Instructions: This examination covers the next materials: books I and II in Aristotle’s Ethics, Kant and the primary three chapters of Mill, plus the Ken Miller discuss. Learn all instructions fastidiously. Please sort all solutions, apart from any essential drawings or diagrams, e.g., of Aristotle’s virtues. You could depart some white house there and hand draw them. You’re to obtain this examination, neatly sort all of your solutions, and convey the hardcopy to class, stapled. Please maintain the questions within the examination, alongside along with your solutions (i.e., don’t delete the questions please). Pleaseboldfaceall of your solutions; it makes your examination simpler to learn and grade. Thanks, and should your solutions be neither poor nor extreme.
I. Learn every query fastidiously. Place a T for true or an F for false to the left of every query. Please boldface your solutions. (15)
1. For Aristotle, anger is a advantage.
2. At the start of ebook I, Aristotle thinks that most of our actions goal at some good.
three. Aristotle likens advantage to a sort of excellence.
four. For Aristotle, the primary objective of politics is to create the very best insurance policies.
5. In ebook II, Aristotle asserts that human beings are evil by nature.
6. Aristotle thinks advantage is the enough situation for happiness.
6. Kant believes there are two units of legal guidelines—ethical and pure.
7. Mill believes that what sanctions or justifies his biggest happiness precept, because the central precept of ethics, is purpose.
eight. Advantage is just conditionally good in keeping with Kant.
9. Kant thinks the empirical element to morality is a crucial, although the least essential, element to morality.
10. Kant thinks one may be virtuous and evil.
11. For Kant, being topic to the ethical regulation is like being topic to a monarch.
12. Kant believes that, in all cases, one shouldn’t lie, with no exceptions.
13. Kant believes one ought to totally want the great with the intention to be genuinely motivated to do the great.
14. Kant offers us basically three totally different ethical legal guidelines.
15. Kant classifies duties into ethical and political duties.
II. Learn every query very fastidiously. Decide what every query is absolutely asking for, and select the very best reply. Place your letter reply to the left of every query, boldfacing them as effectively. (15)
1. Which of the next just isn’t an preliminary limitation on the research of ethics (in keeping with Aristotle)? a. individuals are typically too ignorant about it b. persons are given to merely standard views about ethics c. discovering an ordinary of data acceptable to ethics d. youth and ethical weak point
2. What’s the highest good for Aristotle? a. advantage b. pleasure c. happiness d. love
three. Why is the reply to the earlier query the best good? a. as a result of it’s by no means a method for another finish b. as a result of it’s a life appropriate for a politician c. as a result of it’s unattainable d. as a result of it’s the reverse of ache
four. Which is nice by nature in keeping with Aristotle? a. intercourse b. actions which conform to advantage c. emotion d. the fundamental pleasures of life
5. States of ethical character are typically ruined by: a. pure anger b. ignorance c. unjust politics d. extra and deficiency
6. What are the three kinds of items for Aristotle? a. items of the soul, items of the physique, materials items b. these issues which might be good in themselves, good for different advantages, and good in themselves and for different advantages each c. pleasurable items, helpful items, and noble items d. pleasure, honor, and contemplation
7. Which of the next is true about Mill? A. he believes there is just one central tenet of ethics b. he thinks the correct motive for moral motion is to do one’s obligation for its personal sake c. he thinks human nature is mostly not able to moral actions d. he thinks the best good is maximizing pleasure and minimizing ache e. he thinks penalties outline the worth of an motion
f. a and b g. a, b, and c h. a, d, and e i. all the above j. not one of the above
eight. Which is true of Kant’s view of happiness? a . it’s a purely pure state of affairs b. it’s simply as essential for him as it’s for Aristotle c. it’s the sum complete of our wishes d. it’s an exercise of the soul carried out in accordance with advantage e. a and c f. b and d
9. For Kant, want belongs to what sphere of human being? a. the legal guidelines of freedom (the ought)
b. the legal guidelines of nature (the is) c. the sphere of obligation d. the sphere of faith
10. To Kant’s pondering, extra essential than happiness is: a. fact b. rationality c. the worthiness to be blissful d. universality
11. For Kant, questions of the ethical price of an motion actually solely come into play when: a. obligation and want coincide b. obligation and advantage battle c. two duties battle d. obligation and want battle
12. When Kant discusses obligation, the clearest distinction between an ideal and an imperfect obligation is:
a. good duties are extra essential b. good duties are extra rational c. good duties are extra oriented in direction of serving to others d. good duties are such that their violation is inconceivable
13. If happiness had been a human being’s highest aim, Kant says: a. happiness can be extra effectively achieved than it’s now b. happiness can be almost unimaginable to realize c. happiness and advantage can be the identical factor d. nature would have outfitted human beings with mere intuition, slightly than purpose e. a and d f. c and d
14. When Kant characterizes ethical actions as these which might be carried out for obligation’s sake alone, he’s putting ethical worth on: a. Christian love b. advantage c. motive d. the results
15. Given the reply to the earlier query, Kant defines an motion’s rightness or wrongness in keeping with: a. the intrinsic nature of the act itself b. whether or not the act makes one blissful or not
c. the character of the act’s obligation (is it an ideal obligation or not) d. the character of the act’s outcomes
III. SHORT ANSWER/ESSAY. Learn every query fastidiously and decide what it’s that the query is asking you to do. Then give your greatest and fullest reply, writing in completesentences each time essential. Discover the totally different level values for every query. (160)
A. Aristotle Part:
1. For whom or what’s the lifetime of pursuing pleasureappropriate, in keeping with Aristotle? (2)
2. What three lessons of products does Aristotle focus on? What are the primary examples for every class of fine? (6)
three. What’s Aristotle’s definition of happiness? (three)
four. What’s the first element on this definition of happiness, and what’s its significance? (three)
5. What’s the second element of this definition, and its significance? (three)
6. What does Aristotle say we should “watch out for” most of all after we try to succeed in the imply of advantage, and why? (three)
7. What are the three logical standards that make happiness the best good? Describe every one. (three)
eight. As Aristotle defines the correct perform of a human being, what are two solutions he offers that fail to outline this correct perform? What does he say really defines our correct perform? How does he analyze and clarify the actual which means and significance of this correct perform? (eight)
9. What are three of the relationships that exist between the imply and the extremes that one should consider as one tries to achieve the imply? (6)
10. What’s Aristotle’s definition of advantage, each in advantage’s genus and in its differentia (or species)? (Please be thorough and provides the full definition.) Subsequent, give the complete diagram and description for the advantage that corresponds with concern/ache, explaining the diagram’s varied particulars. (15)
11. How does Aristotle cope with the issue of whether or not or not it’s potential to be blissful on this lifetime? How is advantage associated to happiness? What do you concentrate on Aristotle’s view right here? Please be thorough right here. (10)
12. What are the three circumstances for realizing the great in keeping with Aristotle? (three)
B. Kant and Mill.
1. What’s the highest good for Kant? What does he argue to indicate that that is the best good? What does Kant take into consideration human happiness? Does he suppose human beings are made for happiness? Why or why not? (10)
2. Why does Kant suppose ethical regulation should be argued for a priori? (four)
What are the three rules of ethics (or obligation) in Kant’s system? What are the totally different Instances he seems at to reach at his notion of obligation? (6)
three. What are the 2 sorts of imperatives in Kant’s ethics? Which one describes the character of ethical regulation, and why? What’s totally different about morality, prudence, and ability? (eight)
four. What are the three formulations for the explicit crucial (ethical regulation) for Kant? What does every imply? (Give particulars right here.) What side (perspective) of the ethical regulation does every formulation specific? (12)
5. What’s the actual distinction, for Kant, between appearing in accordance with obligation if you even have a direct inclination to take action, and appearing in accordance with obligation, although you have an inclination to do in any other case? Which form of motion has better ethical price? Why? Give examples of every. (eight)
6. What are the differing types or sorts of obligation, in keeping with Kant? How do they correspond to the totally different situations (or examples) of obligation he offers within the Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals? [Hint: This deals not with the four cases, but the four scenarios or stories Kant tells] (12)
7. Clarify Kant’s notion of free will. What are its important parts, together with its unfavorable and optimistic parts? With what different views on freedom does it distinction? How does the excellence between the is and the ought function right here? (12)
eight. What’s Mill’s basic ethical precept? (three)
9. What’s happiness for Mill? (2)
10. How does Mill defend his ethical precept? I.e., what types of objections does he elevate and try and refute? How profitable is he, in your opinion? (eight)
11. You’re on an remoted island with a dying millionaire. As he’s dying, he asks you for an important favor. He requests that you simply take a sure field of his on the island that’s full of cash (5 million dollars) and, when you get off the island, give it to the Boston Purple Sox as a donation. You promise the dying man, and, finally you do get off the island. Nevertheless, as you’re en path to fulfilling the millionaire’s needs, you hear on the radio a plea from a reliable charity that they occur to wish $5 million with the intention to assist out a bunch of 200,000 ravenous East Africans who’ve been onerous hit by a extreme drought. The cash they’re asking for not solely will instantly relieve these 200,000 individuals, however will assist them to turn out to be extra self-reliant sooner or later, giving them a steady life.
What would Kant advise you to do right here, and why? What would Mill advise you to do right here and why? Which do you suppose is giving the higher ethical recommendation? Why do you suppose this? (10)
BONUS: What are three basic variations between Aristotle and Kant? (Trace: How do they see the best good? advantage? the circumstances for realizing the great?) (10)
BONUS: When Ken Miller gave his discuss right here at LU just a few weeks in the past, he talked briefly about put faith and science collectively. Utilizing not less than some materials from his discuss, how does he appear to suppose that is potential? What do you suppose: does science make it simpler, or tougher, to imagine in God and follow a spiritual life? Why do you are taking this place? Please be exact and develop an actual argument. (12)
BONUS: How does/would God expertise the ethical regulation, in keeping with Kant, versus how human beings expertise it? What are all of the potential ethical brokers the ethical regulation does, and will presumably, apply to? (eight)