### Custom Writing Help For You!

Special Discounts Offers! 20-30% Off!

Posted: March 2nd, 2020

# Epidemiology Assignment | Homework For You

Marked Assignment 2, EPID6420 Epidemiology A Semester 1, 2017 This assessment task contributes 15% towards your total marks. Complete the answers (show your working for all calculations, not just the answer) and submit them to Turnitin via blackboard by the nominated due date. We do not expect, or want you to write a mini essay for each response. Succinct answers which cover all the relevant points are desirable. However, make sure you show the formulae and all workings for any calculations undertaken. This may allow us to still allocate you marks even if your final answer was incorrect (in the unlikely event this would occur!). For all calculations, use up to 2 decimal point.

Question 1 6 marks A case control study among 2000 individuals was conducted to determine the association between cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease. Out of the study subjects, 50% had coronary heart disease; 70% of the cases were smokers and 60% of the controls were non-smokers.

1. Draw the 2 x 2 table to explore the relationship between coronary heart disease and cigarette smoking. (2 marks)

2. Calculate the crude odds ratio and explain its exact meaning. (2 marks) Data were further stratified according to gender of the study subjects: Males Coronary heart disease Cigarette smoking Cases Controls Exposed 520 140 Unexposed 180 360 Total 700 500 Females Coronary heart disease Cigarette smoking Cases Controls Exposed 180 260 Unexposed 120 240 Total 300 500 Using this information, explain whether gender is a confounder or effect modifier? (2 marks)

Question 2 9 Marks A large randomized controlled trial is carried out to determine the effect of pravastatin, a cholesterol lowering medication, in elderly people (>65 years old) at risk of cardiovascular disease, i.e. heart attacks and strokes. Out of 23 770 individuals assessed at various family practices, only 7056 were eligible and agreed to participate. These were entered into a “run-in” period, in which they were given placebo tablets for 4 weeks. Those who were not compliant in taking their medicine were dropped from the trial, leaving 5804 patients to be randomized. 2913 were assigned placebo, and 2891 were assigned pravastatin.

Over the next 3 years, 650 and 725 people discontinued their medication, respectively (lack of compliance), but all participants continued to be followed for fatal and non-fatal heart attacks, as well as fatal and non-fatal strokes. The authors perform an intention to treat analysis, with all cardiovascular events being the primary endpoint (combined fatal and non-fatal heart attacks and fatal and non-fatal strokes). In the placebo group, 473 reached a primary endpoint vs. 408 in the pravastatin group.

1. Draw the 2 x 2 table for all cardiovascular outcomes combined (fatal and non-fatal heart attack and fatal and non-fatal stroke all combined). (1 mark) 2. What is the absolute risk of all cardiovascular outcomes in the placebo and drug group? Explain this in words. (2 marks)

3. What is the absolute risk reduction in all cardiovascular outcomes in the drug group vs the placebo group? Explain this in words. (1 mark)

4. What is the relative risk reduction in all cardiovascular outcomes in the drug group vs the placebo group? Explain this in words. (1 mark)

5. What is the number needed to treat? Explain this in words. (2 marks)

6. What effect does the differential lack of compliance have? What is the direction of this bias? How does this affect internal validity? (2 mark) Biology Assignment: I need help writing a research paper.

### Order for this Paper or similar Answer/Assignment Writing Service

Place your order by filling a guided instructions form in 3 easy steps.

### Why choose our Study Bay Services?

Like every student, Focusing on achieving the best grades is our main goal

### Top Essay Writers

We have carefully cultivated a team of exceptional academic writers, each with specialized expertise in particular subject areas and a proven track record of research writing excellence. Our writers undergo rigorous screening and evaluation to ensure they hold relevant advanced degrees and demonstrate mastery of English grammar, citation style, and research methodology. Recent projects completed by our writers include research papers on topics such as sustainable energy policy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and molecular genetics.

### Student-Based Prices

We prioritize attracting highly skilled writers through competitive pay and strive to offer the most cost-effective services for students. References from recent years include surveys of customer satisfaction with online writing services conducted by the American Customer Satisfaction Index between 2018 to 2022, demonstrating our commitment to balancing affordable costs with high standards of work through positive reviews and retention of expert writers.

### 100% Plagiarism-Free

We guarantee 100% original and plagiarism-free final work through a thorough scanning of every draft copy using advanced plagiarism detection software before release, ensuring authentic and high-quality content for our valued customers. To note, we also do not generate assignment content with AI tool, thus you a guaranteed 0% similarity index for your final research paper.

## How it works

When you decide to place an order with Study Pro Essay, here is what happens:

### Complete the Order Form

You will complete our order form, filling in all of the fields and giving us as much detail as possible.

### Assignment of Writer

We analyze your order and match it with a writer who has the unique qualifications to complete it, and he begins from scratch.

### Order in Production and Delivered

You and,the support and your writer communicate directly during the process, and, once you receive the final draft, you either approve it or ask for revisions.

### Giving us Feedback (and other options)

We want to know how your experience went. You can read other clients’ testimonials too. And among many options, you can choose a favorite writer.