Homeland Security by L. K. Gaines & V. E. Kappeler Pearson 2nd Edition (2019) ISBN-13: 978-0-13-456033-5 read chapters 12 from the book above:
Select an article of your choice from either the The Homeland Security Digital Library, The Homeland Security Affairs Journal, FEMA website or the Department of Homeland Security website that relates in some way to the textbook and instructional content for this module. Can you apply the article you selected to a contemporary example or critical incident? If so, where does the article excel or where does it fall short? Is there a better way? Does it conflict with current government practice? If it does, what facts did you rely upon and how did you arrive at this conclusion? Are there any unanswered questions? If so, why are these questions important? How do the suggestions in the textbook align with the article that you read? You are given great liberty here. Be creative yet critical.
Many students simply rely on the Socratic Method to write academic papers. The paper consists of all of the questions a person would ask if you mentioned the hypothesis to them. What is it I am researching? What is the current problem? What is the solution? What do my critics say about the problem and my solution? What does the literature say about the problem and my solution? What gaps in the literature will my solution address? If successful, what are the implications of my research? And a conclusion.
Your paper should go beyond the obvious and be written at a graduate level. Your paper must be six (6) full pages (excluding title page, abstract, and references) and you must use at least three authoritative peer reviewed sources other than the article you read to support your position. All sources must be properly cited using the APA style. Any assignment failing to meet the minimum required page count will have a letter grade deducted from the final score for each number of pages missing.
Written assignments must be scholarly, not be written in the first or second person tense and must follow the current American Psychological Association (APA) format and style (e.g., double-spaced, indents, etc.) and include the following: cover page, abstract, discussion, conclusion, and references. The APA format can be obtained from the Purdue OWL website, from the purchase of APA reference materials, from the commercial purchase of software templates, or from the APA web site. YOU MUST ALSO ADD THE URL (Uniform Resource Locator) OR the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) to the end of EVERY APA reference found on the internet. All work must be completed in Microsoft Office applications.Work created in any other application will not be accepted.
Border Security and Illegal Immigration
The government of the United States has prioritized national security to ensure stability in the country. Due to the threat of terrorism, the government had developed certain policies at the borders and the maritime entry points to enhance the legitimacy of foreigners. Nonetheless, there has been an increase in the number of illegal immigrants who the government associates with the elevated risk of terrorism. The U.S has therefore decided to build border walls to mitigate the inflow of illegal foreigners, particularly in the southern border. This will help to reduce the terrorist threat that has since the past rested upon the country. This paper analyzes the benefits and probable limitations of putting up border walls. Further, it elaborates on the pressing issues which should be solved first before building the border walls.
Keywords: illegal immigrants, terrorism, border walls
Border Security and Illegal Immigration
Illegal immigration in the United States has been a problem from the past. Illegal immigrants have been associated with terrorism which is a major threat to the country’s national security. In the past years, the number of immigrants has significantly increased (Felter & Renwick, 2019). This is because of the insufficient border security and resources for the border personnel. Most of the immigrants enter the United States through the Southern border where smuggling has been a dominant practice from the past. Recently, the government of the U.S has decided to secure the country by building border walls. It believes that this will reduce the number of illegal immigrants thus eliminating terrorism within the country. Incorporating the findings from different studies will assist in concluding whether the border walls will minimize illegal immigrants in the U.S.
In this incident, “The United States Border wall: A Maritime Perspective” article can be applied. The author examines the reasons for and against the border wall to create insight into how effective it will be in reducing illegal immigration. On one side, building the border walls will enhance security since it will create a physical barrier that will restrict illegal immigrants from passing through (Fontana, 2019). Only the most daring will attempt to pass the border walls which will otherwise be impossible. Additionally, a wall in the Southern border will assist in reducing smuggling of people. It will also minimize human trafficking among minors who are forcefully taken abroad to participate in activities such as prostitution, drug selling or forced labor. Furthermore, without a physical border, everyone has access to the country since it is open. A physical wall will, therefore, reduce the terrorist threat by a larger percentage.
On the other hand, the opposers gave valid reasons for their stand. The wall will increase violence between the U.S and the bordering countries. For instance, the already existing border walls in Mexico initiated violence with the U.S since the drug traffickers had been inconvenienced. Therefore they started the conflicts as a way of revenge. Equally, illegal immigrants also found their way through the border and other routes such as the ports which have fewer strategies of dealing with illegal immigrants. Moreover, building a wall will increase smuggling through other routes. When one border wall is added a few miles, smugglers will find other viable options to continue their business thus inhabit other places where the practice was relatively low (Fontana, 2019). The walls will also increase drug trafficking in areas where there was less of the practice since the cartels will find other routes to transport their products. Similarly, the cost of building the border walls will also be a burden to the American citizens since it will lead to increased tax. Reflecting on this research, the border walls will not restrict the movement of immigrants since other possible entry points will be open.
Due to a lack of specific recommendations on the types of policies that should be implemented by the government to cope with illegal immigration, the essay falls short of expectations. The easiest method for the United States to deal with the problem is to increase the number of border patrol officers on the ground. A greater investment in technology is also required from the government, with high-quality surveillance cameras at the border and information devices to monitor the activities of persons in the vicinity of the border being used (Felter & Renwick, 2019). Because the majority of smugglers are drug traffickers, the first move should be to seize control of the drug cartels and traffickers operating in the affected areas. The United States government should engage with adjacent state governments in order to develop appropriate measures to reduce the drug industry’s influence.
The concepts provided in the text appear to be at odds with current government procedures. First and foremost, it appears to be heavily reliant on the regulations that are enforced in the ports and the resources that are made available to marine officers. In contrast, the government believes that the investments it has made in the ports have rendered them secure against terrorism. Furthermore, the technology and verification deployed at the ports’ entry points are capable of distinguishing between approved and undocumented immigration (McElmurray et al, 2016). Second, the essay considers illegal immigration to be a security problem that should not be related with terrorism, which is incorrect. According to the study, political instability and economic hardship are the two most important factors driving illegal immigration. However, the government’s impression of illegal immigrants is that they are primarily concerned with carrying out terrorist acts. Therefore, when dealing with them, the government employs stringent policies and procedures. These data demonstrate that the author of the post does not agree with government tactics since they should be directed against terrorists, rather than immigration. Because of the difficulties they are experiencing in their own country, some of them come to seek a better and more stable existence.
Despite the fact that the essay provides insights into border security, it does not address the issue of illegal immigrants already present in the United States and the threat that they bring to national security (Koslowski, 2011). When faced with this situation, the most pressing questions are how border agents are going to inspect a large number of travelers, many of whom are American citizens who cross the border on a daily basis, what safety measures are being implemented to protect the country from homegrown terrorism, and how effective the current entry-exit system is. These questions are critical in establishing the general policies that the government should implement in order to combat terrorism and other forms of extremism.
The ideas presented in the article seem to conflict with government practices. First, it seems to swell much on the policies implemented in the ports and the resources provided to the marine officers. However, the government feels that the invested it has made on the ports makes them safe from terrorism. Furthermore, the technology and verification employed in the entry points at the ports are able to distinguish unauthorized immigrants (McElmurray et al, 2016). Second, the article perceives illegal immigration as a security threat and should not be associated with terrorism. Political instability and economic challenges are the main reasons for illegal immigration according to the article. Nevertheless, the government’s perception of illegal immigrants is that they focus on executing terrorist activities. Hence, the government applies strict measures when dealing with them. These facts show that the article does not agree with the government practices because they should be directed to terrorists and not immigrants. Some of them come to seek a good and stable life because of the challenges in their home country.
Although the article gives insights to border security, it does not look at the illegal immigrants who are already in the U.S and the threat that they pose to the national security (Koslowski, 2011). The major questions which arise in this situation include how officers at the border will inspect a large number of travelers including American citizens who cross the border every day, which are the safety measures employed to safeguard the country against homegrown terrorism, and how effective is the current entry-exit system. These questions are important in defining the overall strategies which the government should set in alleviating terrorism.
First, the border officers are expected to inspect each individual who is coming in or out of the border. Over the years, the number of people who cross the border each day has increased. This has made the work of the border officers to be difficult since they are obligated to literally search each individual together with their luggage (Koslowski, 2011). Lack of enough personnel has made this exercise to be ineffective since the available ones cannot fully perform the job. As a result, criminals blend with travelers and transport their weapons of attack jeopardizing the country’s security. This poses a risk to national security even as the government considers building a wall as an additional cover from terrorism.
The second issue is the specific measures that have been established to deal with U.S citizens terrorists. Terrorism has evolved and the followers of these groups do not originate from a particular race or country. The government is aimed at inhibiting foreigners who it thinks are the terrorists without considering the ones who are already in the country (McElmurray et al, 2016). Research should be done on the efficiency of the tactics and techniques used in determining criminals and deterring their plans within the country. Most of the terrorist groups use an individual in the country where they want to execute an attack. Therefore, the question about the type of measures implemented against homegrown terrorists should be answered before proceeding to the construction of the border walls.
The importance of the third question is that it helps in understanding why terrorists are actually able to reside in the U.S even when their permits have expired. Defects in the automatic entry-exit systems have allowed foreigners to overstay their visa period. In this case, the overstayed person changes location to reduce the chances of being arrested and deported (McElmurray et al, 2016). The systems are not able to enforce the visa period limitation thus making it possible for terrorists to live in the U.S. During this time, they can be able to move out of and back into the U.S. This facilitates the activities of terrorism inside and outside the country. Thus, there should be enough methods of apprehending and arresting overstayed visitors. The government should, therefore, consider every probable circumstance under which terrorists can accomplish their mission while in the country.
The ideas in Chapter 12 of the Homeland Security book align with “The United States Border wall: A Maritime perspective” article since they discuss border security and immigration. The book presents the number of immigrants in several years showing an increase in foreigners who are currently residing in the U.S. According to the article, the government of the U.S supposes that the increase in the number of immigrants has exaggerated the threat of terrorism (Fontana, 2019). The two texts agree that the issues of immigration and terrorism should be treated separately since they have different implications for the country. They perceive illegal immigrants as a threat to national security and not to terrorism.
Correspondingly, the book focuses on the methods that the U.S has used to secure its borders. This includes the building of more miles to existing border walls in the south and the construction of new ones where there are none. The article also presents the government’s decision to build border walls to enhance security in the country (Fontana, 2019). Additionally, the fences aim at reducing the number of illegal foreigners who use the borders. Both documents have evaluated the effectiveness of the border enhancement and the future benefits and losses which will be associated with addition of more border walls.
Similarly, the border security policies discussed in the book align with the maritime policies exercised in the port entries. The use of information technology systems has been applied at the borders so that the immigrants can be identified. Screening and biometric identification are some of the established techniques. Equally, the port entries have also been provided with technological gadgets to assist in identification of individuals (Fontana, 2019). Immigration officers at the maritime and land borders have been trained on how to verify the documents of the foreigners. Moreover, they are equipped with tactics to help them respond to terrorist attacks in their area of work.
To conclude, the government of the U.S has formulated strategic plans to deal with the threat of terrorism. However, it seems like the risk elevates with an increase in the number of illegal immigrants. To deal with this issue, the U.S government has decided to build border walls all around its territory. Nevertheless, this step will not fully eliminate terrorism and reduce illegal foreigners in the countries because there are other significant factors that must be considered. They include the effectiveness of the inspections carried out at the border for daily cross border travelers, suitability of safety measures used to deal with homegrown terrorists, and the performance of entry-exit systems. Solving these issues first will make the border walls o be effective.
Felter, C., & Renwick, D. (2019). The U.S. Immigration Debate. Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/us-immigration-debate-0
Fontana, C. B. (2019). The United States Border wall: A Maritime Perspective. Naval Postgraduate School (U.S), 1-69. Retrieved from https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=828250
Koslowski, R. (2011). The Evolution of Border Controls as a Mechanism to Prevent Illegal Immigration. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://www.migrationpolicy.org/sites/default/files/publications/bordercontrols-koslowski.pdf
McElmurray, S., Kerr, J., Brown, T. C., & Zamora, L. (2016). Balancing Priorities: Immigration, National Security, and Public Safety. Bipartisan Policy Center, 1-28. Retrieved from https://www.thechicagocouncil.org/sites/default/files/oct16_immigrationandnationalsecurty_report.pdf