6HX509 Civil Engineering Hydraulics
Programme: BSc (Hons) Engineering (Civil) High Up
Unit Code/Title 6HX509 Civil Engineering Hydraulics
Unit Credit/ stage Credit 20 QCF LEVEL: 6
Tutorial 12 months 2020/2021 Particular person Group Evaluation
Problem date: Might 2020
Submission deadline: TBA
The goal of this task is to reveal the scholars’ capability to supply a technical
engineering report investigating regular fluid circulation phenomena in open channels, utilizing each
laboratory experiments and pc simulations. As such, the task includes two
Half A. It’s involved with laboratory investigation of two strategies of measuring
open channel circulation and hydraulic jumps.
o A.1. Crump weir [25
o A.2. Broad crested weir [10
Half B. It entails a pc mannequin of regularly diverse circulation in an open channel (M2
backwater profile). [15
This half investigates the phenomenon of quickly diverse regular circulation in an open channel. This
can be based mostly on a laboratory experiment evaluating the measurement of circulation utilizing a crump
INTERNAL VERIFICATION. This half examines the marvel of rapidly differed constant stream in an open channel. This can be based on a analysis facility strive contrasting the estimation of stream using a crump
Task Transient Template
weir with that utilizing a broad crested weir, and also will examine hydraulic jumps
occurring downstream from the 2 weirs, and matching the experimental outcomes obtained
from these from concept. Estimates may even be fabricated from the lack of particular vitality of the circulation
over the 2 weirs. The experimental procedures and required analyses are outlined beneath:
A.1. Crump Weir
[Total marks: 25]
1. Confirm that the hydraulic bench unit (water tank and pump) has sufficient water and is
linked to the H23 flume water consumption.
2. Measure the channel dimensions (width and depth), and be sure that the slope (So) of
the flume is cero (So=zero%), Measure the channel measurements (width and profundity), and assure that the slant (So) of
the flume is cero (So=zero%),
three. Introduce the crump weir at about 800mm downstream from the place the
water leaves the stilling channel.
three. Set up the crump weir at about 800mm downstream from the purpose at which the
water leaves the stilling filter.
four. Activate the pump of the hydraulic bench, and alter the circulation to its most by
opening the valve. The water shouldn’t overflow from the channel.
5. Receive the depth of the circulation on the following areas through the use of the depth gauge
supplied. The depth is the results of the distinction of two readings: backside mattress and
a. Some 100mm upstream of the weir (y1)
b. On the lowest depth on the backside of the weir (y2)
c. Simply earlier than the soar (y3)
d. After the soar the place the water is in tranquil circulation (y4)
6. Estimate the size of the soar (L), i.e. the gap between y3 and y4.
7. By utilizing the Pitot tube measure the speed head (if potential) on the identical 4
areas, touch upon any difficulties skilled.
eight. Measure the circulation price through the use of the quantity gauges constructed into the hydraulic bench, and
the cease watch supplied. It’s instructed to file the time that takes to ship 5 litres
Please observe that the tank begins filling when the plug (rubber ball) is obstructing the
To be able to cut back the uncertainty and enhance the outcomes, measure the circulation price at
least three occasions and acquire a median.
Calculate the imply circulation in m3s-1
9. Lower the circulation price by closing barely the valve and repeat the process from
level 5. Confirm that the depth upstream of the weir decreases a minimum of 5 mm. And
repeat this process a minimum of 5 occasions extra, each time with a distinct discharge.
a- For the very first worth of volumetric circulation price ( , calculate the vital depth ( ) and
vital vitality ( ). Verify that the profundity upstream of the weir diminishes in any occasion 5 mm. Additionally,
rehash this technique in any occasion a number of occasions extra, each time with an alternate launch.
a-For absolutely the first estimation of volumetric stream price ( , determine the essential profundity ( ) and
primary vitality ( ).
b- Utilizing that worth of volumetric circulation price per unit width ( ), consider the particular vitality for
a variety of theoretical depths as much as a most of 200 mm. Plot these values in a
dimensionless type: ( ) versus ( ). On the identical curve, plot the values of the and
calculated from the measured and in dimensionless type, for a similar discharge.
Clarify how the graph has been generated and examine the phenomenon of
quickly diverse regular circulation in an open channel together with the traits of
a free hydraulic soar.
Briefly checklist the gear used.
[1 mark ]
[1 mark ]
Absolutely annotated plots and outline of it.
c- Now utilizing the entire 5 experimental outcomes; calculate the ratio , and the Froude
quantity simply earlier than the soar in every case. Utilizing this calculated , calculate the
theoretical worth of . Plot towards for each experimental and theoretical
outcomes. For totally annotated plots and outline of it, together with equation for Froude
d- Focus on your outcomes, assessing their validity and reliability, touch upon the accuracy and
draw the related conclusions.
How legitimate the equations.
What have been the assumptions for the equations when derived, what human and lab
errors have been current, accuracy of devices used and so forth.
For wider implications.
e- For every case, calculate the circulation power throughout the gate, the pinnacle loss throughout the soar.
A.2. Broad Crested Weir
Repeat the procedures outlined in A.1 utilizing the broad crested weir in the identical place as
the crump weir was.
[Total marks: 10]
a. Calculate the lack of particular vitality throughout every weir and thru every hydraulic soar.
b. Calculate the Drag Coefficient of the weir
c. In your conclusion evaluate the efficiency of the 2 weirs as measuring methods for
the circulation in open channels and talk about this close to printed work on every
d. Recommend which weir could be used when you wanted an correct measure of irrigation water
delivered to an space or a big agricultural enterprise
e. Touch upon using hydraulic jumps to cut back the vitality in open channel flows.
Half B. Progressively Diverse Circulate Simulation
This half requires you to supply a “easy pc mannequin” (utilizing EXCEL) to determine
water stage profiles in a proposed channel (supply canal to a reservoir, terminating with a
free outfall) utilizing the direct step methodology.
[Total marks: 15]
The channel, rectangular in cross-section, with a width b=three.0m, is required to hold a
minimal discharge (Q) of two.50 m3/s. The channel has a mattress slope, , constructed
at a minimal elevation of 100.0m above Ordnance Datum (OD) on the downstream finish of
the channel. The channel mattress floor is earth with gravel, having a Manning’s friction issue,
If the vital depth (ycr) is assumed on the outfall (x=zero), acquire the minimal size that the
channel wants upstream to achieve the conventional depth (yn). Use the direct step methodology to
decide the water stage profile alongside the channel (backwater curve), assuming regularly
diverse circulation. It’s endorsed to make use of Δy=zero.zero10m.
Plot this profile to scale. You have to as an example two calculations steps in your report, and
then use a spreadsheet (e.g. MS Excel) to acquire the complete circulation profile.
GVF Direct Step Technique
1. Establish the situation of the circulation
2. Establish the kind of transition and subsequently the corresponding profile
three. Establish the management depth, and decide if the calculations go upstream or
downstream from management part, setting that time as chainage x=zero
four. Assume a depth increment (Δy).
5. Decide the geometrical traits of two consecutives cross sections (management
depth and the management depth with the increment): hydraulic space (A), wetted perimeter
(P) and hydraulic radius (R)
6. Decide the speed (V2/2g) and the full vitality head (E) of the part.
7. Decide the friction slope (Sf):
eight. Calculate the vitality head increment (ΔE) between consecutives sections.
9. Discover the imply friction slope worth:
10. Discover the horizontal increment (Δx) from
11. Accumulate Δx as
12. Decide the mattress and water floor ranges:
Mattress stage =
Water floor stage =
13. Repeat the method from step 5, till Sf imply=zero or till it modifications its sign
Fill the desk beneath with the outcomes obtained from the process instructed above.
h A=b*h P=b+2h R=A/P R^(four/three) V=Q/A v^2/2g E=h+y^2/2g Fr ΔE Sf = v^2 n^2 / R^1.33 Sfmean=(Sf i + Sf i+1)/2 S0 -Sf imply Δx x = Σ (Δx) BED Degree Water Floor Degree
a) Description of how the spreadsheet was constructed
b) Present two calculation steps
c) The precise spreadsheet of the oblong channel
d) Plot the variation of the water floor and mattress stage with respect to the size, beginning
on the outfall (x=zero)
e) Last reply on size
END OF BRIEF