Throughout the wake of the September 2001 terrorist assaults on the US, President Bush launched essential military operations in South and Southwest Asia as part of the worldwide U.S.-led anti-terrorism effort 1. Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan has seen substantive success with the vital assist of neighboring Pakistan. However the US increasingly is anxious that members of Al-Qaeda and its Taliban supporters have found haven and been ready to a minimal of partially regroup in Pakistani cities and inside the rugged Pakistan-Afghanistan border space inhabited by ethnic Pashtuns who particular solidarity with anti-U.S. forces. Al-Qaeda moreover reportedly has made alliances with indigenous Pakistani terrorist groups which have been implicated in every anti-Western assaults in Pakistan and terrorism in Indian Kashmir, whereas moreover looking for to oust the federal authorities of President Gen. Pervez Musharraf. Along with these concerns, the US expresses an curiosity inside the cessation of “cross-border infiltration” by separatist militants based totally in Pakistani-controlled areas who cross the Kashmiri Line of Administration (LOC) to engage in terrorist actions in Indian Kashmir and in Indian cities.
Al Qaeda, the Taliban, and Pakistani Terrorist Groups
The Al Qaeda-Taliban Nexus.
Among the many many central targets of Operation Enduring Freedom had been the destruction of terrorist teaching camps and infrastructure inside Afghanistan, the seize of Al Qaeda and Taliban leaders, and the cessation of terrorist actions in Afghanistan.2 Most, nevertheless not all, of these targets have been achieved. Nonetheless, given that Taliban’s ouster from power in Kabul and subsequent retreat to the rugged mountain space near the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, what the U.S. military calls its “remnant forces” have been ready to regroup and to conduct “hit-and-run” assaults in the direction of U.S.-led coalition forces, most likely in tandem with suspected Al Qaeda fugitives. These forces are then able to find haven on the Pakistani facet of the border.three Al Qaeda founder Osama bin Laden might himself be in a distant house of Pakistan near Afghanistan. The frequency of these assaults has elevated all by 2003 and, in October, U.S. Explicit Envoy to Afghanistan Zalmay Khalilzad reportedly warned that resurgent Taliban and Al Qaeda forces are presenting a extreme danger to Afghani reconstruction efforts.4
Indigenous Pakistani Terrorist Groups.
In January 2002, Pakistan banned 5 extremist organizations, along with Lashkar-e-Taiba (LET), Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM), and Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP). The USA designates LET and JEM as Abroad Terrorist Organizations (FTOs); SSP appears on the State Departments’s terrorism “watch document.” Following Al Qaeda’s 2001-2002 expulsion from Afghanistan and ensuing relocation of some core elements to Pakistani cities harking back to Karachi and Peshawar, some Al Qaeda activists are believed to have joined forces with indigenous Pakistani Sunni militant groups, along with LET, JEM, SSP, and Lashkar-i-Jhangvi, an FTO-designated offshoot of the SSP.5 Al Qaeda reportedly was linked to anti-U.S. and anti-Western terrorist assaults in Pakistan all through 2002, although the primary suspects in such assaults have been from indigenous Pakistani groups.6 All through 2003, Pakistan’s residence terrorism principally has involved Sunni-Shia battle.7 Some analysts think about that, by redirecting Pakistan’s internal security sources, this enhance in sectarian violence might ease pressure on Al Qaeda and so allow that group to perform additional freely.eight
In a landmark January 2002 speech, President Musharraf vowed to complete Pakistan’s use as a base for terrorism, and he criticized religious extremism and intolerance inside the nation. Throughout the wake of the speech, about three,300 extremists had been arrested and detained, though possibly half of these have since been launched. These releases included the founders of every Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad. Though formally banned, these groups proceed to perform beneath new names: LET is now Jamaat al-Dawat; JEM is now Khudam-ul Islam; and Harakat-ul Mujahideen is now Jamiat-ul Ansar.9
Pakistan-U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation
Consistent with the U.S. Departments of State and Safety, Pakistan has afforded the US unprecedented ranges of cooperation by allowing the U.S. military to utilize bases contained in the nation, serving to to find out and detain extremists, and deploying tens of tons of of its private security forces to secure the Pakistan-Afghanistan border. Prime U.S. officers repeatedly reward Pakistani anti-terrorism efforts. Throughout the spring of 2002, U.S. military and regulation enforcement personnel reportedly began partaking in direct, low-profile efforts to assist Pakistani security forces in monitoring and apprehending fugitive Al Qaeda and Taliban fighters on Pakistani territory. The State Division tales that Islamabad has facilitated the swap of higher than 400 captured alleged terrorists to U.S. custody, along with plenty of excessive suspected Al Qaeda leaders.10 Pakistan moreover ranks fourth on the earth in seizing terrorist belongings.11
No matter Pakistan’s “important” cooperation, there keep doubts about Islamabad’s dedication to core U.S. concerns inside the big “lawless zones” of the Afghani-Pakistani border space the place Islamic extremists uncover shelter.12 Significantly worrisome are indications that the Taliban acquire important logistical and totally different assist inside Pakistan. Senator Richard Lugar and Senator Joseph Biden reportedly have voiced such worries, along with concern that elements of Pakistan’s Inter-Suppliers Intelligence firm (ISI) could also be serving to members of the Taliban and possibly even Al Qaeda.13 In August
2003, a minimal of three Pakistani navy officers, along with a lieutenant colonel, had been arrested on suspicion of getting ties to Islamic extremists. In late September, Deputy Secretary of
State Armitage was quoted as saying he does “not suppose that affection for working with
us extends up and down the rank and file of the Pakistani security group.” In October testimony sooner than the Senate Abroad Relations Committee, Assistant Secretary of Safety for Worldwide Security Affairs Peter Rodman talked about, “There are elements inside the Pakistani authorities who we suspect are sympathetic to the outdated protection of sooner than
9/11,” together with that there nonetheless exists in northwestern Pakistan a radical Islamic infrastructure that “spews out fighters that go into Kashmir along with into Afghanistan.”14
In an effort to dam infiltration alongside the Pakistan- Afghanistan border, Islamabad had by the highest of 2002 deployed some 70,000 troops to the realm. In June 2003, in what might have been a response to elevated U.S. pressure, Islamabad for the first time despatched its armed forces into the traditionally autonomous western Federally Administered Tribal Areas looking for renegade Al Qaeda and Taliban fighters who’ve eluded the U.S.-led advertising and marketing marketing campaign in Afghanistan. By September, Islamabad had as a lot as 25,000 troops inside the tribal areas, and a severe border operation reportedly handed off in coordination with U.S.-led forces on the Afghani facet of the border. In early October, Pakistani security forces engaged suspected Al Qaeda fugitives inside the South Waziristan district, killing eight and capturing 18 others.15 Pakistan has misplaced a minimal of 12 of its private security personnel in gun battles with Al Qaeda fighters. The October operations have impressed U.S. officers, who see in them a constructive growth in Islamabad’s dedication to monitoring and capturing wished extremists on Pakistani territory. Nonetheless, these officers admit that the Pakistani authorities finds it tougher politically to pursue Taliban members who benefit from ethnic and familial ties with Pakistani Pashtuns.16
Madrassas and Pakistan Islamists.
A notable progress in September 2003 was the arrest by Pakistani security forces of 19 Indonesian and Malaysian nationals at a Karachi madrassa (Islamic school). The lads are suspected of working a sleeper cell of the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) terrorist neighborhood in what may very well be the first indication that JI, a gaggle linked to Al Qaeda, is working in Pakistan.17
Among the many many roughly 10,000 madrassas in Pakistan are some which have been implicated in educating militant anti- Western, anti-American, and anti-Hindu values. A lot of these madrassas are financed and operated by Pakistani Islamist political occasions harking back to Jamaat-e-Ulema Islam (JUI, intently linked to the Taliban), along with by plenty of unknown abroad entities. Whereas President Musharraf has beforehand pledged to crack down on the additional extremist madrassas in his nation, there’s little concrete proof that he has achieved so.18
The Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) — a coalition of six Islamist opposition occasions — holds about 20% of Pakistan’s Nationwide Assembly seats, whereas moreover controlling the provincial assembly inside the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and essential a coalition inside the provincial assembly of Baluchistan. Pakistan’s Islamists, along with the administration of some of their licensed political occasions, are notable for his or her virulent expressions of anti-American sentiment; they’ve at cases often called for “jihad” in the direction of what they view as a result of the existential danger to Pakistani sovereignty that alliance with Washington entails. Together with decrying President Musharraf’s cooperation with the US, many are additionally seen as opposing the U.S.-supported Kabul authorities. In September 2003, Afghani President Karzai often called on Pakistani clerics to stop supporting Taliban members who search to destabilize Afghanistan.19
Terrorism in Kashmir and India
Separatist violence inside the Indian Jammu and Kashmir state has surged in present months. New Delhi consistently blames Pakistan-based militant groups for lethal assaults on Indian civilians, along with on authorities security forces, in every Kashmir and in essential Indian cities. India holds Pakistan answerable for providing supplies assist and training companies to Kashmiri militants. Most continuously blamed for terrorism in India are FTO-designates Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, and Harakat ul-Mujahideen, and Hizbul Mujahideen, the latter acknowledged on the State Division’s terrorism watch document. Consistent with the U.S. authorities, plenty of anti-India militant groups stopping in Kashmir are based totally in Pakistan and are intently linked to Islamist groups there:
Harakat ul-Mujahideen, based totally primarily in Muzaffarabad (Azad Kashmir)and Rawalpindi, is aligned with the Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazlur Rehman get collectively (JUI-F), itself a constituent of the MMA Islamist coalition in Pakistan’s Nationwide Assembly;
Hizbul Mujahideen, believed to have bases in Pakistan, is the militant wing of Pakistan’s largest Islamic political get collectively and MMA member, the Jamaat-i-Islami ;
Jaish-e-Mohammed, based totally in every Peshawar and Muzaffarabad, can also be aligned with JUI-F; and
Lashkar-i-Taiba, based totally in Muzaffarabad and near Lahore, is the armed wing of a Pakistan-based, anti-U.S. Sunni religious group formed in 1989.20
Pakistan’s extremely efficient and largely autonomous ISI is broadly believed to have provided important assist for militant Kashmiri separatists over the earlier decade in what’s perceived as a proxy battle in the direction of India.21 In March 2003, the chief of India’s Safety Intelligence Firm reported providing the US with “steady documentary proof” that 70 Islamic militant camps are working in Pakistani Kashmir. In May, the Indian Safety Minister claimed that about three,000 “terrorists” had been being expert in camps on the Pakistani facet of the LOC. Some Indian officers have immediate that Al Qaeda is also energetic in Kashmir.22 Deputy Secretary of State Armitage reportedly obtained a June 2002 pledge from Pakistani President Musharraf that every one “cross-border terrorism” would cease, adopted by a May 2003 pledge that any terrorist teaching camps in Pakistani-controlled areas may very well be closed. However, in September, Indian PM Vajpayee reportedly instructed President Bush that continued cross-border terrorism from Pakistan was making it troublesome for India to maintain up its peace initiative, and current infiltration expenses are broadly believed to be on the rise.23 Musharraf adamantly insists that his authorities is doing all it could to stem infiltration on the LOC and requires a joint Pakistan-India monitoring effort there.
In indicators that the US is also rising its pressure on Islamabad to extra stem terrorist actions, the Treasury Division in October 2003 designated the Pakistan-based Al Akhtar Perception as a terrorist assist group beneath Authorities Order13224. Al Akhtar is claimed to be carrying on assist for Al Qaeda and Taliban terrorist actions funded by the previously-designated Al Rashid Perception. The USA moreover in October acknowledged Indian crime decide Dawood Ibrahim as a “worldwide terrorist” with hyperlinks to every Al Qaeda and Lashkar-e-Taiba. Ibrahim, wished by the Indian authorities for 1993 Bombay bombings that killed some 300 and injured tons of additional, is believed to be in Pakistan.24 these strikes by the U.S. authorities had been welcomed in New Delhi, the place officers repeatedly are urging higher U.S. consideration to anti-India terrorism emanating from Pakistan.