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Posted: June 16th, 2022

Effectiveness of E-learning

Effectiveness of E-learning

Literature Review Assignment

Due: Session 4
Worth: This assignment is worth 25% of your final grade

A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic (in journal articles, conference proceedings, books and other relevant sources) by recognised researchers. Understanding the prior research on a particular topic is the basis of most new research. Researchers must know what has been studied, discussed and recommended by others in related areas.

This assignment is intended to:
• Provide you with practise finding peer reviewed, recent articles about one topic
• Allow you to organise your ideas about that topic in a meaningful way (including both synthesis and critical analysis).

In this assignment you will review the published literature on one of the following topics and write a literature review that synthesizes what you have found into a summary of what is, and is not, known on the topic. You should use the topic as a starting point and choose a focussed subset of the topic. For example, if you choose user security behaviour as your broad area, you could focus on a particular type of threat such as phishing, or you could focus on organisational security behaviour.

• User security behaviour – Information technology security is an increasingly important research topic. Although organisations spend large amounts on technology that can help safeguard the security of their information and computing assets, increased attention is being focused on the role people play in maintaining a safe computing environment. This issue is important both for organisational and home computing.
• Affective computing – Affective computing is “computing that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotions” . Developments in affective computing facilitate more intuitive, natural computer interfaces by enabling the communication of the user’s emotional state. Despite rapid growth in recent years, affective computing is still an under-explored field, which holds promise to be a valuable direction for future software development.

• Interactive game playing and network quality – Understanding the impact of network conditions on online game player satisfaction has been a major concern of network game designers and network engineers, and has received research attention from both angles. For example, a number of studies have sought to evaluate the effect of aspects of network quality, such as network delay and network loss, on online gamers’ satisfaction and behaviour.
• The effectiveness of e-learning – Education is increasingly supported by ICT, with the term e-learning being used as a general term to refer to many forms of technology supported learning. Much of the e-learning research has had a technology focus (e.g. descriptions of implementations) or has been limited to studies of adoption (i.e. will people use it?), but there has been less research on the impact of e-learning on outcomes for students.
• Mobile analytics– The term ‘big data’ refers to data sets that are large and complex and hence require new approaches to deal with them. Data analytics has become increasingly important to business and much research has been undertaken into how big data can be used to help organisations make decisions. Mobile analytics is a growing area of focus for data scientists.
• Internet of Things (IoT) privacy and security issues – The IoT allows devices with unique addressing schemes to share data with one another and has applications in a wide range of areas including transport, healthcare, manufacturing and home automation. Many of these devices are used for consumer applications (e.g., domestic appliances, smartphones, and fitness devices), and despite the proposed benefits, privacy and security issues have been raised as they collect information constantly.

To do
To successfully complete the assignment, you must begin searching for relevant literature immediately. The skills you obtained in your Transition or Foundation unit and have practised in tutorials for BSC203 will be invaluable.

Find at least 10 articles related to your chosen topic. To qualify as a source of information that you can use for the assignment, these main articles must report results of research studies (i.e. not just authors’ opinions). Each article must also:
• Have been published in a refereed journal or conference proceedings (though you may obtain the article through an online source)
• Have an extensive references section.
In addition you may choose to supplement these articles with a few articles from other sources or that do not present the authors’ own results.

After reading each article, you should think about how they all fit together. Your review should be organised by concepts, such as findings, rather than by sources of information. Do not proceed through the articles one-by-one. Your literature review should include an introduction, a main body that reviews the literature (and which you should subdivide further), and a conclusion. The Topic 3 lecture slides and Chapter 6 of the textbook will be useful to you in writing the literature review. You might also find the following resource from RMIT useful: https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/2_assessmenttasks/assess_pdf/PG%20lit%20review.pdf

Format guidelines
• Give your literature review a title that clearly reflects the content of your review.
• Include an Introduction section that states the purpose of the review and a Conclusion section. Include other sub-sections to help structure your work.
• Use a professional looking font and a font size of 11 or 12 point.
• Your review should be approximately 1500 words in length.
• Include appropriate citations throughout the review and a list of references at the end. Referencing should be in either APA or IEEE style
• Your review should include a minimum of 10 sources of information.

MARKING SCHEDULE

Component Marks
Structure
• Does the introduction describe the purpose of the literature review?
• Does the body present information in an organised and logical manner?
• Is there an effective conclusion that summarises the main points discussed?
10
Content and Research:
• Does the title reflect the contents of the literature review?
• Is there evidence of adequate understanding of the literature included?
• Is the organisation/grouping of the literature effective with the main points clearly related to the purpose of the review?
• Are the main points supported by evidence (are not just your opinions)?
• Is the material well synthesised? 60
Use of Sources
• Are at least 10 references cited?
• Are mainly academic sources (e.g. journal articles and conference papers) used?
• Is it correctly referenced in APA or IEEE style (‘in-text’ referencing and reference list)?
• Is it in your own words? 20
Presentation
• Fluent (correct grammar, spell-checked and correctly punctuated)?
• Correctly structured (paragraphing, topic sentences and flow of ideas)?
• Have section headings been used to help structure the main text?
10
TOTAL 100

Introduction
Modern education has greatly incorporated the use of e-learning across the globe. Not much has changed as per the content of the information being fed to the students but rather the manner through which the content is delivered. According to the results of the majority of research, incorporating ICT into the education systems has not only improved performance of student s but has also given room for creativity which is a necessary element in any learning process. Students are at a better capacity to develop their skills since some forms of e-learning such as self-directed learning offers a more personalized mode of learning where the learners get to understand areas where they are good at. This article will be addressing the results of various researches in confirming how effective e-learning has been to the modern-day education and how students’ outcomes have improved as a result of the introduction of ICT technology to learning.
Literature review
Nguyen, T. (2015). The effectiveness of online learning: Beyond no significant difference and future horizons. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 309-319.
Nguyen aims at examining the evidence on how effective online learning has been by making a summary of findings and challenges of the learning design. The researcher concentrates on the meta-analysis of the effectiveness of ICT learning and the heterogeneous outcomes as well as the endogenous issue in regards to the learning environment chosen. The author dedicates the work to portray that e-learning is as effective as the traditional learning method.
The author begins by appreciating how the internet and the worldwide web have made notable changes in our day-to-day activities. The internet has facilitated the concept of learning online which has drawn the internet of many researcher and educators who aim at improving the learning outcomes of the student. Through test-scores, engagement of students with materials from class, and enhanced understanding of the online learning format, coupled with a strong sense of community among the students have contributed to positive learning outcomes. Regardless of the student background, students were largely appreciative of the online learning format.
Online learning has generally led to improved student outcomes according to the majority of the research that has been made. There, however, needs to be further research on the contribution of e-learning to the education system in order to strengthen the evidence and to dismiss the null findings.
Noesgaard, S. S., & Ørngreen, R. (2015). The Effectiveness of E-Learning: An Explorative and Integrative Review of the Definitions, Methodologies and Factors That Promote e-Learning Effectiveness. Electronic Journal of E-learning, 13(4), 278-290.
The authors conducted a systematic search of the database available in the library to uncover research that explains the effectiveness of e-learning and how it has increased within the last five years.
Through pre-testing and post-testing using quantitative methods, one can understand and analyze the effectiveness of e-learning. Out of the 61 studies that were analyzed, 59 of them reflected the improved effectiveness of e-learning to student outcomes. Motivation, interaction, and practice were identified as a factor that contributes to the effectiveness of e-learning.
Understanding factors that determine the effectiveness of e-learning is key to understanding ways that the ICT learning design can be improved to promote high-quality outcomes.
Somayeh, M., Dehghani, M., Mozaffari, F., Ghasemnegad, S. M., Hakimi, H., & Samaneh, B. (2016). The effectiveness of E-learning in learning: A review of the literature. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 5(2), 86-91.
The information age promises to bring a big difference to the learning and training institution. Through a review of 38 documents, the researchers aim at discovering how e-learning has impacted the learning institutions.
Science has increased in demand that cannot be satisfied but the conventional classroom learning and has led to the adoption of e-learning as an important design to meet the demand. E-learning has proved to make the learning opportunities equal for students hence increasing the field of competitiveness in learning, and as a result, there have been notable positive outcomes.
e-learning has, therefore, improved learner independence and self-determination which has resulted in the production of a holistic individual rather than being just book smart.
Donkin, R., & Askew, E. (2017). An Evaluation of Formative “In-Class” versus “E-Learning” Activities to Benefit Student Learning Outcomes in Biomedical Sciences. Journal of Biomedical Education, 2017.
Researchers in this article aim to come up with how e-learning has enhanced student outcomes in the field of biomedical sciences.
An e-learning module for anaemia was developed for the research whereby, evaluation of its contribution to increased knowledge would be made by analyzing the grades. From the data collected the formative e-learning method that involved student engagement in learning haematology coupled with immediate feedback led to improved grades.
Interactive e-learning approaches that actively engage the students have a positive impact on learning.
Sun, A., & Chen, X. (2016). Online education and it’s effective practise: A research review. Journal of Information Technology Education, 15.
The study is a qualitative analysis of 47 research articles on the effectiveness of e-learning dating from the year 2008.
Online education promotes social, cognitive, and teaching presence whereby an online learning community creates an environment in which students are able to acquire knowledge.
Learning institutions should pursue the integration of e-learning practices in the 21st century in order to be on par with those already suing ICT skill in learning.
Suresh, M., Vishnu Priya, V., & Gayathri, R. (2018). Effect of e-learning on the academic performance of undergraduate students. Drug Invention Today, 10(9).
Online learning has transformed the college education design and experience for a lot of students.
Undergraduate students were used in the research in an attempt to evaluate how e-learning has affected them. Questionnaire results showed that students felt that the traditional learning method was expensive and time-consuming. The student s felt that e-learning was faster, more affordable since not many resources were needed as they could be found online, and in general, e-learning helped to improve their performance.
Learning institutions must take advantage of the online classes and other forms of e-learning as it is what is most convenient for the current generation that has been born in the internet and computer era.

Sarikhani, R., Salari, M., & Mansouri, V. (2016). THE IMPACT OF E-LEARNING ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND CREATIVITY. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 8(1).
Many types of research are basing their studies on how online learning has impacted the learning outcomes for students.
The article carried out a statistical analysis of 100 chemistry students and the t-test results indicated that the use of e-learning practices led to improved scores on the experimental group. e-learning promotes the increased pool of knowledge due to the diverse pool of material available over the internet.
The flexibility of students to research and independently interact with the educators promoted creativity which when incorporated to learning leads to improved scores.
Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). The impact of online learning on students’ course outcomes: Evidence from a large community and technical college system. Economics of Education Review, 37, 46-57.
Just like most studies, the authors and researchers were interested in finding out the impact of e-learning but this time they focused on skill-based courses.
Student-tutor, student-student, and student-technology interaction analysis were used in quantitative research. Students that were able to effectively interact with each other through the online study design showed improved performance in their academics.
Online learning when coupled with interactive learning allows students room to discover their learning abilities and improve on their performance.
Lin, M. H., Chen, H. C., & Liu, K. S. (2017). A study of the effects of digital learning on learning motivation and learning outcome. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(7), 3553-3564.
In the age of mobile technology, making use of digital learning tools has become inevitable within the education set-up.
The researchers used questionnaires to get the views and opinions of learners in relation to e-learning. The results from the 116 students showed that digital learning motivated them to learn compared to traditional learning, methods and hence led to better positive outcomes.
Motivation to learn is very important as it determines the degree of concentration and performance for the students. With digital learning, there is increased motivation, hence improved outcome.
Saleem, M. A., & Rasheed, I. (2014). Use of E-learning and its Effect on students. New Media Mass Commun, 26, 47-52.
Unlike most research, the study evaluates the factors that affect the use of digital learning based on time, the type of technology available, and the workload.
100 students were used as study samples and a survey was carried out where it was identified that the three variables had a direct impact on e-learning. Learning material provided through the web browser on wither public or private interment was dependent on the continued use of the students. Those that were loyal to internet consumption in their learning activities showed signs of improved performance. Regarding time, the internet saved distance learned time as they were able to interact with other learners virtually. The instructional design in e-learning allows learners a more straightforward methodology where they can deal with problems correctly and with minimal effort hence leading to improved outcome.
There is a strong relationship between time-saving, workload reduction, and technology in e-learning and improved outcomes.
Conclusion
When it comes to e-learning, it takes the combination of information and communication technology together with the existing content to enhance learning for the students. To benefit from the use of e-learning, computer networks and devices have to be made available to both the teachers and the students in order to allow online interaction. Given the availability and accessibility to the web-services and accompanying devices, e-learning has proven to be a more convenient mode of learning with a broader pool of information compared to the traditional classroom method. Additionally, computer literacy is a very necessary skill in the entire online education design which must be acquired by both the learners and the educators for there to be positive outcomes. Given that incorporating ICT skills into the education system is relatively new and yet to be fully absorbed, there is need for governments to put effort in supporting e-learning since it has proven to enhance the quality of learning outcomes.

References
Donkin, R., & Askew, E. (2017). An Evaluation of Formative “In-Class” versus “E-Learning” Activities to Benefit Student Learning Outcomes in Biomedical Sciences. Journal of Biomedical Education, 2017.
Lin, M. H., Chen, H. C., & Liu, K. S. (2017). A study of the effects of digital learning on learning motivation and learning outcome. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(7), 3553-3564.
Nguyen, T. (2015). The effectiveness of online learning: Beyond no significant difference and future horizons. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 309-319.
Noesgaard, S. S., & Ørngreen, R. (2015). The Effectiveness of E-Learning: An Explorative and Integrative Review of the Definitions, Methodologies and Factors That Promote e- Learning Effectiveness. Electronic Journal of E-learning, 13(4), 278-290.
Saleem, M. A., & Rasheed, I. (2014). Use of E-learning and its Effect on students. New Media Mass Commun, 26, 47-52.
Sarikhani, R., Salari, M., & Mansouri, V. (2016). The Impact Of E-Learning On University Students’academic Achievement And Creativity. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 8(1).
Somayeh, M., Dehghani, M., Mozaffari, F., Ghasemnegad, S. M., Hakimi, H., & Samaneh, B. (2016). The effectiveness of E-learning in learning: A review of the literature. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 5(2), 86-91.
Sun, A., & Chen, X. (2016). Online education and its effective practise: A research review. Journal of Information Technology Education, 15.
Suresh, M., Vishnu Priya, V., & Gayathri, R. (2018). Effect of e-learning on the academic performance of undergraduate students. Drug Invention Today, 10(9).
Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). The impact of online learning on students’ course outcomes: Evidence from a large community and technical college system. Economics of Education Review, 37, 46-57.

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