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Posted: July 29th, 2019

PSY430 80 mcq questions

The strategy that is likely to be counterproductive when working with students and their parents is b. Acknowledge that authoritarian methods may be quite appropriate if families live in dangerous neighborhoods. The reason is that it may encourage authoritarian parenting even when it is not necessary, and this can lead to negative outcomes in the child’s development.

The action that you should definitely take if you suspect that one of your students is the victim of abuse or neglect at home is d. Immediately report your suspicions to a school administrator or social services. This is because it is the teacher’s responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of their students, and reporting suspicions of abuse or neglect is essential to protect the child.

The teacher who is not socializing students in a typical fashion is c. Ms. Dobson suggests that Sean bang his fist against the wall a few times whenever he gets frustrated. This is because the teacher is encouraging an inappropriate behavior that can harm the student and others.

The personality trait that psychologists would not characterize as a relatively stable personality trait is c. how quickly children solve math problems. This is because solving math problems is a skill that can improve with practice and instruction, rather than a stable personality trait.

The scenario that is not likely to occur given what we know about the development of sense of self is b. Aaron thinks that kids his age don’t like him, so he spends most of his spare time with his parents. This is because a child’s sense of self is closely tied to their social relationships, and it is unlikely that a child who believes that other children do not like them would prefer to spend most of their spare time with their parents.

The most accurate statement about group differences among students is d. The average for two groups may be different, but variability within each group keeps us from predicting individual performance. This is because while there may be some differences between groups, these differences do not necessarily apply to all individuals within those groups.

If we say that Svana is undergoing acculturation, we mean that she is c. adopting some American behaviors and attitudes. Acculturation refers to the process of adapting to a new culture, which typically involves adopting some of the behaviors and attitudes of the new culture.

The factor that is probably least dependable as an indicator of a student’s cultural background and ethnicity is a. the color of a student’s skin. This is because skin color can be influenced by a variety of factors, and it is not always a reliable indicator of a person’s cultural background or ethnicity.

The best example of playing the dozens is a. Jameel says to Ronald, “Your momma’s so fat her picture takes two frames.” Ronald responds, “Yeah? Well, your momma’s so fat it took three cows to make her a pair of shoes.” Playing the dozens refers to a form of verbal insult game in which participants take turns insulting each other in a playful, humorous way.

The student who says, “My momma, she be singin’ all da time,” appears to be using non-standard English dialect. This is because the student is using a dialect that differs from the standard English dialect used in school and other formal settings.
___________________________________________________________________
21. Three of the following suggestions are apt to be helpful when teachers work with students
and their parents. With the textbook’s discussion of parenting styles in mind, choose the strategy that is apt to be counterproductive.
a. Keep in mind that many parents from Asian cultures effectively combine elements of authoritative and authoritarian parenting.
b. Acknowledge that authoritarian methods may be quite
appropriate if families live in
dangerous neighborhoods.
c. Point out that parents who use authoritarian methods may
be causing some of their children’s
behavior problems.
d. Keep in mind that many children do well in school despite
less-than-optimal parenting styles at
home.
22. Which one of the
following should you definitely do if you suspect that one of your students
is the victim of abuse or neglect at home?
a. Temporarily lower your expectations for the student’s
academic performance until conditions
at home seem to improve.
b. Spend some one-on-one time with the student in an effort
to get him or her to confide in you.
c. Keep a close eye on the student over the next few weeks,
looking for additional evidence that
either supports or disconfirms your suspicions.
d. Immediately report your suspicions to a school
administrator or social services.
23. Three of the
following teachers are socializing their students in the way that schools
typically do. Which teacher is not
socializing students in a typical fashion?
a. Ms. Allen insists that her students complete their
independent seatwork before they go to recess.
b. Ms. Bernetti has her students go to lunch by rows,
letting the quietest rows go first.
c. Ms. Dobson
suggests that Sean bang his fist against the wall a few times whenever he gets
frustrated.
d. Ms. Castanza does not permit her students to talk back to
her in a disrespectful fashion.
24. Three of the
following tend to be fairly stable personality traits that children have to
varying degrees. Which one would
psychologists not characterize as a relatively stable personality trait?
a. how dependable children are in doing their work carefully
and following through on assigned tasks
b. how outgoing and friendly children are with their peers
c. how quickly children solve math problems
d. how often children have negative emotions such as anger
or depression
25. Given what we
know about the development of sense of self, three of the following are
likely scenarios. Which scenario is
not likely to occur?
a. Mike vacillates between thinking of himself as being very
smart and as being extremely stupid.
b. Aaron thinks that kids his age don’t like him, so he
spends most of his spare time with his
parents.
c. Daniel knows he has many friends, but he wishes he were a
better student.
d. Rex knows he’s good in math and science but thinks of
himself as a total klutz when it comes
to sports.

1. Which one of the
following is the most accurate statement about group differences among students?
a. When we have knowledge about typical group differences,
we have a very good idea of how
individual students are likely to perform in the classroom.
b. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual
students when we know their gender,
but not when we know their ethnic background.
c. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual
students when we know their ethnic
background, but not when we know their gender.
d. The average for two groups may be different, but
variability within each group keeps us
from predicting individual performance.
2. Ten-year-old Svana
has recently immigrated from Iceland to the United States. If we say that Svana
is undergoing acculturation, we mean that she is:
a. refusing to speak any English at school.
b. afraid to engage in social activities with her American
peers.
c. adopting some American behaviors and attitudes.
d. maintaining all of the customs of her homeland.
3. Three of the
following are likely to give you reasonable clues about a student’s
cultural background and/or ethnic
group membership. Which one is probably least dependable as an indicator of a student’s cultural
background and ethnicity?
a. the color of a student’s skin
b. what language is most often spoken at home
c. the ethnicity of the student’s parents
d. the cultural and religious activities in which a student
regularly participates

4. Which one of the
following is the best example of playing the dozens?
a. Jameel says to Ronald, “Your momma’s so fat her picture
takes two frames.” Ronald responds,
“Yeah? Well, your momma’s so fat it took three cows to make her a pair of shoes.”
b. Helena tells her friend Mary that Wendy has been saying
unkind things behind Mary’s back. She
then goes to Wendy and tells her that Mary has been saying unkind things behind her back.
c. Tariq devoutly follows Muslim practices (e.g., praying
five times a day, fasting during
Ramadan) on weekends and school holidays, but he tries to behave as his
American classmates do on days when
he attends school.
d. When Alegria finishes her own classwork, she goes to the
assistance of classmates who appear to
be struggling with theirs.
5. A student says to
you, “My momma, she be singin’ all da time.” This student appears to:
a. have a speech disorder that sometimes results from
environmental toxins (e.g.,
lead-based paint).
b. have had little exposure to language during a critical
period in her language development.
c. be using African American English, a dialect with some
grammatical constructions different
from those of Standard English.
d. have grown up in Northern Ireland and so is using idioms
typical of that country.
6. Three of the
following alternatives describe reasons why, for cultural reasons, children may
be relatively quiet in class. Which
alternative is false?
a. In some cultures, children rarely hear spoken language
until age 3 or 4.
b. Children from some cultural backgrounds may have been
taught that it’s rude to initiate a
conversation with an adult.
c. In some cultures,
attentive listening is valued more highly than speaking.
d. In some cultural groups, children are accustomed to
learning more from quiet observation
than from asking questions.
7. Psychologists
believe that intelligence is culture-specific—that “intelligent” behavior in
one culture is not necessarily
intelligent behavior in a different culture. Three of the following are aspects of intelligence, regardless of the
culture in which it is found. Which one is probably related to intelligence in some cultures
but not in others?
a. learning how to perform a new task quickly
b. doing well in academic classroom activities
c. adapting readily
to new situations
d. applying prior knowledge to new situations
8. Robert is a 15-year-old
boy who has attended U.S. schools since he began kindergarten at age 5. With this fact in mind, identify the
task that is most likely to require Robert’s fluid intelligence rather than his crystallized
intelligence.
a. applying algebra to a mathematical word problem
b. solving a new kind of puzzle
c. writing a persuasive essay on a current issue in the news

d. finding Egypt on a map
9. Sam is a very
talented dancer; he also shows considerable creativity in art class. He finds
math and science classes very
difficult, but he loves to read and tell stories to his many friends. Which view of intelligence is best
reflected in Sam’s abilities?
a. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
b. Gardner’s multiple intelligences
c. Sternberg’s triarchic theory d. distributed intelligence
10. Which one of the
following statements best reflects Sternberg’s triarchic theory of
intelligence?
a. Intelligent behavior is a function of how well people
draw on their prior experiences and
cognitively process information in order to adapt to their particular
environmental situation.
b. Intelligent behavior evolves in three stages:
preoperational thought, concrete thought
and abstract thought.
c. To be truly intelligent, one must show competence in
critical thinking and appropriate
classroom behavior, as well as in traditional academic tasks.
d. Intelligence is due to heredity, environment, and a
complex interaction between the two;
ultimately, researchers will probably never be able to separate the relative
effects of heredity and environment.
11. Which one of the
following statements most accurately reflects the concept of distributed intelligence?
a. How intelligent students are is, to some extent, a
function of class size; students
achieve at lower levels when they are in larger classes.
b. Students almost invariably perform at higher levels in
some academic subject areas than they
do in others.
c. How intelligent children become is, to some extent, a
function of the number of siblings
they have; children from larger families tend to have slightly lower IQ
scores.
d. Students can behave more intelligently when they can use
outside resources as well as their
minds.
12. “A child’s
ability to behave intelligently may vary considerably, depending on the
particular context, skills, and
cognitive processes required by a given task.” This statement is
consistent with three of the
following conceptualizations of intelligence. With which one is it least consistent?
a. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
b. Sternberg’s triarchic theory
c. the concept of distributed intelligence
d. Cattell’s concept of fluid intelligence
13. Three of the
following are examples of learned behavior. Given the textbook’s definition
of learning, which behavior
probably does not reflect learning?
a. After many hours of heated debate, Brian begins to modify
his religious beliefs.
b. Cara suddenly recognizes how the division fact “24 ÷ 4 =
6” is related to the multiplication
fact “6 × 4 = 24.”
c. David has been running away from German shepherds ever
since he was bitten by a German
shepherd two years ago.
d. Abigail cries when she feels sad.
14. Which one of the
following statements most accurately describes behaviorists’ view of how learning can best be studied?
a. To study learning scientifically, researchers must
confine their investigations to animal
research in a laboratory setting.
b. The study of learning will be more objective and
scientific if only observable events are
considered.
c. Asking people to describe what they’re thinking as they
study is likely to yield the most
accurate results.
d. Psychologists can determine how learning occurs only if
they can identify its physiological
basis.
15. Which one of the
following statements best characterizes cognitive psychology’s approach to learning?
a. Students are most likely to learn the things they think
they will be reinforced for learning.

b. Students learn through a series of either-or decisions
similar to how computers operate.
c. Students’ learning is a function of what they do,
mentally, with the information they
receive.
d. Students’ learning is a function of how stimuli in the
environment are organized and
sequenced.
16. Which one of the
following researchers is drawing an inference about cognitive processes
from her observations of behavior?
a. Dr. Aragon finds that students who listen to an organized
lecture remember more information than
students who listen to an unorganized lecture; she concludes that organized material promotes better
learning.
b. Dr. Cooper discovers that students remember more when new
concepts are illustrated by pictures
as well as being verbally described; she concludes that visual imagery
helps learning and memory.
c. Dr. Burger finds that students who learn information word
for word don’t remember it for very
long; she concludes that requiring students to learn information verbatim
isn’t an effective teaching strategy.
d. Dr. Delgado finds that students who listen to foreign
language tapes while sleeping don’t
remember what they’ve heard; she concludes that being awake is necessary
for learning to occur.
17. As human beings,
we encounter a great many stimuli at any one time. Which one of the following most accurately reflects
cognitive psychologists’ perspective about how we respond to all these stimuli?
a. We cannot remember everything, and we have little control
over the things that we do remember.
b. We must select the things we think are most important to
learn and remember, and ignore the
rest.
c. We remember virtually everything we experience, but we
have difficulty retrieving most of it.

d. By learning to use effective long-term memory storage
processes, we can eventually begin to
remember almost everything we encounter.
18. When cognitive psychologists talk about the process of
“putting” things in memory, they often
use the term:
a. inference-drawing.
b. retrieval.
c. selectivity.
d. storage.
19. Many cognitive
psychologists believe that learning and understanding are often
constructive in nature. Three of the
following scenarios illustrate such construction. Which scenario does not necessarily involve construction in
learning?
a. When George reads about the Vietnam War in his history
book, he comes to the conclusion that
the United States should never have gotten involved in Southeast Asia.
b. Mr. McFarland asks his third graders to practice their
multiplication tables every day.
After a month of such practice, Misty can retrieve all the basic
multiplication facts quickly and
easily.
c. Because the word photosynthesis begins with photo, Jeremy
guesses that it must have something
to do with taking photographs.
d. Although no one has ever told her so, Peggy thinks that
the night sky is a big black blanket
covering the earth and that the blanket has tiny holes through which the
stars shine.
20. Mr. Janus tells
his class, “For tomorrow’s class, read pages 23 to 49 in your geography
book.” Three of the following
students are demonstrating the process of construction in their perceptions of what their teacher has
said. Which student is not?
a. Christopher “hears” the teacher say “pages 33 to 39”
because the student next to him is
coughing loudly.
b. Anthony thinks the teacher is saying “history book.”
c. Bonita doesn’t hear what the teacher says because she’s
thinking about something else.
d. Dena understands the teacher even though the teacher
speaks with a slight accent and
mispronounces the word geography.
21. Michael has just
written a short research paper that describes the events surrounding the
first transatlantic telegraph
cable. As he rereads his paper before giving it to his teacher, he doesn’t notice that he has misspelled Atlantic as
“Altantic” on one occasion, even though he knows perfectly well how the word should be
spelled. Michael’s proofreading error can best be explained by considering the role of
__________ in the construction of meaning.
a. a script
b. expectations
c. assessment
d. ambiguity
22. Morris is trying
to remember how to spell the word broccoli. He retrieves the first three
letters (B R O) and the last three
(O L I), then assumes that the “kuh” sound in the middle of the word must be a K. He writes “brokoli” on
his paper. Morris’ process of remembering how to spell the word (in this case,
incorrectly) illustrates which one of the following concepts?
a. verbal mediation
b. a script
c. construction in retrieval
d. a retrieval cue
23. Which one of the
following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of social constructivism?
a. Two students discuss possible interpretations of the
proverb, “We only know the worth of
water when the well is dry.”
b. When a student borrows a classmate’s marker without
asking and then forgets to put the cap
back on, leaving it dried out and useless by the following morning, her
teacher reminds her of one of the
class rules: “Respect your classmates’ property.”
c. Four students in a study group divide a reading
assignment into four sections. Each
student reads a section and then teaches the material to the other group
members.
d. A teacher assigns a laboratory activity using cumbersome
equipment that students can operate
successfully only by working in pairs.
24. Distributed
cognition can best be described as a:
a. group of students thinking about a task or problem
together.
b. student trying to accomplish several different tasks
simultaneously.
c. group of students dividing up the various parts of a task
that need to be done.
d. student choosing one problem-solving strategy over other
possible strategies.
25. Which one of the
following examples best illustrates the concept of distributed cognition?
a. Rhonda watches her favorite situation comedy while
simultaneously eating an apple and
doing her homework.
b. Edie, Linda, and DeWayne discuss various ways they might
solve a physics problem.
c. Mark, Jason, and Leanne each solve one-third of their
homework problems and then share their
results with the other two.
d. Reginald thinks about the various plots he might use in
the short story he is writing and then
eventually chooses one of them.

1. Weston is working
on a science project and wants to make his papier-mâché volcano “erupt.” He remembers that when his mother combined
vinegar and baking soda while following a
recipe, the batter foamed up as she added the vinegar. So he tries
mixing vinegar and baking soda in his
volcano and the mixture bubbles. Weston is showing ___________ transfer.
a. negative
b. general
c. specific
d. intuitive
2. Mary is majoring
in drama. Mary’s parents want her to study advanced mathematics as a way of strengthening her mind; with a stronger
mind, they argue, she will be able to learn her lines more easily when she is rehearsing for a
play. Based on their reasoning, which one of the following perspectives of transfer do
Mary’s parents hold?
a. formal discipline
b. specific transfer
c. situated cognition
d. information processing
3. Which one of the
following recommendations is consistent with current beliefs about transfer?
a. “Study German so you’ll have an easier time learning
Japanese next year.”
b. “Studying calculus will help you think more abstractly
about the various subjects you will
study in college.”
c. “Take computer programming to help you develop your
analytical thinking skills.”
d. “Use your knowledge of algebra to solve this chemistry
equation.”
4. Considering the
textbook’s views on general transfer, which one of the following is most likely
to transfer across very different
situations?
a. the ability to remember complex ideas b. the ability to
take good notes on a lecture c. the ability to memorize a poem d. the ability
to be creative
5. Three of the
following are accurate statements about factors that affect transfer.
Which statement is inaccurate?
a. Students are more likely to transfer what they have
learned when they see it as
“belonging” to a particular academic subject area.
b. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned
when they have studied it for a
lengthy period of time.
c. Students are more likely to transfer what they have
learned when they have learned it in a
meaningful, rather than rote, fashion.
d. Students are more likely to transfer what they have
learned when they have learned
general principles rather than specific facts.
6. In which one of
the following situations are we most likely to find transfer from one learning
task to the other?
a. Brianne learns how to plant corn and then learns how to
prune a hedge.
b. Alice learns how to add two-digit numbers and then
studies how to add three-digit
numbers.
c. Devlin learns how to play softball and then learns how to
play a card game.
d. Cathy learns early British history and then learns early
Japanese history.
7. A police officer
visits Ms. Duhaime’s first-grade class one morning to talk about safety precautions at home and on the street. The
students listen quietly and attentively while the officer speaks. At the end of the visit,
the officer and teacher agree that the students’ good behavior warrants some kind of
reinforcement. Given what we know about effective reinforcers at different grade levels, their best
choice would be:
a. a letter home to parents describing the children’s good
behavior.
b. plastic toy police “badges” awarded by the officer.
c. an official-looking “good behavior” certificate given at
the school’s award ceremony the
following week.
d. twenty minutes of free time at the end of the day.
8. If you wanted to
encourage kindergartners to delay gratification, you would be most likely to:
a. occasionally remind them that they will get a bigger
reward by waiting a couple of hours.
b. tell them that how well they behave at the end of the day
is what really counts.
c. talk about how their learning efforts today will pay off
in the years to come.
d. ask them to focus on how good it feels to do something
nice for a classmate.
9. Alex loses his
best friend, Tyler, after he tattles on Tyler at recess. Alex learns that
tattling on friends is not a good
idea. The loss of Tyler’s friendship is an example of:
a. negative reinforcement.
b. removal punishment.
c. presentation punishment.
d. positive reinforcement.
Unit 3 Examination
10. Linda wears
bell-bottom pants to school and her classmates tease her about them. As soon
as she gets home, Linda throws the
pants in the trash. Linda’s being teased is an example of:
a. negative reinforcement.
b. reinforcement of an incompatible behavior.
c. removal punishment.
d. presentation punishment.
11. Only one of the
following consequences has been shown to be an effective and appropriate punishment for most students. Which one
is it?
a. suspension from school
b. scolding
c. embarrassment in front of classmates
d. extra homework
12. When Rochelle has
an on-the-road lesson as part of her driver education class, she fails to stop at a school crossing zone, as is
required by law. Her instructor has her drive around the block several times and stop each
time at the crossing zone. He also insists that, once she has stopped, she must wait at least
eight seconds before proceeding. The instructor’s strategy illustrates the use of
__________ as a way of changing her behavior.
a. response cost
b. a logical consequence
c. intermittent reinforcement
d. positive-practice overcorrection
13. Considering what
we know about the kinds of models people are likely to imitate, we can
guess that the girls in our classes
will be least likely to imitate:
a. Brianne, head majorette in the school band.
b. Anita, a skillful auto mechanic.
c. Darla, a graceful dancer.
d. Claudia, the most popular girl in school.
14. From the
perspective of social cognitive theory, why might inner-city African American
students learn more from an African
American model who grew up in a ghetto than from a model of a different race or background?
a. because the students will view the African American
model’s behavior as being applicable
to their own situation
b. because the students are more likely to realize that the
African American model has prestige
c. because the African American model is more likely to
behave in a gender-appropriate manner

d. because the students are more likely to perceive the
African American model as being
competent
15. Social cognitive
theorists propose that three of the following are essential for students to
learn successfully from models.
Which one is not essential?
a. attention to the model
b. reinforcement for good performance
c. motivation to perform the behavior
d. memory of the observed behavior
16. Only one of the
following definitely illustrates high self-efficacy. Which one is the best
example of self-efficacy?
a. Carmen enjoys being with her friends.
b. Bryn swims the fastest butterfly on the swim team.
c. Amy recently got a score of 120 on an intelligence test.
d. Danielle knows she is a good singer.
17. In what way does
self-efficacy differ from the term self-concept?
a. Self-efficacy results primarily from vicarious
reinforcement and punishment.
b. Self-efficacy varies depending on the specific task to be
performed.
c. Self-efficacy refers only to behaviors that people learn
through modeling.
d. Self-efficacy appears only after people begin to regulate
their own behavior.
18. Jim has a high
sense of self-efficacy regarding his ability to work with wood. Based on
this information, we would predict
three of the following from social cognitive theory. Which one of the following would we not necessarily
predict?
a. Jim will be a bit careless when he works with wood, so he
will often make silly little
mistakes.
b. Jim will frequently choose activities that involve
working with wood.
c. Compared to Joe, who has low self-efficacy, Jim will do a
better job at woodworking tasks.
d. If Jim has difficulty at a task requiring his woodworking
skills, he will tend to “try, try
again” until he gets it right.
19. Identify the
student who appears to have a mastery goal rather than a performance goal.
a. When Abby gets a new assignment, she likes to set it
aside for a day or so before she
actually begins to work on it.
b. When given the choice between taking an easy class or a
more challenging one, Dana chooses
the challenging one.
c. Bonnie is a perfectionist who gets upset when her test
performance is anything but A+.
d. Cora is easily distracted by the many stimuli competing
for her attention in the classroom.
20. Which one of the
following students clearly has a mastery goal rather than a performance goal?
a. Alice stays away from science courses because she’s never
done very well in science.
b. Dinah doesn’t worry about making mistakes as long as she
knows she’s making progress.
c. Boris wants the recognition that being a star football player
will bring him.
d. Cal is relieved to learn he passed his English
composition course.
21. Three of the
following strategies should promote productive achievement goals. Which
strategy is not recommended?
a. Encourage students to focus on long-term rather than
short-term goals.
b. Commend students for truly understanding material rather
than just memorizing it.
c. Encourage students to rely on one another for occasional
academic assistance and support.
d. Show students how the things they learn in class are
relevant to their present and future
needs.
22. Which one of the
following students most clearly has a work-avoidance goal?
a. Loni is so active in student government that she often
doesn’t have time to get her homework
done.
b. Chris asks for his teacher’s help on something he is
perfectly capable of doing on his
own.
c. Frederick stayed up so late last night watching
television that he can hardly stay awake
in class.
d. Nancy wonders why
she has to work harder than her friends to get the same grades they do.
23. Three of the
following statements accurately describe the diversity we are likely to see
in students’ career goals. Which
statement is not accurate?
a. Students’ career choices are to some extent dependent on
the values they assign to various
professions.
b. Many young children reach relatively stable decisions
about which career they want to
pursue; adolescents change their minds fairly frequently.

c. Despite more open-mindedness about career options in
recent years, many students continue
to aspire to careers that are stereotypically “for” their own gender.
d. Many children and adolescents from low-income
neighborhoods express interest in
becoming well-educated professionals (e.g., doctors, lawyers, teachers).
24. Which one of the
following is the best example of a student attributing success to internal factors?
a. Sue Ellen has just gotten a good grade on her geography
test. She is proud that she did so
well and glad that she studied hard.
b. Polly’s teacher has just told her that she will be the
group leader for her reading group
next quarter. Polly is glad her teacher is in a good mood today.
c. Renata has just gotten a good grade on her math test and
she is glad that her mother got her a
math tutor.
d. Nita has just gotten an A on her final exam in world
history and is feeling very grateful
to the teacher for her good grade.
25. Which one of the
following students is attributing success or failure on a geology test to
an internal source and thinks the
cause is unstable and controllable?
a. Duncan said he did well on the test because he studied
hard.
b. Joe said he studied hard, but he failed because he is
just not good in geology.
c. Jane said she failed the test because it was too
difficult.
d. Emily said she did well on her test because she is smart
in science.

1. Mr. Phillips wants
his students to develop the ability to separate and control variables in scientific experimentation. Which one of
the following instructional methods is most likely to help his students achieve this goal?
a. individualized assignments using computer spreadsheets
b. unstructured discovery-learning activities
c. small-group reciprocal-teaching activities
d. scaffolded inquiry-learning activities
2. Which one of the
following conditions is recommended for effective learning in a discovery- learning activity?
a. having a lesson that has been broken down into small,
discrete pieces
b. having freedom to explore one’s environment without any
structure or restraint
c. having some prior knowledge about the material being
explored
d. having an advance organizer for the lesson
3. Which one of the
following is the best example of an authentic in-class activity?
a. discussing reasons why World War I occurred
b. putting definitions of new terms in your own words
c. listing four different kinds of sedimentary rocks
d. designing a bridge using principles of physics
4. Which one of the
following uses of a computer in instruction is most similar to an
authentic activity?
a. a computer-based instructional program that teaches the
various parts of the human digestive
system
b. a computer-based instructional program that teaches the
basics of first aid
c. a computer simulation that allows students to conduct an
experiment
d. a computer game that promotes automaticity for basic math
facts
5. The four teachers
below are assigning homework to their students. Which teacher is giving an assignment that’s inconsistent with general
recommendations regarding the appropriate use of homework?
a. Mr. Needham asks his first graders to bring something
from home that begins with the letter
B.
b. Ms. Wong asks her sixth graders to make up sentences
using each of their new spelling
words.
c. Ms. Powell asks her high school algebra students to read
the next two chapters in their
textbook and then do the problems at the end of each chapter.
d. Mr. Rhodes asks his eighth graders to write the answers
to a series of questions based on
material they’ve been studying over the past week.
6. Three of the
following are purposes that asking questions in class can serve. Which one is
not a typical use of asking
questions?
a. to decrease the extent to which students need to
cognitively process classroom material
b. to encourage students to elaborate on classroom material
c. to help students monitor their own comprehension of
classroom material
d. to determine whether students understand classroom
material
7. Ms. Girardi, a
sixth-grade teacher, is explaining an assignment. She notices two students passing notes to one another. While
continuing to discuss the assignment, she moves toward the students and confiscates the written
notes. Then she walks back to the front of the class, still continuing her explanation, and asks
Mark, who is daydreaming, to answer a question. This scenario best illustrates which one of the
following classroom management skills?
a. planning for transitions
b. withitness
c. negative reinforcement
d. scaffolding
8. Many students in
Ms. Janklow’s class seem to have little intrinsic motivation for learning
math, science or social studies. Their
minds are more apt to be on peer relationships (who the “popular kids” are, who bullies whom on the
playground, etc.) than on their studies. Without knowing anything else about Ms. Janklow’s
students, your best guess would be that they are:
a. kindergartners.
b. seventh graders.
c. fourth graders.

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