Lastly, every project and situation has a challenge that needs to be tackled instead of neglecting the problem. For instance, the justice system adopts various tactics to improve and assist inmates regardless of the challenges inhibiting total success.
Conclusion
Employment and re-entry programs are common and implemented in prisons although the programs do not necessarily eliminate recidivism. The employment and re-entry programs are used to enhance positive behaviors as well as developing and searching for job opportunities to the released persons. The programs are designed for treatment through various therapies originating from cognitive to vocational training which reduces re-arrest after release. The programs enhance stable mental stability through counseling where most prisoners go through mental issues. Nevertheless, the employment and re-arrest programs are not effective in reducing recidivism due to various reasons for instance; less time and resources invested in the mentoring activity, improving work outcome is expensive especially in purchasing resources needed in training inmates such as various vocational training and essential activities.
Lastly, loss of jobs before re-entry of individuals in prison which are not secured after release. The effective program to embrace would be the use of legal returns to reduce the legal term of employees in prison. Changing individual behavior and preference is the most important part of the project because changing the behavior and attitude would enable the inmates to embrace the work program through training and development of skills and experience. The program is directly related to daily life where every project or initiative goes through challenges which are just but stepping stones as well as it is important to invest fully on mental and physical stability before going on with other monetary investments.

References
Berghuis, M. (2018). Reentry programs for adult male offender recidivism and reintegration: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 62(14), 4655-4676.
D fAmico, R., & Kim, H. (2018). Evaluation of Seven Second Chance Act Adult Demonstration Programs: Impact Findings at 30 Months.
Edwards, M., & Cunningham, S. (2016). Supporting offenders into employment. Innovations, 4(2).
Hart, S. J. (2019). Effective components for ideal juvenile re-entry: An analysis of current programs utilized in the United States.
Hernandez, S. (2019). Implementing Educational Courses on Social Media Within Prisons to Decrease Unemployment Rates Among Ex-Prisoners and Reduce Recidivism in the United States.
Killian, M., Cimino, A. N., Mendoza, N. S., Shively, R., & Kunz, K. (2018). Examining trauma and readiness to change among women in a community re-entry program. Substance use & misuse, 53(4), 648-653.
Mooney, E., & Bala, N. (2018). THE IMPORTANCE OF SUPPORTING FAMILY CONNECTIONS TO ENSURE SUCCESSFUL RE-ENTRY.
National Reentry Resource Ctr, & United States of America. (2019). Self-Assessment for Employment-Focused Reentry Programs.
Ndrecka, M. (2014). The impact of reentry programs on recidivism: A meta-analysis (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati).
Newton, D., Day, A., Giles, M., Wodak, J., Graffam, J., & Baldry, E. (2018). The impact of vocational education and training programs on recidivism: A systematic review of current experimental evidence. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 62(1), 187-207.
Tharshini, N. K., Ibrahim, F., Mohamad, M. S., & Zakaria, E. (2018). Challenges in Re-Entry among Former Inmates: A Review. Sciences, 8(4), 970-979.

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